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Bird’s Domino Theory
Frank Bird updated Heinrich’s theory of Domino sequence to explain situations that lead to injury in a chronological order of five dominoes namely lack control by the management, underlying causes, immediate causes, accident, and injury. The first domino, lack of scrutiny, is the responsibility of the management. This domino entails accident investigation, job analysis, and personal communication, measuring performance using standards for the work activity and correcting performance by improving existing standards. The rules may fail in cases where there are insufficient measures and follow-up. In the case where the garbage truck hit the pedestrian overpass, the vehicle had undergone routine preventive inspections allowed to operate. However, noise and vibration tests were taken in the street behind the employer’s yard and not a public highway.

The noise and vibration levels in the testing phase were slightly different from the actual conditions of the incident on a public road. In the pipe blow off the case, there was no evidence of supervision of workers that were employed by the company. More so, there was no copy of safe work procedures on site or in the CO2 operator manual. The work process in the plant is unclear because as much as they stipulate that the CO2 operator should slowly open the product valve to release gas within 300 feet of the direction of the valve, workplace procedures do not indicate the position in which the CO2 operator should stand (Friend & Kohn, 2007).

The second domino, primary causes, involves both personal and job factors. Personal factors are improper motivation, physical or mental problems, or lack of knowledge. The garbage truck was manufactured without an audible or visual alarm that would have warned the driver that the trash box was in an elevated position. Job factors entail low purchasing standards and work standards, and abnormal usage. For example, the garbage truck driver was probably tired from working overtime, which reduced his level of concentration while driving the vehicle. Another example from the pipe blow off case was that the elbows and connecting flanges of pipe assembly were SKD 80 thick as required but the straight pipe that connected the hose assembly was SKD 40 and therefore could not take the pressure (Hoyos & Zimolong, 2012). Fundamental factors are the source of substantial acts and failure to identify these factors allows the second domino to fall. [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

Immediate causes are substandard conditions that serve as indicators of underlying problems that can cause the third domino to fall. Once they are identified, immediate causes should be classified and removed using appropriate measures. In the case of the garbage truck, the driver unintentionally activated the TIP switch while driving while he thought that he was enabling the DOOR ON switch. The same manufacturer developed the control panels of the trucks, but there were variations in they were positioned. In the pipes blow off situation, repositioning of the tube assembly might have caused threads on the straight piece of pipe to loosen where it was connected to the outlet.

The incident or accident phase entails outcome of unsafe conditions and acts. The garbage truck incident occurred when the truck collided with the pedestrian overpass. In the blow off the incident, the accident took place when the CO2 operator opened the discharge valve to release excess CO2. The pressure of the venting gas unthreaded the pipe assembly, which spun clockwise and struck the CO2 operator (Stranks, 2016). The accident phase, also known as contact stage, involves utilization of countermeasures such as deflection, surface modification, segregation, deflection, barricading, shielding, or protection.

The injury or loss phase includes systemic effects from the work activity exposure or traumatic injury. The seriousness of injuries that involve physical harm or accidents can be played down by appropriate reparative action and salvage in the case of assets damage (Hosseinian & Torghabeh, 2012). The overpass rested on the cab of the truck causing fatal crushing injuries to the driver where his arms were entangled in the east guardrails. The pipe blow off incident also resulted in fatal injuries to the CO2 operator.

Causal Factor Analysis
Garbage truck incident
In the garbage truck incident, the design of the overpass, road and vehicle conditions at the time of the incident were not considered as causal factors. However, the design of the control panel, the possibility of unintentional error in activating the TIP switch and lack of a feedback mechanism were the primary causal factors for the incident. [Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

  1. Non-uniformity in the design of the control panels

The driver may have elevated the garbage box because of an unintended error. The driver pressed the TIP switch, which raised the litter box instead of pressing TOP DOOR switch to open. Unintentional errors are caused by lack of standardization of the interface between a human being and the machine that he is operating (Stranks, 2016). The driver in the accident drove at least three different trucks in a week whose control panels were similar but had significant differences in their basic control functions. Unlike the driver’s previous vehicles, the truck had a TIP switch, which was identical to the REAR DOOR and TOP DOOR switches. Therefore, the accident may have incurred as the driver was reaching for the TOP DOOR switch but accidentally activated the TIP switch instead which lifted the garbage box.

  1. Lack of warning devices

The ANSI standard required that the control panel of the truck had either a visual or audible alarm to warn the driver if the garbage box became elevated. However, the manufacturer of the truck did not incorporate an alarm or visual signs in the control panel, and the company owner did not reinforce these features in the truck as required by ANSI.

  1. Overtime shifts

The garbage truck incident occurred at the end of the workday when the driver was on an overtime shift, which implies that the driver may have been exhausted. Company policy required the driver follow a different route and truck from the usual. The driver did not have a swamper, and he was driving a truck that he had occasionally used. Tiredness and non-routine were factors that might have influenced him to raise the box unintentionally.

Corrective Mechanisms
To prevent similar incidents, the employer issued a critical incident alert to inform the staff of the details of the accident and remind them to follow procedures regarding vehicle clearance. Secondly, the employer retrofitted the TIP function with an audible alarm to warn the driver if the garbage box elevates.
Pipes blow-off incident
The direct causal factors of the pipe blow-off event where the configuration of the venting pipe assembly and the high pressure of the gas being vented. Underlying factors include lack of supervision and inadequate safe work procedures.

  1. Venting pipe assembly

The CO2 operator inappropriately vented COgas from a queen by using a vent pipe assembly made from onsite components. When the pipe assembly unthreaded at the outlet, the pipe assembly spun clockwise and struck the CO2 operator.

  1. Pressure of the gas being vented

Pressure from the COgas where it impacted on the pipe assembly caused it spin off the thread mount of the outlet.

  1. Lack of supervision

Failure to provide enough supervision led to a scenario where the assembly plant workers were left to lead themselves and invent solutions to the problems they encountered as they worked.

  1. Inadequate safe work procedures

Work procedures require that there is no object within 300 feet of the direction of the discharge valve was facing before venting CO2 in the atmosphere. However, the queens were positioned alongside minimal rooms between them, which are an indication that the 300-foot requirement could not have been followed. The company did not provide safe work procedures such as initially placing the queens in a different position to eliminate the need to redirect to the COaway from the next Queen. However, the company did not provide work procedures on where the employees should stand when opening the discharge valve. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

The employer has issued a penalty and asked to abide by the worker’s compensation act sec 115 (2) (e) which states that the employer must provide employees with information, instructions, training and supervision to ensure the safety of the workers at work. Secondly, the organization issued a safety alert and the manufacturer made changes to the Queens by modifying the 4-inch blow line to vent at the rear of the queen, above the ground and out of the worker’s way.

Friend, M. A., & Kohn, J. P. (2007). Fundamentals of occupational safety and health. Lanham, Md: Government Institutes.

Hosseinian, S. S., & Torghabeh, Z. J. (2012). Major theories of construction accident causation models: A literature review. International Journal of Advances in Engineering & Technology4(2), 53-66.

Hoyos, C., & Zimolong, B. (2012). Occupational safety and accident prevention: Behavioral strategies and methods. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Stranks, J. W. (2010). Health & safety at work: An essential guide for managers. London: Kogan Page.


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Discussion Response
There is a myriad etiology that may culminate in facial pain. Therefore, to successfully curtail the progression of the ailment, it is necessary that a succinct diagnosis is applied. The differential diagnosis calls for a multidisciplinary approach. Chronic facial pain differs from acute facial pain and thus calls for a more specific remedy (Zakrzewska, 2013). A differential diagnosis that begins with the examination of the history of the patient. The history should entail the timing of the diagnosis, the location and radiation, the quality and severity and the relieving of aggravating factors. In 57-year-old adult patients, the signs under differential diagnosis include tearing, stuffy nose, pain of moderate intensity, and pain of moderate intensity (Zakrzewska, 2013). The diagnosis, in this case, entails trigeminal neuralgia. The pain attacks under this diagnosis may be accelerated by alcohol. The pain that results from the initiative lasts for a duration of 2 hours. It further occurs twice or thrice in a week depending on the frequency of alcohol consumption. [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

The diagnostic testing is mainly limited to the head and neck regions (Zakrzewska, 2013). The diagnosis inspection further entails the examination of the skin for swellings, skin lesions and other color changes. This diagnosis tests the head and neck muscles from which it seeks to determine the areas with tenderness. Areas with tenderness comprise the soft and painful points in the organism’s body. It further entails the mechanical movement of the temporomandibular joint (Zakrzewska, 2013). The test of the temporomandibular joints further involves the examination of the crepitus. In differential diagnosis, the cranial nerves are also tested to determine their turgidity. The test further entails the examination of the tough tissues represented by the teeth for decay. The test of oral mucosa is intended to determine soft tissue lesions. Soft tissue lesions indicate the propagation of body pain in the cavities. Disjointed areas of the body are further addressed in the diagnosis.[Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

Response 1
Altered mental status can be diagnosed using several convalescence tools. It poses a challenge given that it is not a specific disease but a group of symptoms. The first diagnosis entails the Tomography (CT) scan (Dulay & Sharma, 2007). The Tomography CT scan enables the determination of mass lesion and further eases the process of puncturing the lumbar. However, the cost of a CT scan is prohibitive and limits the number of patients who can engage the procedure given their financial limitations. The next diagnosis entails the application of the treatment for TB meningitis (Xiao, et al., 2012). This entails the extension of bacterial medicine to mitigate the acceleration of the disease. The diagnosis is inspired by the absence of organisms in the Gram Stain. Cerebral malaria comprises the last diagnosis. In cerebral malaria, the Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) is projected to be clear, and there is the presence of but a few white blood cells (WBCs).

Response 2
Brain scans comprise tests which can be used in the diagnosis of Alzheimer’s Disease. It is instituted when all the other tests have failed to identify a problem. It mainly tests for dementia which is interlinked to Alzheimer’s disease. I would specifically use the MRI scan to determine the progression of the disease in the patient. This is because an MRI scan enables the determination of succinct information on the nature of the blood vessels. It gives information which may have been missed in the initial CT scans. It further assesses the shrinking of the brain which serves as an indicator of the progression of the Alzheimer’s disease. Dementia, which is indicative of the Alzheimer’s disease, is easily discernible through the employment of the MRI scan.[Click Essay Writer to order your essay]


Dulay, M., & Sharma, M. (2007, June). Case 7: Fever and Altered Mental Status. Retrieved November 3, 2016, from HIV Insite: http://hivinsite.ucsf.edu/Insite?page=md-ccl-ca-07

Xiao, H.-y., Wang, Y.-x., Xu, T.-d., Zhu, H.-d., Guo, S.-b., Wang, Z., & Yu, X.-z. (2012). Evaluation and treatment of altered mental status patients in the emergency department: Life in the fast lane. World Journal of Emergency Medicine, 3(4), 270-277.

Zakrzewska, J. M. (2013). Differential Diagnosis of facial pain and guidelines for management.British Journal of Anaesthesia, 111(1), 95-104.


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I would differentiate the inner and outside of the Google Complex in order to better describe the architecture. This is because these two convey different themes to the visitors. The inside of the office complex tells of vastness, freedom and interaction. If it were a book, its title would have been vastness, freedom and interaction. First of all, the offices are vast. It doesn’t matter where one is standing or sitting because to every side, one experiences a vastness of space. The space is magnified by the fact that most of the offices are made of transparent glass and many other employees work in an open space.

The fact that one can comfortably see several offices and its occupants at either side of the complex gives it an element of vastness. Moreover, the vastness given by that atmosphere is enough to give one a sense of being in an environment of unlimited imagination. Secondly, there is an element of freedom within the office complex. On looking at most of the offices, there is an element of the occupier being and working in their comfort zone (Google Locations – Company – Google n.p). Most of the offices are furnished and arranged in a manner that is consistent to the likes of the occupier. For example, while some offices are designed as tents, others are in the form of unevenly stacked shelves and others have a carpet that resembles a football turf and even a place to chain a bicycle. [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

All these aspects ooze of freedom inside the office complex. Psychologically, working in such an environment of freedom entices one to operate at the optimum. Just standing there made me sigh as I opened my mind to enjoy the freedom aura. Lastly, there is the element of interaction and collaboration due to the designs of the office (Google Locations – Company – Google n.p). The whole of the office feels like an open office even when some offices are very distant apart. The collaboration aspect of the office feeling is further magnified by the fact that there seems to be people walking around almost every time and everyone knows everyone. The use of glass highlights the collaborative feeling because communication seems to flow easy between employees due to the ease of communicating visually or verbally around the office.

The Yahoo office arrangement is quite different but also quite similar to Google’s. First of all, there is the freedom of expression as highlighted by the differences in the furnishing and decoration of the inside of the offices. There is no standard or uniform manner of interior decoration. As a result, every occupant seems to be free to set up their office equipment and arrange it in a manner of their liking. Moreover, the furniture also seemed to be of each person’s unique liking. For example, some employees had white leather chairs while others brown office chairs. As a result, I experienced the feeling of freedom that is essential for innovation.

However, the manner of partitioning the office robs the complex of the feeling of vastness as well ability to freely interact (“Home | About Yahoo” n.p). While most of the office is open, a good portion of the office is partitioned using solid material. Even though the partitions are colorfully decorated and painted, there is a feeling of isolation among the employees. As one enters one office, there is the overbearing feeling of locking out the rest of the colleagues out. I personally felt that the interior design does not optimize on interaction unless one is walking along the long corridors.

The posters on the walls are mostly of apps and software icons (“Home | About Yahoo” n.p). The interaction is limited because it is not possible to absorb every inch of the building from one position. In other words, there is the feeling of formality due to the interior design of most of the office blocks. I felt that such a design does not encourage as much innovation as possible because for a company that is in an industry defined by ability to innovate continuously, the lack of thorough interaction may be a hindrance to teamwork.

There is the overbearing feeling that this is a typical office with freedom and interaction meant to take place outside of the offices. Moreover, due to the interior of the office complex, there is little if any interaction with the nature. I was not able to spot vegetation inside the office complex. It is also not possible to interact with the nature outside while inside most of the offices because of the size of the buildings. For most occupants of the top floors, the much they can see are the top trees and that is not exactly a manner of interaction between man and nature in the office.

In my visit, to the Google complex, my eyes and ears were the most involved senses in experiencing the organization. The eyes were the primary senses on work with the ears playing a supporting role. For example, I would just go and stand at one position and absorb all the surrounding with my eyes. The ears would pick up some conversations within the office as the interaction between the employees took place.

I especially experience that interaction is enhanced by the design and openness of the offices because a person seated at the office can see a lot of the movement around and interact with the other workers. Moreover, one can also easily interact with the environment outside given that the architecture allows for a smooth transition between the inside and outside, when tired, one feels that they can easily just face outside and breath in some inspiration from the nature outside and feel energized. I certainly felt so myself.

The outside of the Google Complex is unique in that there is a deeper connection with nature. Unlike in many organizations where the outside is mostly taken up by parking lots and harsh weather, in Google, the outside is a place for enjoyment too. If it were a book, it would be referred to as tranquility. On walking between the complexes, the nature outside seems to give a visitor a sense of being at peace with the nature and this not only gives one an element of freshness but also one of inspiration. With plans to take the parking lots deep underground thereby leaving room at the surface for community gardens, bike paths and streams, it will give the complex a feeling of Arcadian retro-futurism. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

Viewed when standing outside, the tranquility comes in the way that nature and architecture seems to co-exist in harmony. This harmony is further maintained by the architecture of the whole complex. The building is of relative low height and this makes sure that they are not domineering to the vegetation outside. Moreover, to compensate for the low height, the complex sprawls out over a large area of land, making sure that it fuses well with the vegetation outside. None seems to impose itself upon the others because there seems to be a little of each everywhere.

The dinosaur skeleton in particular really makes one go way back into a mysterious past. For example, while there are buildings outside among the vegetation, there are also some plants inside the offices. This entire scenario gives one a feeling of fusion between architecture and nature. Out among the plants, I was experiencing nature using more than just the eyes and ears, I could smell and touch the nature. The air smells of freshness and if one was not in such a hurry, they could brush their hands over the vegetation around the complex. I also got the feeling that as one is cycling from one building to another and they are passing through the vegetation, one gets rejuvenated due to the freshness that is felt outside and by the time they reached their intended destinations, the clarity of mind must have been important for their productivity.

The harmony between nature and architecture is absent in the Yahoo complex. Yahoo headquarters was designed to be a modern office complex rather than a complex to host a utopian futuristic community. The buildings are therefore made of glass and metal and huge precast concrete. From their sizes, the building seems very dominant in the landscape of the complex and if I were to write a title, I would probably call it “the domination of man over nature.” I would term it so due to the overbearing nature of the structures over the landscape and the vegetation therein.

Despite their purple and bright yellow accents, there is a sharp contrast between the nature outside and the environment outside. One feels that you cannot have both at the same time- you either have to be outside or inside the buildings. As a result, there is a feeling that nature should stay outside and the people remain inside. The trees and the vegetation around the complex looks more like one that gives aesthetic beauty and balance but does not give a worthy interaction with nature. This is further exaggerated by the contrast between the tall office blocks and the short vegetation outside.
Rather than harmony, one gets the feeling of a conflict between architecture and nature as though one is superimposed on the other. More likely, the nature feels like superimposed on a modern office block. Due to the fact that majority of the space is occupied by tall buildings with vegetation squeezed between the blocks, the vegetation felt like an afterthought. As a result, the complex misses the tranquility of the existence of architecture alongside nature that I had observed in Google Complex.

Another aspect of the complex worth mentioning is the energy that resonates in the complex due to the presence of the several sand volleyball courts and the two small swimming pools. In particular, the volleyball courts seem to be ever busy with people playing. This has an important aspect to the whole complex- it gives it a vibrant aspect that lacks in many organizations. I in particular felt that the energy was both symbolically and psychologically important for Google because it is a fast-growing institution.
The vibrant nature outside is important to the psychology of the employees because it gives one a sense of excitement and energy that is in turn important in raising productivity. It was especially interesting to observe that at no particular time were all the courts empty as there were always some people in the courts sweating it out. The swimming pool was not as busy as the volleyball courts during my visit but maybe the weather may not have been conducive on that day but this was more than compensated by the human traffic in the volleyball courts.

The Yahoo Company matches Google when it comes to the physical amenities for a self-contained community. The design gives room for amenities that support a balanced lifestyle and work and flexible schedules. The Yahoo complex offers a cafeteria, several cafes, game rooms, fitness center and even a training room. Some of these amenities especially the basketball courts are especially fairly large. The basketball, bocce ball and volleyball courts are located where four buildings are angled around a green space that is centrally located. In terms of placement, Yahoo amenities are uniquely placed.

It especially helped the designers because unlike Google, Yahoo complex was planned and designed with the self-contained community in mind. Google bought an already existing complex and had to find spaces to fit in their amenities and this was a challenge. Yahoo had the luxury of having that in mind during the planning and designing phase and it is no wonder that the central green space that features the various courts is uniquely and centrally located. The courts are enticing due to their central location especially when the viewer is at an elevated space above the courts. Just like in Google, there is that sense of vibrant and energetic aura around the complex.

Since the four major and strategic building all are neighbors to the courts outside, it gives a sense that whichever office one is in, they feel and experience the energy all around. On my day of observation, the courts were fairly busy as many people were engaged in sports activities in the courts. Coupled by the bright yellow color, the complex felt busy and full of energy.

Mission Statements:
Google’s mission statement is “to organize the world’s information and make it universally accessible and useful”. Its vision statement is “to provide access to the world’s information in one click.” I feel that the Décor of Google reflects its mission. The harmony between architecture and nature within the complex really felt like a place where information is being organized and then released to the public in a manner that is useful. Its vision statement to provide information in a platform that allows one click also felt believable because the complex itself has managed to have so many things available in one complex. [Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

Yahoo’s mission statement is “To connect people to their passions, communities, and the world’s knowledge.” As far as the aspect of connecting people with knowledge is concerned, Yahoo’s décor seems to reflect its mission. However, I felt that décor does not extend to connecting of the people to their passions and communities because of the formal nature of the complex.

Works Cited
Google Locations – Company – Google”. Google.com. N.p., 2016. Web. 9 Dec. 2016.

“Home | About Yahoo”. About.yahoo.com. N.p., 2016. Web. 9 Dec. 2016.


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“Is Equality Tearing Families Apart” Responses
Couples today face many societal pressures on their relationships because of modern ways of thinking, and the lack of traditional familial relationships. Due to these new modern arrangements, many young families find themselves in dual-worker relationships, in sharp contrast to the traditional one-income household. These dual-worker lifestyles offer unique challenges and benefits for families. For instance, it allows couples to share career goals and professional challenges, in addition to allowing women to pursue traditionally male fields, which provides their children with solid role models, and a more independent lifestyle. Further, the onset of the dual-worker household has allowed for greater financial opportunities for families, allowing for lifestyle upgrades, education and retirement funds, travel, and an overall greater disposable income. However, these households also display distinct disadvantages when compared to more traditional ones. Families with dual-worker parents often face issues of fatigue, child care worries, and stress. This can lead to parents feeling guilty for not spending enough time with their children, as well as children feeling like they are an inconvenience to their parents. In addition to this, dual-worker families also face household issues, such as the fair division of chores, and personal challenges, such as deciding to further one’s career at the expense of familial relationships. To combat these issues and to keep relationships strong, pastoral care and meetings can be of great benefit to discuss challenges and keep the lines of communication open between the couples. These pastoral meetings can help couples to discuss their career goals with each other, set priorities, and develop plans and processes to help them conquer household issues, such as chores and child care. Dual-worker households are becoming commonplace, and it is important that these types of families maintain communication between each other and their pastors to help them adjust their lifestyles accordingly. [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

Response 2
While I agree that the church should help to reframe society’s promotion of career ambition over familial relationships, I also believe that with the onset of dual-worker households, this is something that we need to learn how to balance, rather than just reframe. Families need to be able to discuss with each other what the best course of action will be for all of them when new career opportunities arise. While traditionally, the male members of the household would take the driver’s seat in terms of financial responsibilities, I think it’s important to recognize that this model is changing, and that we must adapt our understanding of family models because of it.  These new models will continue to challenge our traditional definitions of husbands and wives within families, and these families must work with each other to redefine what their roles are within their homes, as well as the workplace. If couples keep the lines of communication open, they can ensure that priorities are consistently discussed, and that their relationships remain pleasant and intact. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

Response 3
I appreciate the analysis you provided, and believe that there are many factors at play in the degradation of traditional family make-ups and values. To expand on your point of modern societal pressures and pastoral care, I believe that couples can combat these issues by laying out any career goals and aspirations upfront. By discussing these issues early, the couples can plan for each other’s goals and can let each other grow, while picking up the slack in terms of familial responsibilities. For instance, if one individual’s career is taking off, and the other’s is holding steady, they can decide such that one of them can further pursue their career, while the other takes a greater responsibility of the children and household chores. Through this sort of communication, I believe that couples can alleviate the stress of dual-worker households, and can maintain strong relationships with each other and their children. [Click Essay Writer to order your essay]


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Metabolic Disorder Syndrome in People with Severe Mental Illnesses

Metabolic syndrome is a condition that comprises several disorders like obesity, glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, dyslipidemias, hypotension and cardiovascular disease. Metabolic syndrome is largely associated with mental illnesses. Schizophrenics have been the main targets when assessing for this condition due to their likelihood of living unhealthy lifestyles (one of the risk factors). Use of certain antipsychotic medications could also predispose the individual to metabolic disorders. It is therefore thought that metabolic syndrome is an interaction of socioeconomic status, lifestyle, genetic factors and use of neuroleptics (Ganguli et al., 2011). This paper therefore talks about metabolic disorders in people with severe mental illnesses, health trends of schizophrenics and pathophysiology of the conditions.

Population of Interest
Antipsychotics vary in the ability to induce weight gain with some having greater propensity than others. Patients on neuroleptics have been found to have more abdominal fat deposition than normal members of the society. Such increase in weight could then result into other conditions such as diabetes, hypotension and other cardiovascular conditions. However, some conditions like type-2 diabetes may be brought about by the illness itself. For instance, it has been found that unaffected relatives of schizophrenics record high rates of the illness. This is a clear indicator of genetic relationships between these conditions (Thakore et al. 2005). [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

Health Trends in People with Schizophrenia
Mortality rates in people with schizophrenia have been on the rise despite improvements in the healthcare. It is estimated that mortality rates in schizophrenia patients is 2-3 times higher than for the general population. Natural deaths and cardiovascular diseases were the main cause of these mortalities. Suicide and unspecified violence also contributed. All these were attributed to the unhealthy lifestyles adopted by these patients due to the illness (Osby et al., 2000).

There has been varying information on the epidemiologic information about metabolic disorders in patients with severe mental disorders. Prevalence rates for schizophrenic patients under medication ranges from 11 % to 69 % while that for patients not taking medications being 4 % to 26 %.  Generally metabolic disorders are more prevalent in schizophrenic patients than as observed in the general population. Increase in age also increases the prevalence of metabolic disorders. However, there is no association between the prevalence and demographic and clinical variables (Malhotra et al., 2013).

Current trends
Antipsychotic treatment is crucial in reducing mortalities resulting from schizophrenia. It has been observed that, though mortalities resulting from schizophrenia are high, there are reduced cases of mortality with antipsychotic treatment rather than with no treatment. Atypical antipsychotics also do not increase cardiovascular mortality and morbidity as is the case with conventional (Bushe et al., 2010).
Despite improvements achieved through the use of atypical antipsychotics in schizophrenia

patients, weight gain, high serum prolactin among other side effects has been noted. Insulin insensitivity and type-2 diabetes have also been largely associated with the use of atypical antipsychotics. It has however been noted that patients that use atypical antipsychotics have lower risks of developing metabolic disorders than those using conventional antipsychotics (Ollendorf et al., 2004).

Studies show that metabolic disorders are likely to develop in young people suffering from schizophrenia and on antipsychotics treatment. Higher prevalence for metabolic disorders is seen from ages 15-25 years and continues to increase with age. This striking finding also correlates with that in the normal population since increased prevalence for metabolic disorders is also observed in the general population (De Hert et al., 2006).

Population health considerations
Schizophrenic patients experience high rates of mortality and morbidity as compared to the general population. These patients have a shorter lifespan by approximately 20 years than people not suffering from the disease. This is mainly due to suicide, cancer and cardiovascular diseases resulting from metabolic disorders. It therefore becomes the responsibility of clinicians to be keen and single out any risks for cardiovascular diseases like abdominal obesity and hypertension. Combination of these two or more such risks further predisposes the individual to cardiovascular diseases.[Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

Lifestyle psychiatrics should have vast knowledge on the metabolic risks associated with treatments for schizophrenics before initiating any treatment. Establishing a risk profile based on the genetic, lifestyle and medical factors is very crucial for before initializing treatment procedures for these patients. Low risk strategies such as encouraging healthy lifestyles, frequent checkup and monitoring weight, glucose and lipid levels is highly recommended after every treatment (Van Gal et al. 2006).

Pathophysiology and Mechanisms of Metabolic Disorders and Schizophrenia
Adverse effects of antipsychotic medications are largely associated with metabolic disorder syndrome. It has also been found that some of the metabolic disorders like insulin intolerance and diabetes appear at early stages of the disease when even no medication has been started. Despite the fact that all the risk factors for metabolic disorders are known, it is difficult to control them all.

The etiology and pathophysiology of it is not well understood with majority of the hypotheses revolving around lifestyle and dietary habits, antipsychotic drug adverse effects and alterations of hypothalamic pituitary-adrenal axis. Unhealthy dietary habits facilitate obesity which increases the risk for developing cardiovascular diseases; antipsychotic drugs interfere with lipid and carbohydrate metabolism resulting into obesity and diabetes while interference with the hypothalamic pituitary-adrenal axis causing obesity of the trunk.[Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

Pathophysiological Consequences
Metabolic disorder syndrome precipitates cardiovascular diseases through various mechanisms. To start with, reduced insulin sensitivity and high blood sugar levels increase the chance for diabetes. More so this leads to type-2 diabetes which further increases the chances for cardiovascular diseases like hypertension. Obesity on the other hand leads to increased lipid levels and could cause arteriosclerosis that may lead to fatal heart diseases like hypertension or heart attack.

Role of Advance Practice Nurse
The increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome is worrisome for medical providers in general and more so for providers who treat at-risk populations such as persons with SMI. The treatment of SMI appears to be primarily treated with pharmacological treatments. The advanced practice nurse (APN) must be adept pharmacotherapeutics with an expert understanding of the medications prescribed to treat the illnesses in this population. The APN must be proficient in interventions to manage metabolic syndrome. Interventions to include lifestyle modifications and use of metabolic agents and switching medications as needed. Lastly, the APN is well-qualified to lead research into these phenomena and add to the current knowledge base (Mwebe et al. 2016).

Bushe, C. J., Taylor, M., & Haukka, J. (2010). Review: Mortality in schizophrenia: a measurable clinical endpoint. Journal of psychopharmacology24(4 suppl), 17-25.

De Hert, M., Van Winkel, R., Van Eyck, D., Hanssens, L., Wampers, M., Scheen, A., & Peuskens, J. (2006). Prevalence of diabetes, metabolic syndrome and metabolic abnormalities in schizophrenia over the course of the illness: a cross-sectional study. Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health2(1), 1.

Ganguli, R., & Strassnig, M. (2011). Prevention of metabolic syndrome in serious mental illness. Psychiatric Clinics of North America34(1), 109-125.

Malhotra, N., Grover, S., Chakrabarti, S., & Kulhara, P. (2013). Metabolic syndrome in schizophrenia. Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine35(3), 227–240.

Mwebe, H. (2016). Physical health monitoring in mental health settings: A study exploring mental health nurses’ views of their role. Journal of Clinical Nursing.

Ollendorf, D. A., Joyce, A. T., & Rucker, M. (2004). Rate of new-onset diabetes among patients treated with atypical or conventional antipsychotic medications for schizophrenia. Med Gen Med6(5).

Ösby, U., Correia, N., Brandt, L., Ekbom, A., & Sparén, P. (2000). Time trends in schizophrenia mortality in Stockholm county, Sweden: cohort study. Bmj321(7259), 483-484.

Thakore, J. H. (2005). Metabolic syndrome and schizophrenia. The British Journal of Psychiatry186(6), 455-456.

Van Gaal, L. F. (2006). Long-term health considerations in schizophrenia: metabolic effects and the role of abdominal adiposity. European neuropsychopharmacology16, S142-S148.


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Nursing is a profession that is tasked with the protection, promotion, and optimization of health. According to the American Nurses Association (2008), nurses are essential in the elevation of better health in the treatment of individuals and communities at large. Quality nursing care requires that a nurse, whether surgical or caring, is well taken care of to give maximum care.  Peer reviewed education, as well as other social aspects affecting nurses, are an essential component for providing quality care at the workplace. Considering this, professional organizations are quite relevant.

The American Nursing Informatics Association (ANIA) was created with the vision of providing information, education, and networking opportunities to strengthen the role of nurses. As stated on their website, ANIA was formed in 1982 “as the Capital Area Roundtable on Informatics in Nursing (CARING) (American Nursing Informatics Association, 2016, para. 5).” CARING, on the other hand, was formulated by nurses in the same year to help them advance exponentially in the advent of technology (ANIA, 2016). It was organized by nurses as a nonprofit to help them gain information and further assist them to automate care systems to improve healthcare services. Currently, ANIA is the integrated ANIA and CARING of 1982. They merged in 2010 to give nurses a better avenue of representation (ANIA, 2016). ANIA has changed how nurses interact with information over the years. Nurses, as well as other healthcare professionals, are represented in ANIA to provide them with information in research, education, implementation of new policies, and quality service improvement.[“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

ANIA’s mission statement is to “…advance nursing informatics through education, research and practice in all roles and settings” (ANIA, 2016, para. 3). ANIA hopes to be the organization of choice to help nurses advance in informatics. The professional body has given nurses a chance to identify practices that might be of help in enabling them to provide better quality services. Through research, ANIA provides healthcare professionals with much-needed information to assist them in practicing better healthcare that is both cost effective and healing in the long run (ANIA, 2016). ANIA has developed good networking practices not only in the nursing community but also in the wider healthcare sector. The move has been facilitated through their professional development measures that seek to make the health care system a community of people who learn together, save the world together, and also share memories together by creating practices that support better health care (ANIA, 2016). Nurses provide care that enables other professional such as doctors to have a seamless time diagnosing issues. In order to keep a health center functioning rightly, information shared by ANIA can be essential in coming up with practices that ensure nurses’ right are well articulated to ensure that they are well, hence providing quality care to their patients. Professional organizations such as ANIA are formulated to assist professionals to come up with better ways to deal with eminent issues. Such bodies are important as they ensure better healthcare.

Markova, Ford, Dickson, and Bohn (2013) write that professional organizations assist nurses to network and enhance personal and vocational development. ANIA helps health workers with networking opportunities which assist professionals to broaden their knowledge through informatics (ANIA, 2016). ANIA also offers a plethora of seminars and lectures to help individuals in the field keep themselves abreast with new trends in healthcare as well as innovative approaches to deal with healthcare. Information is power, and as such, ANIA equips nurses and other healthcare professionals with information that keeps them on their toes. These organizations allow one to be motivated and inspired for a long time thus making the overly boring service delivery profession to be more proactive (DeLeskey, 2003).[Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

Staying current is not a matter of choice; it is a matter of urgency in the healthcare system. Professional organizations ensure you have the chance to network and progress in your career while still practicing good health care. Nursing associations nowadays have websites that can be easily explored. They offer information to anyone and also to board members to help them gain resources specifically addressed to them. Professional organizations like ANIA have contributed to the transformation of nursing and informatics, consequently creating a pool of wealth of information. Such groups are essential in everyday health care.

American Nurses Association. (2008). Nursing informatics: Scope & standards of practice. Silver Spring, MD: American Nurses Association.

American Nursing Informatics Association. (2016). About Us.

DeLeskey, K. (2003). Factors affecting nurses’ decisions to join and maintain membership in professional associations. Journal of Perianesthesia Nursing18(1), 8-17.

Markova, G., Ford, R. C., Dickson, D. R., & Bohn, T. M. (2013). Professional associations and members’ benefits: What’s in it for me? Nonprofit Management and Leadership23(4),


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Canned foods are prone to the growth of Clostridium botulinum, bacteria that causes botulism which is a deadly form of food poisoning. While some foods are acidic enough to prevent the growth of this harmful bacteria while canned, most need to be further acidified to ensure they’re safe for consumption (Binning, 2005). This necessitates a form of food preservation known as Pickling which is the process of food preservation using acidic preservatives either vinegar, lemon juice or brines added to a low acid food to reduce the PH to 4.6 and below. There are two basic categories of pickles. The first is pickles preserved in vinegar; which creates an acidic environment in which few bacteria can survive. The second type includes the use of salt brine which encourages fermentation. Fermentation allows the growth of good bacteria that makes food less susceptible to the harmful bacteria that causes spoilage of food. A good example of fermented pickles includes cucumber dill pickles (Beatte, 2010)[“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

Pickles have been around since 2030 BC when cucumbers were first pickled in the Tigris Valley.Between the late 1800s and the early 1900s; Eastern European Jews immigrating to New York introduced the pickling of cucumbers. They were piled in large barrels in a mixture of clean water, kosher salt, garlic, spices and dill and known as kosher dill pickles. They were often sold by the Jews on carts and soon became a profitable business. Over time, new varieties of pickles have been introduced from all over the world. Pickles can have a variety of flavors, i.e. sweet, salty, sour, and hot or a combination of more than one flavor. They are also not restricted to cucumber as shown by the lactose fermented cabbage introduced from Eastern Europe, the spiced cornichons from France, pickled plums from Japan and pickled eggplants and peppers from Italy. (Colwell, 2008).[Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

There are many references to the word pickle; the most common is to mean pickled cucumbers. There are six main types of ingredients necessary for pickle making. The most important element, of course, is the cucumber. The most preferred are of the thin-skinned variety with a likely number of warts and which have a proper size. Another critical ingredient is the acidic component, which is key to the process. Vinegar is the most common choice and makes up the bulk of the liquid used to pickle. It has a relative contribution to the flavor of the pickled cucumbers, giving them a sour taste. In addition to those two attractive attributes, vinegar is a preservative and is also non-toxic, making it the best choice for pickling. Other ingredients used that have an impact on the final taste of the pickles include sugar, which gives off a sweetness that balances the sour taste of vinegar and makes the pickles plump and firm. Salt which enhances the flavor and has protective qualities as well, and finally, herbs and spices such as dill weed, cinnamon, cloves, fennel for their aroma. Firming agents such as alum may also be used to give pickles the crispier fee without necessarily impacting the flavor.

The process of pickling may take as many as 42 days. Although simpler methods at home may do it, there are pickle manufacturers who use a four step process in the preparation. The first step is the harvesting. If the cucumbers are to be transported for long distances, refrigeration is used to ensure their freshness which plays a vital role in the final flavor. They are also cleaned to reduce any trace amount of bacteria on the cucumbers that may ruin the end product. The second step in pickling is preservation which may be done through fermentation, refrigeration or pasteurization. Refrigeration and pasteurization produce pickles with a shorter shelf life than those produced using fermentation. The pickles are then processed and packed in airtight containers to prevent spoilage (Sims & Zahara, 2008).[Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

Some challenges may arise with pickled food. There are also some signs that may allude to these problems, among them; Soft or slippery pickles which occur when the liquid used was not sufficiently acidic. The cucumbers may also have a strong bitter taste caused by pickling in an extremely acidic liquid. They may be shriveled or discolored, which indicates overcooking, the use of iodized salt or use in bad quality cucumbers. These problems may be avoided by using vinegar of the proper strength (5% acidity), always using fresh spices, and storing jars in a cool, dry place and following pickling instructions carefully (Ware, 2013).

Binning, L. K. (2005). Pickling cucumbers: Pest control. Madison.

Beattie, J. H. (2010). Growing cucumbers for pickling. Washington, D.C: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture.

Colwell, H. T. M., & Ontario. (2008). Mechanical harvesting of pickling cucumbers: Economic aspects. Toronto: Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food.

Sims, W. L., & Zahara, M. B. (2008). Growing pickling cucumbers for mechanical harvesting. Berkeley, Calif: University of California.

Ware, L. M. (2013). Studies with pickling cucumbers in Alabama. Auburn: Agricultural Experiment Station of the Alabama Polytechnic Institute.


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The history of Multi-Engine Flight dates back in 1913. Notably, the world’s first multi-engine airplane was created in Russia. Igor Ivanovich Sikorsky, who was born in Kiev, Imperial Russia (now Ukraine), on May 25, 1889, is the pioneer of the first multi-engine aircraft (Sikorskii?, 2007). Therefore, the history of the multi-engine flight cannot be explained without talking about Igor Sikorsky, who, as a young boy, showed interest in science especially in the field of aviation. Critical to note is that before Igor Sikorsky had immigrated to the US and started the building of helicopters, he had already pioneered the Russia’s early aviation (Anderson, 2012). Apparently, among his looming large of the beginning of the accomplishments is the development of “The Grand” which was the code name of the first multi-engine aircraft. Most of the critics did not believe that the aircraft would fly although it did.

Evidently, “The Grand” was hugely influential to aviation in different ways, which include the integration of the balcony. It is considered as “little porch” on the front of the multi-engine aircraft that feels among the most remarkable aspects of the first plane’ designs (Marshall Cavendish Corporation, 2008). The intention of design the multi-engine aircraft with a balcony was to ensure that safety was guaranteed by reminding passengers not “to jump out of the plane while standing on the porch.” [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

A twin-engine aircraft looks complicated to fly because of the many knobs and dials in the cockpit. The systems are complex, and fuel plumbing may seem a little out of the ordinary. When a multi-engine aircraft takes off, it is not any different from flying a retractable single engine plane. The transition from a fixed gear, fixed pitch prop single to a twin is busier than it needs to be but the invention of a multi-engine flight made life easier in the aviation industry.

A multi-engine aircraft has a few advantages over the single engine aircraft. A manufacturer puts more than one engine in the airframe to ensure that the plane keeps flying in the case where one engine fails. However, if an engine in a twin engine flight fails, the pilot loses 90 percent of excess thrust which means that speed will lose speed even if he configure the airplane entirely after an engine failure. When light twin-engine flights are operated near their gross weight, the plan becomes intolerant of the pilots’ error in achieving a positive climb rate and deliver a very marginal single engine flight performance. A non-turbo plane with twin engines has a single engine service ceiling of five thousand feet density altitude which increases the likelihood of descending in the case of engine failure (Torenbeek, 2013). In addition, a plane with two engines is more likely to incur an engine failure.

Aircraft manufactures develop a multi engine aircrafts for more power. If a manufacturer cannot achieve 500 hp from a single engine for 500lb. aircraft, the solution is to create two 250hp engines because it creates an extra drag from each side of the plane (Anderson, 2012). For example, single Comanche records a performance of 260 hp and the double 320 hp. However, the single Comanche is faster than the twin equivalent. Newer light single aircrafts such as the PC 12 get power with a minimal drag, which makes it, fly higher and faster. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

A multi-engine flight is in perfect condition when both engines are pulling uniformly, and the engines are symmetrical. When one of the engines fails, the functional engine provides all the thrust, which causes the aircraft to incline towards the dead engine. The dead engine creates an additional drag, which creates the need for energy to come from elsewhere since the propeller is wind milling. The wind milling prop creates drag, which also causes the airplane to yaw towards the failed engine (Mardanpour et.al, 2014). The pilot stops the yaw by stomping on the rubber paddle next to the engine, which also contributes, to the thrust.

As a pilot slows down, the flight controls become sloppy and begin to lose effectiveness. At low speeds, the rudder cannot oppose the yawing into the failed engine. The aircraft will then spin and cause a crash that is likely to cause the death of all the occupants. When flying a multi-engine flight, the pilot must reduce power on the functional engine or lower the nose to maintain control. However, these two actions are not desirable right after takeoff or at low altitudes. Climbing at low speeds is not well supported by the multi-engine flight, which makes it necessary for a minimum yawn control speed, VMC, to be painted as a red streak across the airspeed indicators.

A twin-engine flight has two standard pistons that rotate clockwise when viewed from behind just as in the case of a twin engine. If the right engine fails and the pilot slow down the plane, down going blade of the left engine appears to be inside the nacelle, which is closer to the fuselage. This means that the pilot’s action will cause a shorter arm for thrust, which will consequently lead to less yawing. Conversely, if the left engine fails, the pilot slows down, and the downgoing blade of the right engine is outside the nacelle and away from the fuselage. The plan yaws more; an indication that the pilot needs more rudder. As far as the control of a multi-engine aircraft goes, it is worse when the left engine fails because it is the analytical engine (Wildmann et.al, 2014). However, airframe manufacturers have redesigned the plane by installing a counter-clockwise rotating engine on the right. This modification assists the pilot to remain on a straight course when the left engine fails. The down going blade on the right engine as close to the fuselage as the left engine (Mardanpour et.al, 2014). Later versions of the twin-engine airplanes are said not to have a critical engine from a control standpoint view after this innovation. [Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

The twin engine has some advantages over the single engine aircraft. The twin-engine aircraft is less redundant because is a pilot loses one engine, there is a chance that he can land using the functional engine. Most twin-engine aircraft that are beyond the twin trainers have an excellent cabin in the piston twin. Sophisticated models of the multi-engine aircraft come with additional features such as the anti-ice equipment that is not in the single engine aircraft. However, twin-engine aircraft have very high operating costs because of the double amounts of oil required to fuel the two engines. Also, they have high maintenance costs that come from having twice the number of spark plugs and cylinders. They are more complicated to operate compared to the single engine because the redundancy from the use of multi-engine flights comes at the price of a complex fuel system, paralleling alternators and synchronizing propellers. Twin engine flights have a tendency of lacking soft field performance.

The history of air aviation is mostly attributed to the works that were done by the first innovators of the airplane, the Wright brothers especially after they demonstrated that it was possible to fly and that the fundamental technical problems had been overcome. However, the following paper will seek to discuss the history of the Multi-Engine Flight by analyzing different milestones in the air aviation industry

Anderson, J. J. D. (2012). The airplane: A history of its technology. Reston, VA: American
Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics.

Marshall Cavendish Corporation. (2008). Inventors and inventions. New York: Marshall

Mardanpour, P., Richards, P. W., Nabipour, O., & Hodges, D. H. (2014). Effect of multiple engine placement on aeroelastic trim and stability of flying wing aircraft. Journal of Fluids and Structures44, 67-86.

Sikorskii?, S. I. (2007). The Sikorsky Legacy. Charleston, SC: Arcadia Pub

Torenbeek, E. (2013). Synthesis of subsonic airplane design: an introduction to the preliminary design of subsonic general aviation and transport aircraft, with emphasis on layout, aerodynamic design, propulsion, and performance. Springer Science & Business Media.

Wildmann, N., Ravi, S., & Bange, J. (2014). Towards higher accuracy and better frequency response with standard multi-hole probes in turbulence measurement with remotely piloted aircraft (RPA). Atmospheric Measurement Techniques7(4), 1027-1041.


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Native American History
The Native Americans are indigenous people to the land of America. They were the first settlers in the continent. These indigenous populations are believed to have crossed over from Asia to Alaska, majorly as explorers. They were perfect in utilizing the available resources in their immediate environment.  However, the discovery of the Americas by the Europeans ushered in a new era of conflict and turmoil between the two factions. The disagreements between the Native Americans and the European settlers were based on the sharing of resources, especially land, between the two. These conflicts were settled, in most cases, by war and rarely by peaceful treaties. This essay, thus, explores the history of the Native Americans and their interactions with the European settlers based on the available primary sources alongside other authoritative peer-reviewed scholarly sources.    [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

Native Americans occupied the whole of South and North America. They were grouped into different tribes each occupying distinct Geographical areas. North America, for instance, was majorly occupied by Red Indians who had unique cultures. Some were hunters, like the Clovis people, sometimes referred to as Paleo-Indians. According to Megapolensis’ (1644) report: “The women were obliged to prepare the land, to mow, to plant, and do everything; the men did nothing except hunting, fishing, and going to war against their enemies.” It is thus evident from this primary source that some other ethnic groups practiced fishing and by extension trading. After all the unity among these groups made them live peacefully. These groups could be amalgamated to form states which were governed by a leader who controlled trade operations in and out of the state. Diversity in culture and traditions made them live peacefully. At least each ethnic group had something to offer to the entire combined society (Nies 98).[Need an essay writing service? Find help here]

European invasion came with negative impacts to these people. These invaders were greedy for land as evidenced by a series of primary sources. For instance, this is brought out clearly by Powhatan’s (1609) letter to the European settlers: “Why will you take by force what you may obtain by love?” This line depicts the settler’s aggressiveness to dispossess the natives of their land of which they were willing to share with the invaders peacefully without war.[Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

Works Cited
Nies, Judith. Native American History. Ballantine Books, 2012.

Powhatan. (1609). Speech by Powhatan, as recorded by John Smith, 1609. Smithsonian Source,

Megapolensis, J. (1644). Dutch missionary John Megapolensis on the Mohawks (Iroquois), 1644. Smithsonian Source,


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Internet bullying is not just an issue that affects the individual getting bullied but mostly it is also a public social problem. The individual suffers some effects that have negative social impacts because they do not know who is bullying them. It is more like a mystery, and they are embarrassed to speak out about what they are going through. Internet bullying which is also referred to as cyber bullying has greater social effects because it is quite different from the traditional bullying whereby someone is in direct contact with the bully (Kowalski, 2012). With traditional bullying; you know who is bullying you, but in internet bullying, you are left dazzled by a stranger which is more torturous. There are factors that make internet bullying a sensitive social issue. [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

Cyberbullying can go on round the clock. It can run for longer durations, and it does not only happen in school going children but also occurs among adults on social media and on work platforms. Internet bullying occurs at whatever time of the day or night. Internet bullying is more intense as the bully is often anonymous (Horowitz, 2014). Degrading Images or videos in cyber bullying spread fast to a broad audience owing to the vast reach of internet connectivity around the world. Once something has been posted, several people have access to download it and thus the damage caused can last long and thus adversely affecting the victim. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

Cyber bullying is thus a smaller representation of an adverse issue which is bullying in general. Bullying in the society takes different shapes such as intimidation, bigotry as well as manipulation. Bullies are often disturbed people in the society who try to cover their shortcomings by belittling others through intimidation (Stuckey, 2013). Cyberbullying thus gives the bullies a chance to hide behind a keyboard and harass others. If we are to put an end to bullying, we would thus have to start from the family setting and go through to the society at large.[Click Essay Writer to order your essay]


Horowitz, M., Bollinger, D. M., & American Association of School Administrators, (2014). Cyberbullying in social media within educational institutions: Featuring student, employee, and parent information.

Kowalski, R. M., Limber, S., & Agatston, P. W. (2012). Cyberbullying: Bullying in the digital age. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.

Stuckey, R. (2013). Cyberbullying.