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Current Career Assessment
Career assessment is a fundamental tool that enables one to understand and discover their skills, aptitude and talents in the given field or career. Career assessments however come in different varieties based on the individual’s consideration about the job. These types vary in terms of methodology, the attributes measured, the validity and the target, customer profile among many others (McMahon, 2015). My career assessment is qualitative in nature as it tries to clarify my preferences and goals. I have been working as an educator for deploying airman for the last few years. I have also taken part in teaching advanced trauma care for nurses at level one trauma centers once every month. Currently, I teach the same course and I project I will be doing so for the next 2-3 years. At the end of this period I will have to retire and pursue new opportunities in other fields; the reason I have been compelled to come up with this career plan.

Basic Instructor Course is a very important undertaking for trainers or people who are involved with teaching soldiers within the army system. However, since I missed it before I began teaching, I am currently undertaking it. According to the military directives, it is among the basics to be learned before one starts teaching. This course is aimed at helping me know how to teach by translating my training skills and techniques to the classroom. It will also enable me gain confidence in front of big audiences and the ability to get accustomed to the classroom. Teaching is new to me and so I am not that comfortable teaching as would be my wish. However, I hope that after attending the Basic Instructor Course I would be able to overcome some of these challenges. Basic Instructor Course also provides a nice experience since skills obtained here can be applied both in the army school systems and the civilian world.[“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

Peak and Valley Moments
Being a trainer or teacher in the armed forces like any other occupation has its peak moments and challenges. One therefore has to come up with new ways of handling both situations when they arise. For instance, one should device ways of improving or maintaining the peak moments they experience and ways of dealing with challenges as they arise. Peak moments are known to energize the individual while challenges could end up draining the individual. During the eight months I have been teaching I have encountered several energizing moments and challenges.

`           To start with, I really enjoy teaching knowing that am gaining valuable experience that will be of importance in my future employment since I aspire to teach nursing students at a community college or university. The teaching profession requires one to be confident and have vast knowledge and understanding about the discipline they are teaching. Interacting with the young airmen gives me the opportunity to build my confidence and on the other hand, the clinical shifts at the level one trauma center is an opportunity to increase my bank of knowledge about trauma care more so its importance to the nurses.

Seeing the light bulb go off in students’ head when they can comprehend new subjects they had never encountered brings a lot of joy to me. Teaching process is based on the principles of learning. Teaching should therefore enable the student learn new ideas and improve their understanding on those they already were aware off. For my case, a student being able to comprehend new subjects at the end of the day is great achievement since it shows learning has taken place.[Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

During my teaching periods, passing of important information to the deployment troops which could be used in saving another airman’s life is a source of gratification to me. I feel honored when am given the opportunity to pass knowledge and skills from my experience in deployments to the young airmen. However, I have also been experiencing several challenges in the current job. First of all, I have to commute about two hours a day in dense traffic. This therefore means I need to adjust my waking time and the time I leave the house. I therefore have to wake up very early in the morning, prepare and leave early for work. This problem also eats into my time while returning home from work. As a consequence I arrive late and very tired. However, I have plans of relocating nearer to the barracks to ease these inconveniences.

Military students are stressed individuals and always in errands far away from their families. The above mentioned factors therefore pose a big challenge to the instructor, trainer or teacher concerned. My case for instance, I am involved with teaching individuals who leave their families for about three weeks. This greatly decreases their attention and participation in class. Also, they do not like attending training classes, hence making it difficult to teach them, since there are no people to be thought. The above mentioned could be as a result of stress and fatigue attributed to their operations during errands.

Apart from teaching, I also have to do 12 hour clinical shifts in level one trauma center. Balancing between the two; accessing residents at the trauma center and teaching at the barracks is time demanding and mentally draining. Sometimes back, I had to skip some classes with the troops due to the exhaustion. However as time went by, I learnt to appreciate it.  Nowadays, I view it as a way of assisting the residents to be confident, compassionate and exceptionally competent.

Self-assessment helps one, through self-evaluation, to assess aspects that could be of importance to his or her identity. It is through self-assessment that one can be able to self-verify and self-enhance whichever aspiration they have chosen, bearing in mind not to damage their self-esteem. It also involves one’s’ skills and strengths towards performing or achieving certain set goals. Below is part of my self-assessment.

Having worked for about eight years as a teacher at the military and with still about 2-3 years before my retirement, I see the need to start preparations for my new career. I therefore have about three years, which is enough time, to continue teaching while considering the other option. I have always had strong interests in the field of education which has also grown over time while teaching troops at the barracks. I therefore wish to become a nursing instructor at a community college or university in the future after retirement from my current career. I find this achievable based on the following strengths and skills.

I have been fortunate enough to be in the teaching position as I have and am still teaching deploying airman in the military. Through this, I have acquired valuable experiences from deployments that could help save an airman’s life. I also happen to have the confidence and knowledge about the tasks that I teach these young airmen. I, however, experience problems with speaking in front of a class but am sure I will get over it after gaining more experience in teaching.

Every month I participate in advanced trauma care for nurses at level one trauma center through a 12 hour clinical shift. This equips me with the required knowledge and skills required in teaching in a nursing school. Assessing the resident nurses during this rotations also helps improve my confidence in front of people, something am really in need of.

Action Steps
I have worked as a teacher in the military for just eight months through which I have had several challenges since it is new to me. At the same time, I will be retiring in the next three years and am thinking of the teaching profession as my next destination. I have therefore come up with some short term and long-term goals that will help in my career planning.

For the short term goals, I aim at improving my teaching capabilities in terms of confidence and mastery of the subject. The aforementioned will be acquired through the continued teaching of the young airman and teaching of advanced trauma care for nurses. I am going to continue teaching for the remaining three years before retiring. I also plan to keep in touch with friends who have recently retired from the military and are currently teaching in the civilian settings.[Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

My long term goal is to become a nursing instructor either at a community college or university in the next five years. By doing this I would have quenched my ambition of teaching in a nursing school. I plan to achieve this through the knowledge I have obtained from this program. I also have the idea of pursuing an additional degree in patient safety so as to give me an upper hand in bargaining in the market. However this cannot be achieved since it can fit nowhere on my current schedule.

Professional Development Plan
For the remaining 2-3 years, I plan to continue teaching deployment strategies to our airman prior to deployment. I also plan to continue teaching in advanced trauma care for nurses every month and to continue with the 12 hour clinical shift at the level one trauma center. This will help me in gaining the required skills, knowledge and experience that will be fundamental in my new career, as a nursing instructor. Through the continued teaching, I would be able to gain the confidence of talking in front of big crowds, which is my main problem currently. Teaching advanced trauma care for nurses and the clinical shifts at the trauma center will help me in the mastery of trauma care for nurses.

After retiring from the military, I have plans of teaching in the academic environment, in this case a nursing instructor. As a result, am always in touch with some of my friends who have recently retired from the military and are actively engaged in teaching in the academic world. From them I have been able to obtain advice on things to do before applying for the teaching jobs. It is from some of this advice that I came up with the idea of pursuing an additional degree in patient safety though unfortunately it cannot fit into my current schedule.

The knowledge and skills I have acquired through teaching the troops and the residents at the level one trauma center will be enough for a start in the nursing instructor role. At the end of the 3 year period, I will also have gained enough confidence for teaching. This wish of becoming a nursing instructor at either a community college or university after retiring from the military is what has prompted me to plan of starting my basic instructor course that is scheduled to start in February next year. This is aimed at teaching basic concepts to students, delivery of information in a formal setting and the techniques to deliver the required information.

Changing from military to civilian career could pose many challenges that would require prior planning to contain them. Lifestyle changes are the first transition challenges one may face. For instance, while in the military, one may have had certain privileges which could be extended to family members. When one leaves the military, termination of some if not the majority of these privileges occurs.  Separation of spouses, in the search for other job opportunities could also occur since one may have to move to the new place of work.

Based on the above potential challenges, one could therefore be advised to plan in advance for such. This would mean development of a career plan on the new career they are intending to join. From the career plan, they will be able to come up with some of the challenges they may face during the transition and their solutions. It is advisable that they begin planning early, say one year before, for their departure. Paying visits to family support centers and friends who already have left the military and settled as civilians could also be of great benefit (Britt, 2006).


Britt, T. W., Adler, A. B., & Castro, C. A. (2006). Military life: The psychology of serving in peace and combat. Westport, CT: Praeger Security International.

McMahon, M., & Watson, M. (2015). Career assessment: Qualitative approaches. Rotterdam: Sense.


Free Speech and Hate Crimes in Canada:An Analysis of Freedom Versus Consequence

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This paper explores the topics of free speech and hate crime within the nation of Canada. Using the information provided by academic journals, periodicals and online, both opinions provided by the authors of said pieces and hard data, this paper goes into the details of the parallels and contrasting ideals between freedom of expression for Canadian Citizens and the rights of members of marginalized groups to receive judicial support when they are victimized by individuals who are motivated by bigotry. Free Speech is legally outlined by the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedom Act and the language within dictates judicial procedure in regards to the rights of the citizens it represents to express themselves whether verbally, through literature or artistic expression. Culture is influenced by the media, both international and homegrown, and standards are placed on pop-culture in an attempt to protect national identity. The advent of the digital age has complicated what is acceptable in terms of free speech and how law enforcement is able and willing to intervene should a legal line be crossed. The hard data is explored using statistics and recorded incidents. This paper factors these varying influences and how they contribute to the concepts of free speech and hate crimes in Canada.

Free Speech as Protected by Canadian Legislation
Since the passage of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedom Act in 1982, the umbrella of free speech has expanded beyond expression of political affairs. According to Kent Greenwalt Canada’s policies regarding free speech are the result of many international influences and take an expansive approach. In his article Free Speech in the United States and Canada: Law and Contemporary Problems, he calls into question how the law protects individuals vocalizing their intention to commit a crime or attempting to entice others into criminal behavior. He states ” If the courts engage in the genuine review Section 1 is said to require, they must end up saying that in respect to some acts that are properly crimes, the government cannot punish agreements, offers, counseling, or perhaps even participation that involves only utterances” (p. 14).

From this, one can presume a broad protection of potentially harmful statements under the charter. However, a quirk of Canadian law decided in the case of Canada (Human Rights Commission) v. Taylor  “involved a civil provision, section 13(1) of the Canadian Human Rights Act, which prohibits telephonicaly communicating information likely to expose a person or group to hatred or contempt on the basis of, inter alia, race or religion” (Greenwalt, p. 20). However, Greenwalt  cites a potential flaw in this broadly written legislation. He states that disagreements he deems “legitimate” may be perceived as unlawful by offering up the following hypothetical situation:

Suppose, for example, that right wing members of the South African Dutch Reformed Church moved to Canada and preached that colored peoples of various sorts are inferior to whites and that apartheid should be established in Canada. A citizen telephones neighbors and warns them against this hateful religion then being established in their own town. Saying the doctrines are hateful is likely to expose members and the group to hatred or contempt, so it seems the citizen would have violated the provision which recognizes no defense for honest religious disagreement (or any disagreement, religious or otherwise). (p. 20)

The vague nature of the law, as written, could be perceived as lacking the specificity necessary for actual enforcement or, as stated previously, could potentially be utilized to actually work against individuals expressing opposition to hate speech.

As the basis for the operations for a society, the law dictates what is allowed to prevail without federal repercussions and, as a result, how the citizens of a nation are allowed to behave. One could draw a parallel between the legal acceptance of hate speech evolving into the commitment of hate crimes. The question lawmakers are left with is where to draw the line and when and where is the responsibility of the government to intervene before the act of a hate crime without infringing on it’s citizen’s right to free speech?

Free Speech in Pop Culture and International Influences
As an expansive nation divided between two groups of language speakers and many more ethnic groups, there has been a push to unify the diverse citizens of Canada and establish a more distinct national identity. Many individuals seek to do so by limiting the cultural influence of the United States. In Free Speech and the Visage Culture: Canadian and American Perspectives on Pop Culture Discrimination, Ian Slotin stated the following:
A 1995 survey reported that 72% of Canadians thought that strengthening Canadian culture could facilitate national reconciliation between Quebec and Anglophone culture. Most believed that protecting Canadian culture from U.S. influences and preserving a sense of cultural distinctions from the United States were the most important ways the government could strengthen Canadian culture. (p.2297)

As a result, Canada has taken measures to ensure that a pre-determined proportion of media produced by national sources and consumed by it’s citizens is the product of Canadian cultures. The attempts to do so have included raised tariffs on articles and publications imported from the U.S. and regulations regarded the percentage of media broadcast and produced from external sources. However, as Canada is the primary source of foreign income for American mass media markets, the producers of the product have striven to work their way around regulations via loopholes and business acumen.
This is to say that Canadian citizens are not free of pop cultural influences from their neighbors to the South despite national sentiment to the contrary as stated by Sean Hier in The Contemporary Structure of Canadian Racial Supremacism: Networks, Stategies and New Technologies. Heir states that  “Organized racial supremacism is often dismissed as an American, and less commonly, a European phenomenon” (p. 473). Hier furthers his argument by positing that a general lack of awareness or ambivalence regarding racism and jingoism in the Nation of Canada allows for the growth of racial supremacist groups.

The dynamic is complicated by the fact that in an attempt to create a more authentically “Canadian” sense of culture, these laws may cultivate a further isolationist sensibility as Hier points out that many of the nations hate groups are founded on the principle that immigration and outside influence is ultimately harmful to the well-being of the nation such as The Canadian Association for Free Expression, Citizens for Foreign Aid Reform and The Canadian Free Speech League.[Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

Advanced Technology and Networking in Relation to Racial Supremacy
Despite the aforementioned ruling of Canada (Human Rights Commission) v. Taylor wherein discriminatory speech cannot be spread telephonicaly, there is no such ruling regarding the spread of hate speech via online networks. This could be reflective of both how the law is outdated and the inherent difficulty of enforcing any such law regarding online communication. Indeed, enforcing laws perceived within society as more drastic than the need to eliminate hate speech are considered difficult. Though there have been sales of illegally obtain credit card and social security numbers and even human trafficking, certain criminals have been difficult to track down due to the anonymity of criminals who conduct business online. This is to say that seeking out the source of hate speech online would theoretically prove even more difficult.

However, it is asserted that the distribution of racial supremacist  ideals and the ensuing acquisition of members to the groups that hold these ideals is done via the fast growing technology of the internet. “The contemporary structure of Canadian racial supremacist necessitates  a direct and explicit focus on, and conceptualization of, racial supremacist “networks” rather than an assessment of various individuals and organizations that embrace some degree of racial supremacy”(477).

Based on the fast developing online presence of hate groups and the ease at which they conduct their purpose without interference from the law, one could surmise that the still “Wild West”nature of the internet could contribute to a hidden, but certainly present sentiment of which the standard citizen of the nation is not aware. Much like a hobbyist of a rare pastime finds an encouraging community offering support, an individual harboring racial bigotry living within a community that finds such sentiments repugnant may find others to reassure him/her in the validity of their perspective.

In a speculative scenario, this is not limited to reassurance in sentiments whether private or vocalized. Should the individual wish to extend their sentiments into action, the encouraging community could theoretically provide not only encouragement and specialized insight to the commitment of hate crimes. Where an individual wishing to act on racial bigotry is originally limited by a lack a knowledge or skillfulness, they could gain such expertise with the vast resources of information provided by the internet. The handling and acquisition of weapons,  the construction of and detonation of explosives, and even the legal acumen to potentially avoid prosecution if suspected of the crime are but a few of the potentially helpful skills to an individual wishing to carry out a hate crime

Hate Crimes in Canada
Though Canada’s website maintained specifically for reporting statistics states that hate motived crimes decreased by an entire 17% within just the year taking place between 2012 and 2013 and that the majority of crimes reported were non-violent “mischief”, William O’Grady posits that Canada’s legal system lacks comprehensive data and record-keeping regarding the rate of hate crimes committed within the country. The site itself hints at this stating the following:
It is important to note that the measurement of hate crimes in Canada, as reported by police, has been evolving over the past two decades and is continuing to evolve. Analysis of police-reported hate crimes over time and for specific jurisdictions and motivations shows that the reporting of hate crimes is sensitive to changes to reporting practices, which may be influenced by a variety of factors, including the introduction of police hate crime initiatives and public awareness campaigns (Allen, 2015).
O’Grady goes on to cite memorable instances of hate related incidents that had taken place in the nations past particularly regarding anti-Semitic sentiments during the influx of Jewish Immigration during the 1930’s, possibly referencing a long standing anti-Semitic culture undertone within the nation’s non-Jewish residents. If so, the data presented would support this notion. See chart:

Figure 1: Graph Depicting Number of Police-Reported Hate Crimes Motivated by Religion
Similar apprehensions are hinted at in other sources. Among the “radical right wing” groups with thriving online communities given by Hier, many of them are primarily motivated by anti-Semitic beliefs.[“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

The data shows that the majority (87%) of police reported hate crimes were committed within cities. This is reflected by the higher rates committed within Canada’s more densely populated areas. See chart:

This could credited to the fact that a higher percentage of ethnic minorities live within Canada’s metropolitan areas, as statistics also indicate that slightly over half the reported hate crimes were racially motivated (the majority of the targets of these crimes being black), coupled with the fact that the denser population naturally leads to a higher crime rate in general. Also of interest is the fact that the average age of victims was raised to older individuals than previous years and the amount of minors (aged 17 and under) accused as perpetrators of hate crime decreased. This data would imply that interaction in the vein is taking place between aging populations on both sides of the equation.[Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

Conclusions and Future Study
The effect the legal freedom of expression has within the culture and legal system of Canada on the overall rate of hate crimes is difficult to determine. To garner a more straightforward understanding, alterations could be made as suggested by critics of the system. Greenwalt appeals for more specific language regarding free speech within Canadian charters. O’Grady points out a lack of comprehensive data and methods for retrieving said data. Application of both these suggestions would provide further research on the subject.

            Works Cited

Allen, M. (2015). Police-reported hate crime in Canada, 2013.

Greenawalt, K. (1992). Free Speech in the United States and Canada. Law and Contemporary      Problems, 55(1), 5-33. doi:10.2307/1191755

Hier, S. (2000). The Contemporary Structure of Canadian Racial Supremacism: Networks, Strategies      and New Technologies. The Canadian Journal of Sociology / Cahiers Canadiens De   Sociologie, 25(4), 471-494. doi:10.2307/3341609

O’Grady, W. (2011). Crime In Canadian Context: debates and controversies. Oxford University Press.
Slotin, I. (2002). Free Speech and the Visage Culturel: Canadian and American Perspectives on Pop  Culture Discrimination. The Yale Law Journal, 111(8), 2289-2319. doi:10.2307/797647


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Computers in Human Behavior (Barakovic & Skorin, 2015)
In the light of increasing use of mobile devices, this article acknowledges the need to understand factors that influence a user’s experience among the actors involved in the service provision. The article is based on research activities emanating from computer interaction, networking and telecommunications and how user experience and quality experience influence different factors when understanding and enhancing the user’s experience when accessing mobile websites (Barakovic & Skorin, 2015). The article outlines multidimensional analysis on the quality of experience and user expertise in the context of web browsing and email portals by focusing on the design of the mobile websites, loading time, and information quality. The multi-dimensional analysis is unbiased because it was conducted from experiments from large number participants and several data analysis methods were used to develop objective results. (Barakovic & Skorin, 2015) conclude that there are mutual relations that are highly and positively correlated with quality of experience and multiple perceivable traits of the experience that make up its quality.

This article is relevant to networking because the results obtained from this research provide a foundation for understanding the quality of experience for mobile website browsing through tablet devices and smartphones. However, the article also highlights the need to exploit the knowledge in a practical field where behavior and expectations of tablet and smartphone users differ. The article is relevant to stakeholders that provide web services such as device manufacturers, web designers, and content providers because the proposed multidimensional network quality of experience model would significantly improve the aesthetics, usability, and performance of websites.

Computer Networks (Sehati & Ghaderi, 2016)
This paper proposes a solution to eliminate initial delays that are transparent to end systems, is suited for mobile browsing on mobile devices, and one that does not require modifying HTTP. Sehati and Ghaderi recognize that the process of loading a web page constitutes a significant portion of web delays in wireless networks in mobile devices, which consequently cause longer access and transmission delays compared to wired networks. The authors have developed WebPro, a solution that uses network proxy to build an updated database of resource list for frequently visited websites (Sehati & Ghaderi, 2016). The proxy is in the wired part of the network, and it proactively builds and refreshes the database regularly. When a request reaches the proxy, it fetches referenced objects and base HTML needed to render the web page using a resource list store in a local database. The article is relevant since it uses a working prototype of the solution to highlight the significance of the invention. WebPro is a solution that circumvents inter-object dependencies on a web page in real life network traffic (Sehati & Ghaderi, 2016). Tests conducted over LTE and WIFI to assess the performance of WebPro emphasize its significance since it reduces 26 percent of loading time; the best performance among other proxy base solutions. [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

The article is relevant to web browsing because the development of the prototype is a significant step towards optimizing mobile application and wireless infrastructure for improved quality of experience. The article creates the need for further research on how to incorporate opportunistic scheduling in the solution to cut more transmission energy during web browsing. The article lays a solid foundation of an analysis model that will attempt to capture the different constraints in the system. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

Web Semantics: Science, services, and agents on the worldwide web. (Ruotsalo et.al, 2013)
This article explored the full potential in mobile networks where retrieval of the information object is context aware and personalized for users, and these objects refer their physical counterparts (Ruotsalo et.al, 2013). The article recognizes the fact that there is a better solution than semantic and context knowledge for addressing information overload and background heterogeneity in mobile web information access. The article presents a mobile, ubiquitous recommender system, SMARTMUSEUM, and its application to information needs of tourists in on site, context-aware access to cultural heritage (Ruotsalo et.al, 2013). This system is unique because it uses semantic web language to represent data and ontologies are used to bridge the gap between sensor inputs, various content descriptions, and user profiles. This article describes a system that makes use of an information retrieval framework where search result and search data clustering are utilized in the recommendation of suitable content for users.

The article is important because the tests of the SMARTMUSEUM show that query expansion, ontology-based reasoning, context knowledge, and search result clustering lead to improvement in recommendation performance. Field trials of the system show that it meets the expectations of the users in real world use (Ruotsalo et.al, 2013). The article is proof that semantic content representation and recovery can improve mobile recommender system’s performance in knowledge-rich domains.

Decision Support Systems (Wang et.al, 2013)
This article is based on a study that investigates the role of trust in mobile service adoption and explores the trust transfer mechanism to understand mobile service adoption behavior in transitioning from the web to mobile services. (Wang et.al, 2013) Acknowledge that success in web services cannot promise an equal measure of success in mobile services. The research of the study makes the article credible because it involves a field survey where 235 EWOM mobile services to test the hypothesis that perceived entitativity and functional consistency are predictors of trust in mobile services (Wang et.al, 2013). The article concludes that trust in mobile services positively influences a user’s intention to use mobile services. More so, functional consistency, trust in web services and perceived entitativity positively impact trust in mobile services. Lastly, the article shows that operational consistency positively affects perceived entitativity.

Information Sciences (Yu & Kong, 2016)
This article is based on experimental studies that examine how different users evaluated interface designs that were commonly used on mobile news websites, to gain an understanding of the effects of the home page and mobile page designs on small-screened devices. (Yu & Kong, 2016) Emphasize the importance of good structure in increasing efficiency of web browsing with a smartphone. The article highlights the significant impact that signs for mobile newspaper and structure of homepages have on the reading experience, reading time, and perceived ease of use. The article provides a guideline for the mobile new website where single space signs designs are preferred to the multi-page and zooming device for text display (Yu & Kong, 2016). Secondly, the homepage should have a thumbnail design that allows information processing to be faster and better than progressive and list views. The article is helpful in adding to knowledge on web browsing because it provides empirical evaluations that assist the interface designer in comprehending the implications of interface designs on the user’s experience.
Information Fusion (Espada et.al, 2015)[Click Essay Writer to order your essay]
This article develops a proposed novel framework that allows standard web applications to use information from surrounding electronic devices. The paper suggests the need for a framework that is easy to use and can be integrated with standard web technologies in the market. This article is useful to developers because the proposed framework includes new information sources and data exchange in an easy way (Espada et.al, 2015). New data can be merged with the web to improve web applications and algorithm. The article paints a picture of how traditional web paradigms are subjected to change because of millions of users access web applications from any point using their smartphones (Espada et.al, 2015).


Barakovic, S., & Skorin-Kapov, L. (2015). Multidimensional modeling of the quality of experience for mobile Web browsing. Computers in Human Behavior50, 314-332.

Espada, J. P., Díaz, V. G., Crespo, R. G., Martínez, O. S., G-Bustelo, B. C. P., & Lovelle, J. M. C. (2015).
Using extended web technologies to develop Bluetooth multi-platform mobile applications for interact with smart things. Information Fusion21, 30-41.

Ruotsalo, T., Haav, K., Stoyanov, A., Roche, S., Fani, E., Deliai, R., … & Hyvönen, E. (2013).

SMARTMUSEUM: A mobile recommender system for the Web of Data. Web semantics: Science, services and agents on the world wide web20, 50-67.

Sehati, A., & Ghaderi, M. (2016). Network assisted latency reduction for mobile web browsing. Computer Networks106, 134-150.

Wang, N., Shen, X. L., & Sun, Y. (2013). Transition of electronic word-of-mouth services from web to mobile context: A trust transfer perspective. Decision Support Systems54(3), 1394-1403

Yu, N., & Kong, J. (2016). User experience with web browsing on small screens: Experimental investigations of mobile-page interface design and homepage design for news websites. Information Sciences330, 427-443.


Comparison Of Critic Of The Beloved

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Beloved is a book written in memory of the African-America life in slavery, mistreatment, neglect and discrimination. It is a historical book reporting on the events sometimes back; the events that the author did not have a chance to witness. Through appropriately selected characters, good themes, the book has passed on the message of interest.  However, in the contemporary society, the book critique is a literal aspect of evaluating the relevancy of any literary work in relation to the targeted society.  In the context of beloved, the matter has received critique both in the Beloved Cambridge University Press and the Oxford Journal Beloved. The proper comparison of the two literary critiques of the beloved forms a good understanding and interpretation of the beloved in the current society.  Therefore, Because of the fundamentality of literary comparison, this book has availed detailed comparison of the two beloved critiques in details through unveiling the similarities and differences.

Oxford Journal Beloved
The beloved creates a historical aspect of slavery through the use of the character Margaret Garner, who is compelled to make the most demanding decision; to kill the only child in evading being taken back to the slavery. This is indeed a bitter memory of the slavery that the African Americans faced.   The book Morrison, Toni (26) says “Mrs. Garner, crying like a baby, had sold his brother to pay off the debts that surfaced the minute she was widowed.” This is one of the bitter memory that lingers on Mrs. Garner. But how is that of importance to the current America?  The book has made a good attempt to rekindle the social trends and the historical aspects of the society. Through the book, the struggles for equality, love, and existence in the modern world can be likened to the stories. As a famous allegation goes, give back to the African-Americans what belongs to them, the book is a reason to make the modern man understand why the demand is genuine. However, how relevant is the story of a mother killing the son to evade slavery in the current American society? That is a long gone story, a happening that is unacceptable in the American society. This book is awakening the memories that are long gone. The memories of the struggle that has been overcome through the historical struggle and needs not be revived again (Rody, Caroline 95). The world is revolutionized, speaking differently of slavery, addressing social injustices in different perspectives. That is an ironic coming of age and needs not be spoke about.[Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

Moreover, the history of the past is meant for the saviors of slavery to reflect upon their lives, their miseries, and sorrows to be able to seek justice in an injustice world. That is a good aspect of history that needs be adored in the historical aspect of life. For instance from the book Morrison, Toni (27) the following conversation between mr Pauld D and Mrs. Garner, their past biiter memories are revived.
“You said she died soft. Soft as cream,” he reminded her. “That’s not Baby Suggs,” she said. “Who then?” “My daughter. The one I sent ahead with the boys.” “She didn’t live?”

But the reminder does not health the internal self. “For an African-American writer, slavery is a story known in the bones and yet not at all. How could she bear witness to what she never lived?” (Rody, Caroline 98) That means that the story of the black misery happens a long time ago. No survivors of the misery do exist, and there is no solid reason to revive such bitter memories, of which evidence is compromised since there is no first-hand data attached to such information and this can be a just about imagination, and mere allegation that portrays the wrong image to the minds that were clean. Further, still, the topic is the author concludes by saying that he lost some memories.An implication that most of what has been written are simply but the personal opinions and not the facts yet infecting the minds of many with the unnecessary truth.

The haunting resurrection of the beloved has a consequent rekindling of the negations with the peopled past. The persona acknowledges that the memories created by through book are bitter and unbearable. That is the same feeling impacted upon the society through this book (Rody, Caroline 101). It infects the clean minds. The current need not be spoiled with the political injustices, the slavery of the gone years yet they live in the world that none of the allegations is acceptable or bearable. [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

The beloved brings the problem that the African Americans faced after the survivals of the slavery. After the witnessing their friends, killed, butchered, their kith and kin mistreated and even killed in the African American slavery, the story is told. That then creates the trauma that most are surviving with. An implication that beloved has created platform to understand the psychological problem that most blacks have. But the survivors of the torture of the African American torture are only but extinct (Rody, Caroline 102). The living has witnessed the problem with their old kin, but there is no need to revive that in their memories, as that is imparting the trauma that was none issue of concern to the generation that did not deserve to have faced.

There is the great reveal of the historical togetherness of the blacks. The bonds are strengthened future by the tracing of their history. The history that makes the African American to understand why they belong together, they need to fight for their togetherness. That means the book binds the Africans under one ancestry. However, does the book foster the reconciliation with the oppressors?  No, not if the book continues to bring about the negative aspects that are along gone. The reconciliation efforts get thwarted but instead the antagonism increases. That means that the more the reminder of the slavery, the increased the antagonism that oppression in the political realm in the current America, social realm, and general lifestyles. Such stories should be long forgotten and focus on the current affairs.

Beloved Cambridge University Press
On the other hand, the criticism of the book beloved by the Cambridge University Press takes another line of thought but its focus on the current American state and the literary works. In the book, Seth contemplates upon the past to define himself. That means that the past defines the characters and actions of the individuals. Through the book, Seth struggles to get himself freedom and new definition by the evading the past through seeking for self-existence. Denver traces his life from the past. However, his past becomes an obstacle to the growth and realization of the dreams (Hamilton, Cynthia 431). Ohio, on the other hand, is the focal point to trace the exit of Seth from slavery as he skillfully redefines his life. Therefore, history is essential as it creates the platform for self-critic and that makes the understanding of self-character. Furthermore, the character can be more defined by reflection in the past. But the past should serve the motivation purposes seen in Seth and not .retardation purpose as in Denver. That implies by telling the stories of the era, will both be helpful depending on the proper interpretation of history.[Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

Moreover, According to Hamilton, Cynthia (433), Toni Morrison manages to escape from the traditions of the past through proper assimilation of the contemporary practices in the society. That then creates good purpose of history. It serves to understand the reason why some things happened, why certain practices are upheld. That then gives a platform to assess the worthiness of the history and then weight with the current trends in the society to make self-judgment and then likening. Like from the book Morrison, Toni (480) “Pigs were crying in the chute. All day Paul D, Stamp Paid and twenty more had pushed and prodded them from canal to shore to chute to slaughterhouse.” From then interpretation, then one makes the personal definition of their lives to suit in the society. That means that history is vital and its study in the beloved is very important.

Furthermore, history is essential to inform of the negativity of slavery as it occurred to the African American’s. The reporting of the in the human handling of the African-American’s, the mistreatment and the suffering they go through and the impacts that they have on them. This reflection of history brings about self-judgment and creates awareness on the need for justices while in dealing with others (Hamilton, Cynthia 433). Therefore, history serves to create the platform to generate superlative ideas to abolish slavery at any cost.  That aspect is seen through the historical reporting of the civil wars and movements that resulted from the devotion by the survivors of slavery who by all effort gets determined to fight for equality. With the focus on the physical effects and psychological effects of slavery.
The heroic aspects of the society are brought up through history. The reflection on the struggle for the freedom of slaves through the Civil Wars creates specific heroes who can be adored for their actions. Solomon Northup, in the war with the master, builds him a hero (Hamilton, Cynthia 434). Although with the capacity to destroy the master, he does not despite the counterattack through the troops that he led. His sobriety lies in the understanding that by killing the master, his life is compromised yet by sparing him he is prone to staying in slavery (Morrison, Toni 850). He attacks but skillfully destroying the master but sparing for negotiates which then yield futile stories. Such sober-minded heroes are worth to be celebrated in the contemporary world. Therefore, history in the current world is worth for the adoration of some sober-minded people who can be role models.

In abstract, the beloved history in the contemporary world has both the pros and the cons. The centrality on the bitter memories and bad in human acts can be the reason for misery in the contemporary world that has long overcome the scars left by the civil strife. On the other hand, a history that is majorly reflecting on how the African- American Managed to overcome the miseries is healthy to be told in the current society. It helps to understand the efforts that were made in the achievement of the equality. Moreover, the incubation of the knowledge of slavery reminds of the heroic actions made and the need to adore the hero but also cherish and protect the equality of all the resources. Furthermore, history held to understand the negative impacts that slavery has on the people and why slavery needs are abolished. That means both the criticism of the beloved are worthwhile, although, with the contradicting opinion, they aid in the assimilation of history with the proper moderation so that the virtues are taken the vices neglected.

Works Cited

Hamilton, Cynthia. “Toni Morrison And The Slave Narrative”. Revisions, Rememories And Exorcism, 30, No. 3, Part 3, no. 27-11-2016 09:38 UTC, 1996, pp. 429-445. doi:27556178.

Rody, Caroline. “Toni Morrison’s Beloved: History, “Rememory,” And A “Clamor For A Kiss””. American Literary History, 7, No. 1, no. 01-12-2016 04:37 UTC, 1995, pp. 92-119. JSTOR, doi:01-12-2016 04:37 UT.


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The article “Prepared enough to practice? Evaluating a study program in social work,” reflects on the study that was conducted by Elizabeth Engelberg at the University of Luxembourg, Route de Diekirch, Walferdange, Luxembourg (Engelberg, 2015). The objective of the study was to assess the skills as well as knowledge of the employees after having qualified with bachelor’s degree in the field of social work.  In its abstract, the author notes that due to the so-called Bologna reform in Luxembourg seventy supervisors were required to assess evaluating their knowledge and skills of employees that have already qualified with the degree under the curriculum in social work and pedagogy that had recently been introduced.  To consult for the project, the supervisors were solicited as being part of the quality assurance about the study program.  The data in the assessments would be collected through questionnaires while the University of Luxembourg funded the study.

According to the findings, the newly qualified personnel were assessed as adequately trained while there was a need for better understanding of the procedure and process in which beginner practitioners were being socialized into the profession (Engelberg, 2015).  Further, the results from the study also suggested that practice proficiency draws extensively on the general set of skills and knowledge that are common in the field of social work.

About the application of the survey, the article provides that the findings from the research trigger a more particular focus on the generic skills and their roles in the development of proficiency in the practice placements including during the first year after one has been employed. In this case, the study is serving as one of the many examples of how to assess the readiness in practicing for newly qualified practitioners in references to social professions.[“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]
According to the author of the study, the outcome of such assessment of social skills and knowledge could be instrumental in informing on different needs for curriculum revision at the first levels (Engelberg, 2015).  At the same time, with comparative and cross-national approaches, this kind of assessment could play a critical role in guiding any adaptations in responding to the increased internationalization of many social problems.  The following paper wishes to provide a critical analysis of the article, “Prepared enough to practice? Evaluating a study program in social work,” by Elizabeth Engelberg at the University of Luxembourg as shown in the section below.

Literature Review
In its introductory part, the author of the article provides the general overview of the increased attention that has been given to the evaluation of the effectiveness of social work education (Engelberg, 2015).  The author notes that it is critical to call for the continuous review and improvement of social work education throughout Europe to ensure that quality education is maintained or improved.  The author states that the fundamental objective of efforts in quality assurance should be to make an adjustment concerning how to improve the preparation of students for social work before they are placed in employment market (Engelberg, 2015).  On this above observation, the author notes that students are the future hope for any profession including in the social work field. In this way, it is advisable to ensure that a good transition is done from one generation to another by providing enough proficiency to care for service users who might be having complex needs. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

Significance of the Study
About the above concerns, especially in the student’s ability to tackle ever-changing requirements of the society,  the author observes that it is prudent to carry out evaluations on the extent to which beginner practitioners are meeting the qualifying standards including assessing their readiness to practice (Engelberg, 2015).  According to Engelberg, the results of such evaluation process are instrumental at both local and global levels. Engelberg notes that educators can make use of such assessments in determining the possible need for revising curriculum by making the necessary adjustments.  She also highlights that comparative and cross-national efforts in the field of social work can as well use such evaluations in coming up with adaptations that could address the problems that are experienced especially with the increasing internationalization of social action issues.  Notably, studies have been conducted in the attempt to evaluate the skills and knowledge of newly qualified practitioners in the field of social work. According to Engelberg, however, there is a gap in the literature materials that she sourced, in that little effort has been applied to assess the implication of so-called Bologna reform in the social work profession (Engelberg, 2015). Therefore, the author wishes to provide a further contribution to the previous efforts by conducting the study of assessing social work practitioners who had qualified under the new system in Luxembourg, which followed the so-called Bologna reform. According to the author, the Bologna reform is known to have resulted into the overhaul of social work curricula on the European continent.

The author has attempted to provide the difference between the objective of Bologna reform and its application in Luxembourg (Engelberg, 2015). According to her, the aim of Bologna reform was to ensure that professional qualification in different nations of the member’s state in the European Union was promoted, while the ultimate goal being to make sure that labor mobility was facilitated.  Based on these objectives, the reform program was intentionally established with measures to integrate uniform recognition and credit systems. Consequently, many programs would undergo a reorganization to align their curricula with the Bologna system that is based on a three-year Bachelor’s degree followed by a two-year Master’s degree (Engelberg, 2015).  Notably, it must be appreciated that the author has provided an example of Netherlands, Germany, and Austria, where the previous three-and-a-half or four-year programs was replaced by a three-year Bachelor’s program in social work at the polytechnic, college, or university level of applied science.

To show the contrast, the researcher notes that in Luxembourg, the Bologna reform introduced an entirely new system to prepare social work practitioners as well as those in the field of social pedagogy (Engelberg, 2015). Engelberg notes that this amplification of the program led to the assessment of how well the social work students who qualified under this new system meet the expectations of the social service sector.  Accordingly, the researcher observes that it would be prudent to explain the development the led up to the launching of the bachelor’s program (Engelberg, 2015).  However, this could be viewed as not playing a significant role in the study since she had already explained the need to conduct the research.
Research Questions and Methodology
According to Engelberg, it was deemed crucial to evaluate how the holders of BSSE degree were being received in the social service work (Engelberg, 2015). In this case, Engelberg decided to approach the task by asking the supervisors who were working in the social service sector to make assessments on their perception of skills and knowledge of the practitioners. Therefore, supervisors were required to assess the overall competence of the newly qualified practitioners. Engelberg notes that although the directors were requested to conduct that assessment, the team was aware of the controversy that was surrounding the notion of ‘competence’ in the industry. [Click Essay Writer to order your essay]
In this connection, the study used the competence-based approach in understanding how competent the practitioners are in social work field (Engelberg, 2015). Based on the competence-based method, the efforts that the author put in explaining about this approach must be appreciated. In her submission, she notes that competence-based approach has been criticized for encouraging fragmentation of the complex skills base of the social work field into different and many separate abilities. According to the author, the risk of such fragmentation is that one may leave the intricacy of professional practice as such (Engelberg, 2015). At the same time, the competence-based approach has as well been associated with the anti-oppressive practice, which is the prerequisite of which is engagement with the whole person due to the skills fragmentation inherent in the competence-based models.[“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

Despite the above criticism and limitations of the competence-based approach, the author has tried to explain the reason why the method was the most applicable in the research study (Engelberg, 2015). According to her, research on skills development seems to be viable rooted in the concept of ‘competence,’ such as in studies on collaborative expertise as well as cultural competence. However, most importantly is that literature has shown that social work community has noted the need for a comprehensive description of the skills that are relevant for professional practice. In this connection, several studies have been conducted with the aim of providing inventories of such social skills (Engelberg, 2015). The studies have interestingly shown the striking similarities in what practitioners and recruiters reported which include adaptability, openness, the importance of communication skills, interpersonal effectiveness, as well as capacity for teamwork. Other similarities include analytical thinking, creativity, and an understanding of multiculturalism and ethics, which makes it appropriate to apply the competence-based approach in this study.

Further, it must be commendable that The author has gone ahead to define different terms such as “generic skills” as primarily referring to the “abilities that people possess in addition to their academic qualifications, and that can be used across a number of different occupations” (Engelberg, 2015). Other terms that she has provided heir definitions include “method” and “supervisor.” Notably, this is necessarily crucial for any reader or critic who would like to understand the project and endorse its outcome as one of the reliable studies in the field of social work.

In summary, the study’s objective was to determine the extent to which practice proficiency hinges on such generic skills by investigating the “quality assurance about the BSSE program and, therefore, entailed an evaluation of the competence of practitioners who had recently graduated with a BSSE degree’. At the same time, the study was also aiming at examining the relationship between so-called generic skills and the methods that were being used in the social professions.

In this section, the author has explained the sample size and how the data was collected. In her submission, she has noted that seventy supervisors were selected to gather data with questionnaires from the employees (Engelberg, 2015). The questionnaire was divided into four parts. The first part was the introductory section where the respondents would be expected to provide the scope of the tasks as well as the category of service users at a particular work unit. The second part was to monitor if supervisors had previously received and completed the questionnaire at hand. The third part covered a list of fourteen items regarding generic skills which were being taught to a varying extent in the BSSE program, and which are, according to previous research, particularly relevant to the field of social work (Engelberg, 2015). Finally, the fourth part consisted of different methods that were being taught in the BSSE program, which included, among others, four issues of social pedagogy with children, adolescents, adults, and the senior citizens respectively.[Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

The researchers used both statistical reduction technique and factor analysis in compiling and analyzing the data (Engelberg, 2015). After collection of the data, the factor analysis method was used to analysis the information. The objective of applying factor analysis in this process was to reduce a set of items that were describing different aspects of the phenomenon and which would lead to their inter-correlation (Engelberg, 2015). The importance of applying the statistical reduction technique for the fourteen items was to enable the researcher to gain insights on the underlying dimensions of the entire set of data. The method was also instrumental in the generation of a more convenient set of variables that would be included in later statistical analyses.

Although the article consisted of different sections of the project, it failed to provide a chronology of these sections as required in such level of research writing. For example, the paper failed to explicitly outline the questions that were to be answered by the results. Secondly, the article neglected to highlight in a numbered of bullet format the objectives of the study. However, the author has tried to justify the research and explained the method used.

Engelberg, E. (2015). Prepared enough to practice? Evaluating a study program in social
work Université du Luxembourg, LuxembourgJournal of Social Work September, vol.
16 (5), 561-577.


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The General (1926)
The General is an American silent comedy film that was produced in 1926. The General is thought to be among the greatest movies of all time. It has also gone far to receive recognition by the American Film Institute on many occasions for instance, it was nominated in 1998 for the American Film Institute’s 100 movies in the past 100 years and ranked number 18 for the top American Film Institute’s 100 laughs in 2000 (Keaton, 1926).

The General having been produced during the silent era reflects to this era socially, politically and aesthetically basing on how events unfold and its setting. To start with, The General is believed to be one of the most beautiful movies of all time. This is basing on the grey photography (due to the limited technology in the filming industry), rushing lines of the trains and flow that was flawless and well developed. Political impact of this movie is based on the fact that it was based on a true civil war train hijack story. This was far from the usual comedy films during that time. Keaton successfully communicates his message in humorous way through the expensive train wreck and the bitter love story.[Need an essay writing service? Find help here}

I Am a Fugitive from a Chain Gang (1932)
This particular movie was released in 1932 with Paul Muni as the starring and Mervyn LeRoy being the director. The movie has received several award nominations and accolades since its release. In the year 1991 it I Am a Fugitive from a Chain Gang was selected for by the Library of Congress for preservation owing to its cultural, historical and aesthetic significance.

This film having been produced in the early 1930s had several impacts to the pre-war through post-war era 9 (an era that was adopting the use of motion pictures). Early in the 1930s chain gang imprisonment was characterized by brutal punishments, something that makes Allen unwilling to go to prison. The first time he is imprisoned to the southern chain gang, he manages to escape and runs away from the second imprisonment. The result of this incidences resulted into several chain gang prisoners being released in the first month of 1933. I Am a Fugitive from a Chain Gang also had some political impacts. Basing on the vicious and brutal attacks depicted of Harold Hardy, the legitimacy of the U.S. legal system was questionable. The result was the push for the release of some chain gang prisoners (Wallis, 1932).

The 400 Blows (1959)
The 400 Blows is a French drama film released in 1959 with Jean-Pierre, Claire Maurier and Albert Remy as the starring. The title of this movie is an English translation of the original French title “faire les quatre coups”. It has received several awards and many view it as being among the best movies of a lifetime. The 400 Blows was among the earliest works produced during the French New Wave era. [Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

The 400 Blows had several impacts on the French New Wave era in terms of social, political and aesthetic reflection. The 400 Blows is seen by many as one of the beautiful moves they have ever watched. This could be attributed to the smooth flow of events depicted by the movie and the great scenery behind the shooting. This movie also offers a clear picture on some of the injustices involved with treatment of juvenile offenders in France. For instance, when Antonio is handed over to the police by his stepfather, he spends the night in a cell full of thieves and prostitutes (Charlot, 1959). [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]


Charlot, G., & Truffaut, F. (Producers). Truffaut, F. (Director), & Moussy, M. (Writers). (1959). The 400 Blows [Video file].

Keaton, B., & Bruckman, C. (Directors), & Jennings, D., & Haines, B. (Writers). (1926). The general[Video file].

Wallis, H. B., & Okey, J. (Producers), LeRoy, M. (Director), & Green, H. J., Holmes, B., Polito, S., & Holmes, W. (Writers). (1932). I am a fugitive from a chain gang [Video file].


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The Transformation of the United States Postal Service

Since 1970, the United States Postal Service has been a different type of organization than any other in the United States. By removing the requirements of presidential appointment and Senatorial confirmation for postmasters and prohibiting politically-involved selection of postal employees, Richard Nixon’s administration created an entity that is not quite a corporation, but neither is it a government agency. Though the changes helped the Postal Service to retain its central role in American life at the time, USPS’s position has become less steady as technology has progressed. They have addressed this by making changes in their services and marketing, as well as offering collectible items to improve their financial situation.

The founding fathers originally established the Postal Office Department as a government department in 1792. Not only was the Postmaster General appointed by the president, he was in the line of succession for president. (Jensen, 2009). However, a postal worker strike in 1970 caused Richard Nixon’s administration to completely reorganize things, making the Postal Service a separate entity and no longer a government department. Nixon spoke to Congress in 1969, saying that he considered it “essential, as a first step, that the Congress remove the last vestiges of political patronage.” (Nixon, 1969) The strike led Nixon to enact the Postal Reorganization Act. This changed the organization of the Post Office Department and allowed employees of the newly-created USPS to form unions. [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

The reorganization changed the entire managerial make-up of the Postal Service. Rather than a Postmaster General appointed by the president, a Board of Governors was put in place. This board of nine was appointed by the president and they then had the task of electing the Postmaster General. No longer in line for the presidency, the Postmaster General works with the nine board members to elect a Deputy Postmaster General. The Deputy Postmaster General serves as the chief operating officer and works with the five members of the Postal Rate Commission to make financial decisions regarding USPS’s operations. (Jensen, 2009) In an article for The American Interest, George Jensen outlines the problems he sees with the current organization of the Postal Service. He argues that USPS essentially subsidizes junk mail by raising rates for private customers while keeping bulk rates for business to pennies. His belief is that USPS should look to foreign postal services for guidance on how to let go of their monopoly and become a private organization. Jensen argues that this can be done by transferring what is left of USPS’s pension fund liability over to a Federal pension program, therefore making the organization more appealing to financial investors. (Jensen, 2009).

Currently, USPS is required to put money aside for the future pensions of all employees. This causes much of the financial issues in the organization, creating a huge debt load that makes it nearly impossible to become financially solvent. Additionally, as personal computers and the internet began to change how we communicate and do business, USPS has struggled to remain relevant and useful. Despite the creation of express mail that features overnight delivery, the Postal Service is still in close competition with corporate organizations like Federal Express. At the present time, the Postal Service holds a monopoly on first-class mail delivery. However, according to Shafritz, this position is precarious:
And with perpetual fears of losing its monopoly and viability, the Postal Service is hustling to improve its core services, to create new products, such as the 2005 Muppet stamps and the 2006 “Forever” stamp that can be used to mail a standard first class letter anytime in the future. (Shafritz, 2013)

The popularity of stamps and stamp collecting has helped the USPS tremendously, but when they discovered the popularity of stamps featuring dead celebrities, they took advantage of it immediately. In 1992 the Postal Service introduced a commemorative stamp of Elvis Presley. Before the release, they asked the public to vote on the image used on the stamp. In Shafritz’s opinion, the creation of new products shows a positive use of entrepreneurial techniques from the corporate world. By using marketing that works and providing products the public is interested in, USPS attempts to retain its place in American commerce and communication. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

The future of the USPS will be influenced by several factors. Although they currently are the only organization authorized to deliver first-class mail, this could be changed at any time. Physical mail has been declining rapidly since 2006, down 20% by 2010. Since the changes made in 1970, the United States Postal Service has been a different type of organization than any other in the United States. By removing the requirements of presidential appointment and Senatorial confirmation for postmasters and prohibiting politically-involved selection of postal employees, Richard Nixon’s administration created an entity that is not quite a corporation, but neither is it a government agency. This makes the Postal Service’s position somewhat precarious, especially when their quite viable competitors are taken into consideration.

The Postal Service’s role in American life has become less steady as technology has progressed and they have tried to address these changes in their services and marketing. By offering commemorative stamps and other collectable items, the United States Postal Service is attempting to remain a viable and necessary part of American life. However, changing technology, the unique management structure of USPS and the unstable financial market in the United States make it clear that more changes will need to be made in order for the Postal Service to remain solvent and essential. [Click Essay Writer to order your essay]


Jenson, G. (2008). The Imminent Death of the U.S. Postal Service. The American Interest, 4(6).

Nixon, R. (1969). “Special Message to the Congress on Reform of the Postal Service.” The American Presidency Project.

Shafritz, J.M., & Russell, E.W., & Borick, C.P. (2013) Introducing Public Administration. New York: Pearson.


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Theory Critique of Neuman’s System Model
Betty Neuman’s theory views individuals as a system made up by physiological, psychological, sociocultural, spiritual, and developmental subparts (Cardinal Stritch University, 2017). To create these guidelines, the model defines the factors that influence people’s reactions to stressor stimuli, which include: body temperature, response patterns, physical healthy, mental health, and genetic makeup (ADU Online, 2017). The theory is based off the idea that a person can remain stable as long as the stressors they are exposed to do not exceed the resources they maintain to cope with them (ADU Online, 2017). Through utilizing the philosophical ideas of holism, wellness, motivation, perception, and partnerships (Campbell, Johanning, & Hill, 2015), Nursing Practitioners can apply the Neuman theory in order to ensure for efficient and effective operations both within clinical settings, as well as within the classroom.

Chinn and Kramer define the purpose of a theory to be its ability to define the actions of nursing practitioners in clinical, educational, and administrative settings (Chinn & Kramer, 1999). Within the theory proposed by Betty Neuman, the purpose is to create guidelines for Nursing Practitioners on how they should interact with people both within clinical settings, as well as educational and administration settings (Cardinal Stritch University, 2017).

Concepts, Definitions, and Structure
The key concepts of the Neuman System’s Model can be divided into four parts: human beings, environment, health, and nursing (Campbell, Johanning, & Hill, 2015). These four concepts can then be further divided into subparts defining different variables and use-cases. Within the concept of humans, these subparts include: the client system (open system of input and output), interacting variables (developmental, spiritual, psychological, physiological, and sociocultural), basic factors (normal temperature range, genetic structure, response pattern, organ strength, ego structure), lines of defense (flexibility, wellness, stability), and lines of resistance (protective mechanisms) (Campbell, Johanning, & Hill, 2015). Within the concept of environment, this includes the internal, external, and created environments, as well as environmental stressors (Campbell, Johanning, & Hill, 2015). Finally, within the concept of health, this includes the general wellness of the client, and finally within nursing this includes concepts of prevention as an intervention strategy (Campbell, Johanning, & Hill, 2015).
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The assumptions that this model makes includes the composition of clients, the existence of variable environmental stressors, the dynamic nature of client-wellness, and the existence of both lines of defense (responses to stressors) and lines of resistance (ability to remain stable when faced with stressors) (Current Nursing, 2012).

Critical Reflection
The nursing theory by Chinn and Kramer will be used to critique Neuman’s System Model. This theory will be used to critique the clarity, simplicity, generalizability, accessibility, and importance of Neuman’s System Model (Chinn & Kramer, 1999).[Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

1 – Clarity
Within the model, the scope and definitions are clear and well defined, through the compartmentalization of the separate concepts of the model. Through using the four nursing paradigms of human beings, environment, health, and nursing principles, it makes the general methods simple and straightforward, with easily identifiable definitions, and concise guidelines for client-interactions (Current Nursing, 2012).

2 – Simplicity 
The Neuman’s System Model divides the philosophy and strategies of the model into the four key paradigms of human beings, environment, health, and nursing principles (Current Nursing, 2012). From here, it logically interconnects the subparts to better understand how the different factors all result in different outcomes. Once these basic principles and factors are understood, it makes for an easily deployable model of client-interactions.

3 – Generalizability
The four paradigms of the system model allow it to be applied to several different circumstances, depending on the nature of the clients, and the stressors within the environment. This makes the theory broad and robust in scope, such that it can be applied in circumstances involving clinical environments, as well as in educational and administrative settings.

4 – Accessibility
Much research has been performed utilizing the theories of the Neuman’s System Model. These studies have allowed the proposed model to become qualitatively and quantitatively validated in a number of research settings, including nursing education, practice, administration, and other interdisciplinary functions (Neuman, 1996). [Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

5 – Importance 
The importance of the Neuman’s System Model is within the robustness of its application. It allows for efficient and effective client-interactions in nearly all possible settings, such that it can be used on a day-to-day basis by a large number of individuals within clinical fields.

Through the clear and concise compartmentalization of Neuman’s System Model, Betty Neuman has created a robust and flexible series of theories that is comprehensive for many scenarios within nursing practice (Current Nursing, 2012). By focusing on the responses of clients to their environments, and understanding and predicting environmental stressors, nurses can utilize strategies of prevention intervention to ensure for ideal client system-wellness.


ADU Online. (2017). What is the Neuman Systems Model?

Campbell, R., Johanning, R., & Hill, T. (2015). Neuman Systems Model.

Cardinal Stritch University. (2017). Betty Neuman – Systems Model.

Chinn, P., & Kramer, M. (1999). Theory and nursing. St. Louis: Mosby.

Current Nursing. (2012, January 28). Betty Neuman’s System Model.

Neuman, B. (1996, April 1). The Neuman Systems Model in Research and Practice.


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On January 22, I decided to visit Saint Mark’s Catholic Church located in Shoreline, Washington. The initial reason that I decided to visit this church was that my brother already worships here, so I attended the second service of the day. I was immediately welcomed inside the church’s foyer, which took the shape of a large dome. Christian icons were painted along the walls of the church.

I began to notice several things that filled me with a sense of respect and reverence for the church as I continued deeper inside. For example, the vast majority of people were dressed in their best clothes, and they took the time to go immediately to the prominent statue of Jesus to bow and kiss it. Before long, there was a massive crowd, much larger than I believed would be in attendance. Next, the choir began to sing and the entire congregation was on its feet, watching as the priest came into view with his green vestment. [Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

The actual church service started with the priest reading selected verses of the Bible, one from the Old Testament and one from the New Testament. These readings were followed by the priest interpreting the scripture, a process called exegesis, and then relating the issues from the text to our lives today. The simplest interpretation of the message of the day was for Christians to truly focus on the things in life that matter the most instead of extraneous details.

The preaching aspect of the church visit was very exciting because the priest spoke with such passion about the topic of what matters that I could tell that his enthusiasm was genuine. The message of “Lord help me to know who I am, Show me whom I am to be” was positively etched in my mind for the days that followed the service as a result of the highly energetic priest. After the preaching was finished, it was time for the priest to take part in the invocation, where the elemental transformation would occur. While he was preparing the elements for consumption, we took part in confession and began to fall in line to receive the body and blood of Christ. This is a part of the Catholic Church service that is often seen as unusual, where the parishioner eats bread soaked in wine that symbolizes the individual taking Christ within them. This was performed near the church sanctuary, and the earlier feelings of holiness and reverence had a sense of duty added to them at this portion of the service. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

Overall, I felt as though the trip to Saint Mark’s Catholic Church did a great deal to remind me of the time when I was a very devoted teenager. I found that the procession and choir were simply beautiful elements of the service. The charismatic and attentive priest helped to attract a diverse group of people for the services, making everyone feel welcome within the building. In fact, the priest was the most unique element of the entire service because he focused on applications to the modern day in an educational manner rather than the accusative one that many priests tend to take. The fact that he produced his prayers from the lectionary means that he had chosen this Sunday to deliver that particular message. This helped make the sermon and prayers seem even more purposeful and impactful.  I felt as though I had not been away from church services for very long during this visit, although that is not the true reality of my situation. Still, I could not help but feel that other denominations of Christianity could benefit from the time and care that is put into every service instead of merely rushing through prayers and sermons as though they were not important. That being said, it was good to be back in church, even for a single sermon.[“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]


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The Egyptian false door remains one of the oldest artifacts in the Minneapolis Institute of Art Museum because it dates back to over 4,000 years ago (Prisse & Kaper, 2000). False doors were common in Egypt’s ancient tombs, and they were positioned on the west wall. The Egyptian false door came from a cemetery area locate west of the vast pyramid of Giza. More specifically, the Egyptian Iry-En-Akhet false door acted as an interface between the deceased and the living and a focal point for visitors at the time to deposit offerings and gifts and say prayers for the dead (Prisse & Kaper, 2000). In the Egyptian culture, ka, the spirit of the deceased would pass through the false door to collect and partake in the offerings that the priests left behind. Inscriptions on the false honor a priest Iry-En-Akhet who appears on the door seven times. The central niche of the door is framed by two doorjambs, and it has a lintel whose composition is ruled by symmetry.  [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

The Iry-En-Akhet false door is written in an early form of hieroglyphs, a kind of writing that usually begins from right to left and the hieroglyphics face towards the right. However, the hieroglyphics and figures on the right jamb face towards the left direction and the niche.[Click Essay Writer to order your essay]The false door was carved out of limestone, and it is relatively small given that its dimensions are 154.9 by 115.8 by 11.4 centimeters (Prisse & Kaper, 2000). The side panels are covered in inscriptions that outline the names titles of the deceased as well as a set of standardized offering. These texts describe the virtues of the dead, and they express good wishes for the afterlife. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]


Prisse, A., & Kaper, O. E. (2000). Atlas of Egyptian Art. Cairo, Egypt: American University in Cairo Press.