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If an individual has been known and acknowledges that they have committed a crime, but they were mentally unwell at the time of the incident, they can plea insanity. In this case, an individual must argue that due to mental illness, they were unable to control their actions and at the time, did not understand that they were committing an illegal action (Francone, 2016). In order to make an insanity plea, individuals must prove that they are competent to stand trial (Francone, 2016). That is, that they are legally competent to communicate with attorneys and other court personnel throughout the proceedings, and that they understand why they are currently standing trial (Francone, 2016). To plea insanity within a trial, the individual must be able to prove their mental impairment, which can be done in a variety of ways. Within this paper, I will discuss the ways that individuals can and cannot prove insanity, what the punishment of an individual should be if insanity is proven, and the costs of the plea for both the courts, as well as the defendant. To examine the insanity plea, I will research M’Naghten’s case, the Durham Test, American Law Institute Test, and other references from the APUS Library. This paper will argue whether the insanity defense is a valid in criminal cases, what kind of assessment or test could be used to prove if a person is criminally insane, and how we can deem these tests valid. It will contribute to our understanding of criminal law by allowing us to explore the complexities of how and why individuals plea insanity, how we can know if their pleas are true, and how we can determine new measures for dealing with criminally insane individuals.[“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

For the legal system to balance the fairness of mental illness with the punishments of certain crimes, they must ensure that those who have committed dangerous crimes are kept under careful watch, whether they be simply monitored or committed to a facility. Within the Canadian Legal System, there is a basic principle stating that for an individual to be convicted of a crime “the state must prove not only a wrongful act, but also a guilty mind” (Pilon, 2002). Further, they state that if a person is mentally unwell, and they were unable to understand their actions at the time they took place, then they cannot be held criminally liable (Pilon, 2002). While there have been many ways to handle criminally ill individuals over the years, what a prosecutor can do in Canada is limited by the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. This Charter indicates that individuals found to be criminally insane cannot simply be locked up, as it violates their rights to a fair trial (Pilon, 2002). Further, as per Bill-C30 of the criminal code, if a person is found to be criminally insane, then the courts have two choices: they could decide on the defendant’s punishment themselves, or they could refer the defendant to a review board (Pilon, 2002). Once the defendant has been detained in a facility by the courts, they are held for a statutory amount of time. However, once this time ends the courts have the option of re-committing them to a care facility if they are still deemed to be dangerous to the public or themselves (Pilon, 2002). This detainment is involuntary, and the courts have the option to hold the offenders for up to lifetime sentences, if required (Pilon, 2002). Like the rehabilitation facilities in prisons, when mentally ill individuals make a successful insanity plea and are sent to a care facility to be detained, they must receive regular mental health treatments. This is in hope that the treatments will prevent further deterioration of their cognitive states, and that they will help to rehabilitate them towards re-integrating into society (Pilon, 2002). The difficult part for courts and judges when deciding upon the sentence for a mentally ill individual is that if they did not realize their crime, then it seems unjust to send them to prison. However, if they committed a serious criminal offense, such as murder, then it would be unsafe to let them loose in the public, even if the offense was unrealized. In these cases, the courts must decide whether the individual should simply receive mental health care from home, or whether they should be sent to a facility for the criminally insane (Cornell Law, 2008). In addition to this, courts may send defendants to short-term rehabilitation facilities in lieu of a sentence. If an individual has not received care for their mental illness in the past, then sometimes a short-term care facility can help introduce them to coping mechanisms and medications to aid them in functioning normally throughout their everyday lives (Cornell Law, 2008). With this in mind, it is important that courts understand the extent of the defendant’s mental illness, what aid they have received in the past, and whether their condition could be approved before deciding upon a sentence. Through this, the courts can ensure that mentally ill individuals are most efficiently and effectively dealt with and rehabilitated following a criminal offense, preventing future offenses and creating safer communities.

Criminal courts must be able to distinguish the extent of the cognitive state of those accused before they can effectively sentence them. Within criminal trials, pleas of insanity can sometimes be used as a last-ditch effort in order to avoid lengthy prison sentences. Because of this, it is important that the courts develop an efficient way to determine whether or not a plea of insanity is based on truth or falsehood. The first insanity pleas can be dated back to 1843 in the M’Naghten case, when a mentally ill individual (Daniel M’Naghten), murdered the assistant to the Prime Minister of England (Collins, Hinkebein, & Schorgl, 2015). Throughout the trial, the defense called upon physicians to prove his insanity, while the prosecution attempted to prove the opposite. When the judge declared in the defense’s favor, the Queen of England responded by hiring fifteen judges to analyze M’Naghten’s case and come up with a test for insanity for future trials (Collins, Hinkebein, & Schorgl, 2015). This test involved asking the jury two questions: “did the defendant know what he was doing when he committed the crime?”, and “did the defendant understand that his actions were wrong?” (Collins, Hinkebein, & Schorgl, 2015). This meant that the prosecutor had to prove to the jury that the defendant understood his crime and the consequences, while the defense had to prove that he did not. This test was used within criminal trials in the United States from M’Naghten’s ruling up until 1962, where the states began to switch to a Model Penal Code (Collins, Hinkebein, & Schorgl, 2015). In addition to this rule, many of the states also adopted the “Irresistible Impulse” test as an alternative or supplement to the M’Naghten rule in the early 20th century. This test asked whether the defendant was able to prevent themselves from committed the crime they were on trial for; some mental illnesses prevent individuals from resisting their impulses (Collins, Hinkebein, & Schorgl, 2015). While the M’Naghten and Irresistible Impulse rules were a good step in the right direction in terms of mental health, they were not sufficient to keep up with modern psychological principles moving into the mid-20th century. [Click Essay Writer to order your essay]With the onset of new psychological research following World War II, the Durham Test was developed in 1954, following the case of Durham v. United States (Collins, Hinkebein, & Schorgl, 2015). In contrast to the M’Naghten rule, this test required the jury be asked two different questions: “did the defendant have a mental disease or defect?”, and “if so, was the disease or defect the reason for the unlawful act” (Collins, Hinkebein, & Schorgl, 2015). If the answer to both questions was “yes”, then the individual could be granted a plea of insanity. While this test improved upon the original ones, it did not hold up well in the country, and by 1972, the American Law Institute Test was adopted. The American Law Institute drafted their Model Penal Code in 1962 to improve upon all the earlier tests and rules that had been developed (Collins, Hinkebein, & Schorgl, 2015). The result was a sort of combination of the M’Naghten rule and Irresistible Impulse tests, which made it so a defendant could be declared insane if they simply did not have the cognitive capacity to distinguish between right and wrong, and included a section to account for a defendant’s inability to control their actions, impulses, or conduct (Collins, Hinkebein, & Schorgl, 2015). The evolution of these tests and rules have greatly expanded the knowledgebase of insanity within courtrooms. In addition to this, the publicity these tests have received has allowed for courts to invest more time and resources into better researching mental illness and how they can be effectively dealt with and treated. Through continued research and implementation of these tests, judges and courts can have a better idea of whether an individual is able to plea for insanity or not, which can enhance both the efficiency of the trial, as well as the fairness of the outcomes.

While there has been much research and evolution in the tests for insanity, more investigation is required before an insanity plea can become more clear-cut in the courtroom. In order for the investigation of insanity pleas to become more straight-forward in criminal cases, more individuals should be trained as specialists to assist in these trials. If professionals are able to come into the trials as experts, then they can assist courtrooms in providing more efficient trials in cases of pleas of insanity. In addition to this, they can be hired to train correctional officers in how to rehabilitate mentally ill individuals, as well as helping to create prison mental health services, for cases where mental illness is mild or unclear (Math, Kumas, & Moirangthem, 2015). It is common for expert witnesses to come into the courtroom to plead for a defendant in cases of insanity. However, if an insanity plea is made, then the court should call in an expert forensic psychologist to oversee and give unbiased advice throughout the entire trial, rather than just as a witness (Math, Kumas, & Moirangthem, 2015). These professionals could give recommendations, analyze evidence and behaviors within and outside of the courtroom, and provide the most efficient method for determining mental illness. The current tests for insanity are sufficient for small-scale trials and less serious crimes, however larger criminal offenses should be dealt with on a case-by-case basis with the help of experts. Further, if these professionals kept data on the trials and used them as research, then they could additionally compile data and analyze it to have a better understanding of why people plea for insanity, how often the plea is true, and how they can know if the defendant is lying about their condition. Through these methods, the current tests for insanity could be tested for validity and improved, leading to mental illness and insanity pleas being handled in the court room with faster and more accurate results, leading to a more efficient environment. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

Throughout this paper, the validity of the insanity test was explored, in addition to the current and past assessments available, and the methods used to determine the legitimacy of these tests. It was found that if the pleas for insanity are valid, then the courts must decide how to sentence the individuals, based upon the extent of their mental illness. This means that the courts must find a way to balance the fairness of a proper punishment with the proper rehabilitation for the individual’s illness, in order to prevent their cognitive state from degrading and possibly improve their state in the future. In addition to this, the evolution of the tests for insanity were examined, and it was determined that while the tests are extensive, they still require further research before they can be more usefully utilized within courtrooms. To accomplish this, the idea of training professional forensic psychologists or psychiatrists specifically for the task of assisting in these trials was explored. This would aid in compiling a database of the results of insanity pleas, to help researchers create longitudinal and repeatability studies to understand how they are made, how often they are valid, and how they are dealt with. Through this, the researchers will be able to create better tests for insanity, improving the outcomes of future trials.


Collins, K., Hinkebein, G., & Schorgl, S. (2015). EVOLUTION OF THE INSANITY PLEA. Retrieved from UMKC:

Cornell Law. (2008). The ‘insanity defense’ and diminished capacity .

Francone, E. (2016, July). Insanity defense. Retrieved from Cornell Univeristy Law School:

Math, S. B., Kumas, C. N., & Moirangthem, S. (2015, October). Insanity Defense: Past, Present, and Future. Retrieved from NCBI:

Pilon, M. (2002, January 22). MENTAL DISORDER AND CANADIAN CRIMINAL LAW. Retrieved from Law and Government Division:


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Why Anthropologists Argue That Fast Food Is Bad for Us?
Food is the body’s fuel, and depending on what one eats, their mood and health will be affected. In the earlier days, people cooked meals in their homes, but things have since changed. Nowadays there are hotels and restaurants all over and depending on one’s schedule and finances, they can easily get a place to eat. Eating out was reserved for occasions, but today one does not have to be celebrating anything to eat out. Fast food joints are very popular such that there are people who hardly cook or get home made food.  Technology has even made things easier for people and boosted this industry. Through an application on one’s mobile device, one can order a meal from their favorite joint. For one to have lunch or dinner they can easily have their order delivered to them wherever they are and at the exact time that they need it. While this may seem to make things, easier and save time, anthropologists argue that this is a dangerous habit.  This paper seeks to expound on the reasons people should avoid eating fast foods for the sake of their health as well as to combat climate change.

There are complaints about people having less time to cook which has been brought about by various factors including over employment, affluence, and technology. The chefs who cooked in people’s homes now cook in restaurants. The growth of the food business has grown immensely due to a large number of people who prefer fast foods as opposed to cooking from home. However, people are gaining on one end and losing on the other. It is important to take time and rethink this decision and even go back to the traditional ways for various reasons.  There are many lifestyle diseases, and the first thing that is pointed at in this issue is the kind of lifestyle that most people lead these days. Obesity is more common today than it was there before. Looking around at the causes of all these problems, the genesis goes back to what one eats.[“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

In most instances, junk is appetizing, and it is very easy to get the pie as opposed to eating vegetables. The current generation has the biggest number of obese children. This has great repercussions when it comes to life span and immunity. The World Food Organization has cited advertisements as one catalyst to this problem. In order to market their businesses through advertisements; you have to make the content appealing especially to children. Promotions on junk foods are everywhere, and children are vulnerable and in most cases, they will not think about the dangers of what they eat so long as it is sweet to their mouths. From the cartoons that children watch every day, the characters overeat, but remain ridiculously slim (Spenser & Cohen, 2015). This means that more children are eating the wrong food and this increases the obesity levels in the American children.

Through the use of technology, fast food restaurants advertise their business to many people both adults and children. Today, almost every person has access to a mobile phone or computer including children. In addition to this, as reported by Gallagher (2016), these joints are also becoming a favorite place for children as they get offers to play their favorite reality games. Parents do not realize the danger that this exposes their children to as they think that taking them to such places is part of making them have a good time. Children need to be exposed to better content that encourages healthy eating as opposed to eating junk food that greatly contributes to the rising levels of obesity in American children (Elliot, 2015).
This year the theme of the World Food Day is climate change (Shapiro, 2016). In line with this, the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization encourages people to eat more plant-based meals. This move is meant to discourage people from eating meat and meat products. The food offered in fast food joints is mainly meat and its products and before one makes a choice to buy a vegetarian meal, they often usually have gone for the meat products. However, a vegetarian meal saves money and at the same time prolongs life.

In addition, choosing foods from the lower food chain is a way of protecting animals from the extreme suffering that they go through. Animals are usually kept in very poor conditions when they are being led to the slaughter. The space in which these animals are kept is usually small and the measures taken to keep them in order are extreme. For example, most of the slaughter houses keep the chicken in very small spaces and in order to prevent them from attacking one another, their beaks are cut off. Living in such conditions may lead to diseases and to prevent this from happening, they are pumped with antibiotics. The next time one gets served with food in a fast food joint, it is important to remember that the antibiotics end up in the food that one is served. With this information, it would be better to avoid eating in fast foods and even better to become a vegetarian.[Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

Over the course of the last century, Americans have gained a lot of weight. There is a relationship between this and the rise of fast food establishments that offer junk food. In addition, these joints have made protein cheap for consumers, which make it a good choice for people at all levels of income (Buchholz, 2003). There have been a number of class law suits by obese customers who claim that the fast food joints offered them food high in cholesterol, salt, sugar, and fat.

Most people are aware of the dangers they expose themselves to when taking sugary foods and foods with high levels cholesterol and a lot of fat. However, there is less awareness on the effects that too much salt has on the body and if it is there, the tendency is to ignore it. It is recommended that the daily salt intake should be 2,300 milligrams but the average American gets at least 3,400 milligrams. Salt is known to cause heart disease, kidney disease and stroke. The food offered in fast foods establishments contains too much salt and the sodium content in these foods is very high. The relation between salt and diseases in the human body is that it raises the levels of blood pressure in the body. The deaths attributed to high salt intake yearly are 2.3 million. This is something that can be managed if people reduced the number of times that they ate junk food.

Another concern on food provided in fast foods is safety. Most of the employees working in the fast food establishments lack training in food safety. It is not guaranteed that the person who prepared your hamburger washed their hands, which is an important step in food preparation. When one eats from home, food poisoning is highly unlikely as food is handled in the best possible manner. The quality of food offered in fast food joints is also wanting. While the food may be yummy, the ingredients used to make this food, in this case, are cheap and of poor quality.

If one is to measure the number of calories in a fast food meal, on average it would be 1,000 calories. According to the American Diabetes Association, this can raise the blood sugar to extreme levels. The increase in insulin resistance which is often found in people who frequently eat fast food is associated with type 2 diabetes. This kind of diabetes exposes one to many risks, including nerve damage, skin and eye problems, high blood pressure, stroke and kidney disease. The risk of getting these diseases can be eliminated by a change of habit and eating more home-cooked food as opposed to ordering food from a fast food establishment.

Going by the name fast food, there is what comes to one’s mind. What is important to the establishment is getting the meal ready because the customer needs it. The mode of preparation, in this case, is a health hazard. You will often find that not even a stove is used to prepare the food, but that food comes from a frozen container and is thrown into a dirty microwave. This practice saves the establishment time and money, but puts the health of consumers in jeopardy.

There is the argument that fast foods have improved and that their menu contains healthier choices and it is upon the customer to take what he wishes to take. This argument is meant to shift attention from the fast food joints. However, the trend shows that even when people have the choice to eat a healthier meal, they still go for the junk food (Elliot, 2015). There are various reasons people make this dangerous choice. These healthier options are costly and there is still a variety in the menu which contains sugar, calories and a lot of fat which are cheaper and more tantalizing. Eating these foods leads to chronic medical conditions as well as weight gain.[Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization encourages people to eat foods in the lower food chain in order to combat climate change. The risk of getting chronic diseases and being overweight is also another reason to avoid fast foods.  The fast foods have put out arguments, shifting blame from them to the people saying that their menu has all kinds of foods and it is upon the customer to buy what he wants. While this is true, there is no incentive to make the customer take the healthier options when the everyday offers are for the junk foods.  Anthropologists advise people to choose healthier options while at the drive-thru windows, but even better to avoid the fast food.

Buchholz, T. (2003) Are Fast-Food Establishments Making Americans Fat?. Journal of                Controversial Medical Claims, 10(4), 1-10.

Spencer, B., Cohen, T. (2015, October 6). Children’s shows on join war on junk food BBC must says Hunt. Daily Mail. p. 10.

Elliott, C. (2015). ‘Big Food’ and ‘gamified’ products: promotion, packaging, and the promise of            fun. Critical Public Health25(3), 348-360.

Gallagher, J. (2016, November 4). Stop junk food ads on kids’ apps – WHO.

Shapiro, P. (2016, October 12). Celebrating World Food Day.


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Bank Culture in Australia and Abroad

The banking sector has always been considered as the most vital industry for any economy to function adequately. As a key sector in economic growth, the banking industry suffice as the fulcrum on which an economy hinges its monetary activities through the collection of deposits and provision of credits to the state, businesses, individuals, and households.[1] Across economic systems, banks play a pivotal role in planning as well as in the implementation of financial policy to enhance monetary flow.[2] Thus, banks are vital economic building blocks to investors and as a system, banks acts as the control apparatus for building business networks while enhancing capital flows. Capital management enhances the capacity of banks to financially flourish, thus raises the shareholder stock value, which reflects on the overall market economy. The banking industry in Australia is a major economic actor, which reaps heavily on assets investments such as securities and loans.

Over the years, the Australian banking industry has remained vibrant and showed resilience even when other foreign banks and financial institutions across the world stumbled. However, in spite of this steady growth, the sector continues to experience low interest rates and unswerving cash rate declines, which have driven revenue down since November 2011.[3]Consequently, the Australian banking sector has been experiencing massive rate declines that need to be addressed before it is too late. Specifically, a call to restructure the culture of the leading banks in Australia is timely and urgent. Culture is an important driver of how the financial industry conducts itself and without quick action the integrity of this important pillar in Australian society could fall into ruins. If the culture is adverse, it will lead to the ordinary citizens of Australia losing their money due to the degradation to the economy. Coincidentally, the behavior of the employees in the financial industry is deplorable when compared to the standards of other nations, such as the UK. Judging by the recent scandals reported in Australia, quick action needs to be made to provide the types of standards that will help provide integrity to the financial system. [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

This was not the case a few decades ago; four decades earlier, the Australian banks were discreet, careful and mainly fastidious. The banks were mostly decentralized with the local managers wielding power. As a result, the clients trusted their banks and consulted their branches on a wide variety of areas concerning their investment plans. Unlike previously, today the banking system in Australia is lax with little regard to investor interests, thus leading to many clients withdrawing from the services rendered by the banks.[4] This scenario portends a worrying trend for both the current and prospective businesses and individuals seeking to invest in the Australian market.

Effects of a Skewed Culture in the Australian Banking Industry 
Due to a robust reporting mechanism put in place for the banks, other financial institutions, and the particular legislations under which analysts collect financial data, (ranging from the 1959 Banking Act to the 2001 Financial Sector Act), the Australian Banking Statistics is massive.[5] However, owing to a skewed banking culture, the regulatory and market pressures continue to point towards a scenario where all the Australian banks seem to be holding more capital, with systematic risks including concerns pertaining to an inclination towards the digital market. In projecting the course for the future, the Australian banks would have to think critically about the culture of their systems to assist them in generating capital growth to realize their set returns on equity targets. Due to the laxity in the entire business model informed by a weak corporate culture, the majority of the Australian banks missed earnings in the last financial year leading to a record-poor performance in the banking industry. Again for a record, profits for the banks clocked in at $4 billion, against the earlier projected figure $4.025 billion.[6]Arguably, this downturn affected shares as corporate debt on loans spurred. National Australia Bank Commonwealth Bank of Australia, Australia & New Zealand Group, and Westpac Banking Corporation have experienced massive debt charges of in billions between 2014 and 2016.[Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

Even though the Australian banks have fared poorly due to the industry’s wanting corporate culture, still, risks could be managed in various areas. With the investors shying away from the banks, one of the major risks is the likelihood of generating large losses on loaning extended to residential property developers as well as on the weakening commercial property portfolios. Furthermore, the resource-related exposures of the Australian banks have shown poor fiscal graphs, however, these only exemplify a trivial share of the bank’s’ total exposures. Additionally, the concerns around culture equally pose a risk to the Australian banking industry generally, in the contest of international exposures which yield vulnerability in the global context. Consequently, through the fiscal years 2017-2020, economic futurists project that industry revenue would drop at an annualized rate of 1.3% in the coming five years to $159.5 billion.[7] Besides, despite the numerous cash rate cuts over the past two financial years, major Australian banks have their interest rates augmented on several mortgage and business lending ventures due to larger capital adequacy requirements. In essence, the higher requirements put forth by the banks are aimed at supporting a 0.3 percent rise in the banking industry revenue within the current fiscal year, even though further the sector anticipates cuts in cash rate.

ASIC’s Focus on Culture
Australian Securities and Investments Commission is an autonomous Australian government authority that functions as the country’s corporate regulator. ASIC is mandated to enforce and standardize corporate and financial laws to guarantee protection to the Australian investors, consumers, and creditors.[8] Established in 1998 following the Wallis Inquiry recommendations, ASIC’s influence, scope, and jurisdiction falls under an act of parliament. With the Australian banking system facing a series of threats, the country’s corporate regulator ASIC seeks to launch an onslaught on the Australia’s banking culture.[9] ASIC claims that the country’s banking culture continues to encourage misconduct including the “fleecing” of consumers. Notably, the intervention by ASIC to streamline the banking system follows a series of scandals, which has made the industry to lose colossal cash of unimaginable worth. New research shows that the banking sector suffers a poor risk culture in its financial institutions, thus allowing misconduct and deceitful tendencies to thrive and flourish in the system.[10]ASIC’s input in this scenario is overriding given that the country’s banking sector did not undergo a rigorous scrutiny as was the case with other sectors following the 2008 financial crash. This was mainly due to the fact that Australia never experienced the recession. However, in the new wake of cultural meltdown, concerns continue to arise as scandal endlessly pop across the nation’s financial institutions.
Currently, ASIC is investigating a widespread manipulation of Australia’s interbank borrowing rates, which has greatly made investors to lose massively. Mainly employee souring misconduct is alarming with entirely everyone employed by the banks involved in clandestine activities. So far the regulatory authority considers settlement for “prospective misconduct” from the financial institutions that have made positive crackdowns in their ranks.[11] Other financial institutions such as the ANZ Bank have been stopped from operating in the market while the investigations are underway. According to Mr. Medcraft, the regulatory authority’s chairman, ASIC seeks to intensify its pursuit of the banking institutions through criminal sanctions to bring individuals to book when they breach the laws. At the top of its priority listing, ASIC considers an overhaul of the banking sector’s culture to ensure that individuals and not companies under whom they work are to blame.[12] Furthermore, the regulatory authority also seeks the prerogatives to levy even tougher legal sanctions in cases involving fraud and misconduct.[Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

Despite a weakening corporate culture in the Australian banking industry, the country’s financial system remains in perfect condition overall. Coincidentally, the profitability of the banks is at a great level while the performance of the industry’s assets continues to improve steadily. While the industry experiences negative effects from a wanting culture across banks, the robustness in the country’s financial system is driven by the financial institution’s business loan portfolio. The collapse of ethics in the Australian banking sector emanates from a broad collection of issues, which continue to trivialize the industry. For a record, the Australian banking sector has lately experienced an acute weakening in its corporate culture. While the employees of Australian banks are bountiful and are graduates of commerce and finance, the employers have not done much to impart the necessary professional codes of ethics to guarantee effective service delivery. This has changed the culture of banks from being old bankers who viewed the people as being at the core of business. Today, quantitatively educated bankers view society as an occasion to make earnings for themselves and the banks for which they work. Moreover, there is a change in how bankers are remunerated. In the past, remuneration was through salary, but today remuneration is mainly done through yearly bonuses and commissions. Therefore, banks in Australia have shifted from being in an industry that was conceived to help people make and save money into being an industry that took advantage of people. This changed the banks from being a service industry to being a profit-only conscious industry whose primary aim is to make limitless profits. Banks have changed from being a supplier of capital that industries needed for production to being pursuers of profit resulting from an undesirable culture among its employees whose goal is commissions and bonuses. Cultural change is therefore needed in all Australian banks. At the top ASIC’s key priorities stands the need and urgency to promote investor confidence and financial consumer trust. For any financial institution to function optimally, trust and confidence are critical for growth and competitiveness. Poor corporate culture has the capacity to undermine both trust and confidence, thus driving away investors. By contrast, shrewd corporate culture that advocates a more conducive business environment and shapes good conduct within the system, helps in maintain investor confidence and trust. ASIC’s new momentum is to integrate cultural welfares into its risk-centered surveillance to better comprehend how market friendly cultures can drive industries into greatness. Over time, ASIC has achieved greatly by incorporating numerous specific features of culture within its surveillances, through breach reporting, remuneration, and complaints control. Currently the regulatory is undertaking appraisal of approaches through which it would conduct risk assessments, inject sound remuneration strategies into the system, enhance the management of confidential data, and address conflicts of interest within the industry. More profoundly, ASIC aims at establishing a thorough risk management and supervisory frameworks to guarantee investor confidence through refined corporate culture. ASIC maintains that it would consider the nature of conflicts of interest in the banking industry, how they are managed within and across systems to generate financial advice, conduct research, and to establish corporate advisory to enhance corporate aptitude.

Australian Securities & Investments Commission, ‘ASIC’s focus on culture – digging into the detail.

Australian Securities & Investments Commission, Why culture matters.
Colvin, John and James Argent, ‘Corporate and Personal Liability for Culture in Corporations?’ (2016) 30 Company and Securities Law Journal. 30.

David Wishart, Marilyn McMahon, and Ann Wardrop, ‘Regulating Financial Institution Culture: Reforming the Regulatory Toolkit’ (2016) 27 Journal of Banking and Finance Law and Practice171.

Eilís Ferran, Niamh Moloney, Jennifer Hill, and John Coffee. International Corporate Law and Financial

Market Regulation. England, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2012.

Greg Medcraft, ‘Why Culture Matters’ (Speech delivered at the BNP Paribas Conduct Month Sydney, Australia, 24 May 2016) .

Jamie Smyth, Australia launches crackdown on ‘fleecing’ bank culture. Financial Times. 2015.

PricewaterhouseCoopers, ‘Major Banks Analysis May 2016.’

Rajaretnam, Thilla and Angus Young, ‘In the Best Interest of Clients? A Reappraisal of the Recent Reforms in the Regulation of Financial Advisers in Australia’ (2015) 26 International Company and Commercial Law Review, 39

Street Authority, ‘Is Australia’s Banking Industry Going Under?”

[1]. Eilís Ferran, Niamh Moloney, Jennifer Hill, and John Coffee. International Corporate Law and Financial Market Regulation. England, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2012.
[2]. Thilla Rajaretnam and Angus Young, ‘In the Best Interest of Clients? A Reappraisal of the Recent Reforms in the Regulation of Financial Advisers in Australia’ (2015) 26 International Company and Commercial Law Review, 39.
[3]. John Colvin, and James Argent, ‘Corporate and Personal Liability for Culture in Corporations?’ (2016) 30 Company and Securities Law Journal, 30.
[4]. PricewaterhouseCoopers, ‘Major Banks Analysis May 2016.’
[6]. PricewaterhouseCoopers, ‘Major Banks Analysis May 2016.’
[7]. PricewaterhouseCoopers, ‘Major Banks Analysis May 2016.’
[8]. Greg Medcraft, ‘Why Culture Matters’ (Speech delivered at the BNP Paribas Conduct Month Sydney, Australia, 24 May 2016)
[9]. Australian Securities & Investments Commission, Why culture matters.
[10] . Jamie Smyth, Australia launches crackdown on ‘fleecing’ bank culture, Financial Times. 2015
[11]. David Wishart, Marilyn McMahon, and Ann Wardrop, ‘Regulating Financial Institution Culture: Reforming the Regulatory Toolkit’ (2016) 27 Journal of Banking and Finance Law and Practice 171.
[12]. Australian Securities & Investments Commission, ‘ASIC’s focus on culture – digging into the detail.


International Procurement Outsourcing Mode

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Purchasing and supply can be considered as a service activity, whereby the interactions involved in the procurement process act as the services where the roles of purchase and supply cooperate for the final result. A recent procurement experience I had necessitated the consideration of various aspects bordering on the identification of influences on buying choices and the concepts of acquisition costs. As a concept, the process of weighing these elements within the experience involved the recognition of need, classification of the necessity of purchase, and the eventual procedure in purchasing. The value I obtained from completing this process was tied to the fundamental obligation that resulted in initiating the process, but only after the interaction with market conditions, price considerations, make or buy comparisons, and the strategic purchase I eventually executed.

My purchase cycle was defined within the scope of my need for required syllabus materials. The need was initially driven by requirements of the course, which defined the aspects as a requirement of completing the course – such materials were necessary. Within this setting, the purchase cycle concept applies to the comparison of the need expressed versus the environmental context where the purchase is to be made (Baily, Farmer, Crocker, Jessop & Jones, 2015). In this regard, the activity of purchasing developed from the independent function of the activities involved in the usage of the items. Thus, for the procurement process to fully satisfy the need expressed by the scope, there was a need for the purchase to be defined as an integrated need. As such, my interests in purchasing were fashioned towards satisfying requirements and completing the curriculum. These influences, therefore, triggered the establishment of the interest in making a purchase. [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

Purchasing and supply, in this scenario, were interacting in the exchange of a product value to serve a specified need. In this way, the value of the learning materials exchanged within the procurement process resulted in a service activity to the ultimate consumer (Hesping & Schiele, 2015). Similarly, as a function of the purchase, I was able to cover the total acquisition cost (as the total expense of buying and obtaining these books). The role of procurement and supply, in this setting, was therefore captured as a service to me (the procurer) which was independent of the integrated transactions in the entire purchase and delivery option (Baily, et al., 2015). Inasmuch as my experience captures mutual benefits (for the supplier and me) due to the transactions involved, the value gained were still similar to strategic purchasing.

The ideology is captured in the aspect that as the procurer, I was able to gain more value for the materials as compared to their initial valuation by the supplier. By purchasing these items in optimal time (while prices were low due to demand and while the textbook would offer maximum value to my course), I was able to strategically procure these textbooks. The models I encountered in this approach to purchasing included timely consideration of procurement costs, purchase at optimal product value, and lowest price index (Hesping & Schiele, 2015). In the overall experience of obtaining course materials, I was able to interact with a number of influences (both consciously and subconsciously). [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

As such, it became possible for the procurement process to use integrated functions in the interacting between the procurer and the supplier, and in this way, shift from being an independent function. Similarly, my experience was captured as a development of my understanding of the dynamics involved in decision-making, procurement on a small scale, and the applicability of theoretical concepts on a practical level. Each of the interactions included in my scenario can thus be defined within the concepts involved in the procurement experience.[Click Essay Writer to order your essay]


Baily, P., Farmer, D., Crocker, B., Jessop, D., & Jones, D. (2015). Procurement, principles & management (11th ed.). London, England: Pearson Education Limited.

Hesping, F. H., & Schiele, H. (2015). Purchasing strategy development: A multi-level review. Journal of Purchasing and Supply Management21(2), 138-150.


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Assault Harassment in the U.S Military

Sexual assault and harassment is a big problem that has been going on in the military of The United States despite the fact that there have been many initiatives outlined to end the vice.  This issue has received broad media exposure in the past several years. The survey conducted by the department of defense in 2012 reveals that about 26,000 women and men were sexually assaulted in the hand of the military. The impact of sexual abuse on the army towards the victims ideally affects their psychological and physical health. These crimes consistently contribute to post-traumatic stress disorder in female, depression, substance abuse along with eating disorders. Evidently, a broad range of medically inexplicable physical symptoms has been linked to sexual assaults from the military (Rand Corporation, 2016, p67). Ending assault harassment on the army is necessary to safeguard human rights, ensure military readiness as well as address the issue of health care concerns. Therefore, this essay seeks to evaluate whether there is assault harassment in the U.S military.

There has been increasing concern regarding sexual assault and harassment in all the branches of the United States’ military. Sexual harassment jeopardizes the welfare of the army concerning readiness as well as mission accomplishment by weakening interpersonal bonds and unit cohesion. Sexual assault is more closely intertwined in the military than in most civilians. For instance, rape is a common problem among U.S military and is typically not an isolated experience since sources suggest that for the year 2010 to 2011, a considerable increase was reported at the three U.S armed forces academies. Sexual assault in the Army has been linked to the use of alcohol, and it has resulted in the increase of sexual violence. Alcohol consumption plays a vital role in about half of all rape cases.  In the fiscal year 2013, cases of rape from the military academy made within the army were involved in alcohol.  This kind of harassment occurs when the perpetrator, the victim or both have consumed alcohol. Substantially, drinking can lead to many issues such as sexual desire, aggression, and misinterpretation of responses from the victims as well as an increase in risk taking. Apparently, the United States military has become open and gives reports on rates these cases among its military officers. It is also looking for better and effective solutions and initiatives to curb these unlawful acts.  [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

Assault harassment is another aspect that is common and experienced in the military especially among women. In the past one year, approximately 116,600 active-component service members reported cases were of sexual harassments. Significantly, women experienced a higher rate as compared to men. Unit leaders commit the violations of assault harassment in the department of defense. Reporting cases of sexual harassment is very difficult and complicated in the military. Bearing in mind that these are offences committed by seniors, reporting such would bear no fruits more so could land one into more trouble. This assault creates a need for medical attention to the victim since the victim is left in fear of an imminent rape, sodomy, molestation as well as other related sex crimes. The United States’ military is made up of more men as compared to women. Assault Harassment is reported on the daily basis and  in 2015 the numbers of cases of male officers who reported or experienced sexual harassment outnumbered those cases reported from women. Sexual harassment interrelates with sexual assault and is closely correlated. Moreover, the involvement of the military in the assault harassment has resulted in many injuries that are caused to the victims. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

Many people believe that sexual assault is the one and only type of harassment that can happen in the U.S military. It is evident that sexual harassment is perhaps one of the most common forms of harassing behavior.  Assault harassment results in gender discrimination in the U.S military. An individual can be harassed because she is a woman. In most modern legal contexts, sexism is more than personal prejudice. This is a negative valuing and discriminatory treatment of women in the military based on their sex. The aspect of sexism is manifested in the U.S military in both personal attack and insults. Sexism can be presented in hostile acts and apparently neutral arrangements. This aspect can be as a result of activities set to discriminate or arise from ignorance, and it can be detected through its effects. Gender integration could also be among the contributing factors towards sexual assault cases in female officers in the military. Military services have been known to have some inherent characteristics and restrictions. There are restrictions on what positions or ranks for specific age and sex, something that is present within the United States’ military. In most of cases, males are allowed to occupy most of the top positions in the military than females which is a clear indicator that female service members in the military are not that significant as compared to their male counterparts.  Practices of sexism are expressed by individual behavior based on the policies and procedures of the military. Thus, the military justice system needs real reform.

There are some allegations associated with the U.S military based on assault harassment. Lawmakers and activists in the United States have backed the UN Human Rights Council in the process of evaluation of the cases of alleged sexual harassment from the military. Nevertheless, assaults from the military contribute to the risks such as behavioral and emotional consequences of the first abuse (Chaney & Merril, 2012, p46).  The aspect of military culture in the U.S is the most vulnerable component towards sexual assault. In the United States there are always movements of the military officers from one duty station to another. This exercise of movement tends to create opportune moments for assault to new service members in the duty station by older member. Such a situation makes the attacked members not to report the crimes because they are new to the station. Additionally, assault harassment is common in the U.S military through leadership responsibility. The command climate dictates sexual assaults and sexual harassments. [Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

Majority of veterans, in most cases those that were once victim of sexual harassment, are on the forefront of eliminating sexual assault in the U.S. military. Panayiota Bertkikis went ahead to form Military Rape Crisis Center with the aim of offering free advice and counseling for sexual assault victims in the military. Veterans also take part in interviews about sexual assault in the military conducted by journalist and other civilians with the aim of enlightening the society. For instance, through interviewing veterans and other victims, Helen Benedict was able to writer her book “The Loneliest Soldier”. This book laid foundations for documentaries and movies depicting the same for instance, Kiby went ahead to producea movie that included some live recordings of interviews which were aired with the interviewee’s consent (Andrew et al. 2012). Both the book and the movie achieved their objective of telling the society of whatever was going on behind the walls of barracks.

In conclusion, assault harassment within the military in the U.S represents a significant threat to performance degradation and military readiness. It is of great importance to seek sustainable strategies that are needed to end this behavior in the army department since the assault damages the image of the service men and women. Some of the strategies include changing the culture as well as leadership in the armed forces department, employing skill training and psycho-education to prevent sexual assault. The United States should also make amendments to laws regulations in the military so as to allow victims to report sexual assault and harassment cases without fear. Therefore, through the sources, assault harassment in the U.S military is widespread and such actions significantly hinder the performance of the military.


Chaney, & Merrill . (2012). Sexual assault and harassment in the U.S. military. New York: Nova Science Pub.

Rand Corporation. (2016). Sexual assault and harassment in the U.S. military: Evaluating estimates from the 2014 RAND military workplace study. Santa Monica, Calif: Author

Andrew R. Morral, Kristie L. Gore, Terry L. Schell (ed). (2014). Sexual assault and sexual harassment in the U.S. military. Santa Monica, Calif: Rand Corporation


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Managing healthcare is difficult task due to the complexity of such systems. A leader in the healthcare sector is expected to forge relationships and deal with situations where roles are not defined. Just like education and the criminal justice systems, healthcare operates within a changing social, political and economic environment. Many leaders in the healthcare sector have direct experience in patient needs. While such experience is important and necessary, it also differs across patients. Additionally, the workforce in the healthcare industry is often highly educated and such professional education creates a complex nature of relationships. A healthcare leader must understand these intricacies and understand how to build collaborations. The success of any complex system depends largely on the nonlinear interactions of its various components. Such interaction is designed to ensure that the output is greater than the sum of the various components. In healthcare, service delivery is directly related to the survival of the patients hence making leadership a complex process.

Complexity of healthcare
Healthcare is complex largely due to its complicated design and unpredictable nature. Policy makers and healthcare leaders must recognize the system as complex and not complicated in order to mitigate unintended effects of regulation (Harrison, 2009). Consequently, they will use the scientific principles of complexity when operating in the healthcare system. Some of the emerging issues on disease protocols and financial levers in the management of healthcare often have mixed results. In some cases, the clinical measures designed to reduce healthcare variations have not had any noticeable effects. The healthcare system comprises many components (patients, families, nursing homes, hospitals, clinics, patient homes and rehabilitation centers) that must interact in a nonlinear fashion at different levels. In order to manage healthcare appropriately, the leader must therefore shift from the mechanical and regulatory style of management to a complex systems approach to management. Goals must be aligned across all sectors and all structural boundaries across the professionals must be eliminated.

The timeliness and efficiency of service provision in the healthcare industry is determined by the nature of the delivery system. The sector is filled with many system inefficiencies and failures, structural barriers and other impediments that hamper the quality of healthcare given to the people (Anderson & McDaniel, 2000). The proliferation of new technologies in diagnosis and treatment has led to an increase in healthcare costs. While these technologies are necessary, they have to be introduced within a system of social and economic realities. Health information technology (HIT) systems have not been fully integrated into the healthcare sector creating many challenges. While technology is intended to improve care and reduce costs, it must be well integrated into the system in order to function appropriately. Part of the complexity of the healthcare system arises from the various competing forces. The health professionals constantly demand for autonomy and better pay, care facilities seek to increase their margins and reduce costs, while consumers need affordable and accessible services. The healthcare leader must therefore be able to balance between these competing needs.

At all levels, healthcare management is a challenging task that requires a leader to have sound technical, conceptual and interpersonal skills in order to fulfill the managerial functions. Like in conventional management, a leader in the healthcare sector is primarily concerned with planning, organizing, controlling, directing and staffing functions (Harrison, 2009). The healthcare system has both internal and external domains which must be carefully coordinated. In hospitals, unplanned changes and conflicts are prone to occur depending in situations. The interdependent relationships in healthcare also lead to various adaptations. From the outside, the healthcare sector may present a façade of a planned system complete with working manuals for workers to follow. However, the system is frequently inundated with unpredictable events where command and control methods do not necessarily work. Every organization is designed to achieve goals and objectives that are beyond the ability of a single individual.

Skills and Competencies
The complex and dynamic nature of healthcare organizations create the need for managers and leaders who are fully acquainted to manage change and transformation. Leadership in the healthcare context is the ability to inspire personal and organizational success by creating a shared vision and managing transformation in order to attain successful performance (Chreim & MacNaughton, 2016). As a result the healthcare leader should be able to communicate well and build relationships. In a hospital environment, a leader should be able to communicate with fellow professionals, subordinate workers, patients, regulatory authorities and the government. The leader should maintain relationships and engage in interactions that can benefit the system. The healthcare leader has a professional responsibility to the patients and the community at large. They must therefore be able to streamline both personal and organizational responsibilities with the ethical underpinnings that guide the healthcare industry. More importantly, the healthcare leader must fully understand the workings of the healthcare system and its various complexities. [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

Management in the healthcare context requires a leader to be competent in business principles such as systems thinking. They should apply management techniques and theories into the healthcare scenario to analyze situations and solve problems. Considering the importance of organizational culture, the leader should create an environment founded on transparency, mutual trust and service delivery to the people (Coogle et al., 2008). A leader is expected to inspire change by communicating well and motivating employees to share into the goals and visions of the organization. Most healthcare facilities are very dynamic hence a leader promote a continuous learning culture and respond appropriately to the needs for change. The healthcare system is highly regulated and the leader must be fully understand all the laws and regulations and abide accordingly. The healthcare leader should have financial management skills in order to plan, allocate and monitor the use of resources within the organization.  Similarly, the leader should have skills in human resources management relating to recruitment, selection, motivation and mentoring. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

Modern healthcare leaders are expected to demonstrate evidence-based management and measurable outcomes. Large healthcare facilities are the most complex to manage in human history and that even smaller facilities are usually very difficult to manage (Cross, 2007). Leaders in the industry today face many challenges such as shrinking allocations, stringent safety regulations, and constant shortage of professionals. Modern healthcare leaders therefore need to have knowledge in complexity science which goes beyond the traditional approaches to management. An understanding of complexity science will acquaint the leader with knowledge on how universal rules apply and control systems and parts. Complexity science uses machine as an analogy to describe how various complex systems work. It presents a sound framework for understanding complex adaptive systems with a focus on relationships among various components. For instance, a doctor operating within the complex adaptive system will view the patient as more than a specimen but as part of a family, social and political environment.

Leadership Style
The complexity of healthcare greatly influences the type of leadership in the sector. While the principles of management remain the same in every environment, the style of leadership is affected by situations and circumstance. In healthcare administration, the leader should have the ability to change styles based on the prevailing situations and employee relationships (Cross, 2007). Beyond the various styles of leadership, the healthcare leader is expected to lead by example. They should portray and exemplify the right qualities that can inspire change and create positive working environment. Consequently, the qualities of integrity, ethics and respect are highly important as defining attributes of the leader. The healthcare leader is expected to make fair decisions that are good to both the facility and the community. In addition, healthcare is strongly anchored on practices, rules and regulations which must be implemented successfully. The leader must always follow ethical choices, confidentiality and mutual respect when handling situations. The new challenges inherent in healthcare have shifted healthcare leadership from a one-way approach to a range of methods and approaches. In many respects, management should be continuously improved in the face of emerging issues. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

Many countries are experiencing changes and reforms in the healthcare sector. Various recommendations have been made as a way of improving the sector. The role of healthcare leaders in implementing these reforms must always be underscored. The leaders should understand the need to deliver the best forms of leadership that motivates staff amidst the changing landscape (Coogle et al., 2008). Leadership must capitalize on the great diversities seen in healthcare and efficiently utilize resources while focusing on quality service delivery. There is a strong link between healthcare leadership and the important outcomes within the system such as patient mortality, financial performance, patient satisfaction and employee turnover. The challenges and complexities evidenced in the healthcare sector are too grave that leadership cannot simply be left to chance. The system should have functional approaches to nurture and develop leaders, to provide strategies for leadership and support their work.

Healthcare transformation can be best achieved through a number of leadership styles. Transformational leadership theory is a traditional method that focuses on the need to inspire employees through a sense of mission (Silber, 2008). The healthcare leader is expected to communicate the mission and vision in a way that bonds all employees together. Transformational leaders work by motivating employee performance and influencing their behavior and attitudes. In a healthcare environment, challenges and situations create a need constant decision making. The leader must therefore empower his employees to pursue that transformation whenever necessary. The healthcare leader should always ensure the constant supply of replacement leaders by empowering staff and nurturing them to be leaders on their own. The healthcare environment is constantly changing hence there is an important need to ensure its constant progress through sound leadership.

Similarly, collaborative leadership can be applied in the healthcare environment as a means to pursue transformation. Collaborative leadership is where people work together towards common goals (Chreim & MacNaughton, 2016). The leader encourages the various employees and sectors to make their own informed decisions and offers guidance where necessary. Collaborative leadership helps in improving healthcare management by promoting communication among the various stakeholders and enabling the sharing of knowledge. Any leadership style within the healthcare system should be designed to reduce the level of complexity. Collaborative leadership requires that all parties work together so that processes are implanted successfully. The collaboration helps to promote mutual understanding while facilitating the integration among the various stakeholders. Many autonomous healthcare professionals who are directly responsible for their patients have been seen not to respond effectively to autocratic leadership. Since many healthcare professionals are highly qualified, shared leadership can help in healthcare transformation. Leadership must seek to develop shared relationships through delegation and support. This in turn, will help to facilitate shared governance, improve working relationships and promote continuous learning. Shared leadership empowers the staff to be decision makers. [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

Leadership is therefore an important aspect in healthcare arising from the complex nature of the modern healthcare environment. The healthcare sector is more complex today than it was before. The changing policies, regulations and technologies in the industry only add to this challenge. As a result, healthcare leadership must be given more attention since leaders are charged with a duty to manage change. Leadership development is a continuous process and should always take account of the changing situations in the healthcare sector. The leaders must have the right training, skills and competencies in order to navigate through the challenges seen in modern healthcare. It is also important to realize that healthcare is a complex rather than complicated system where processes are not streamlined.


Anderson, R. & McDaniel, R. (2000). Managing Health Care Organizations: Where Professionalism Meets Complexity Science. Health Care Management Review25(1), 83-92. doi:10.1097/00004010-200001000-00010

Chreim, S. & MacNaughton, K. (2016). Distributed leadership in health care teams. Health Care Management Review41(3), 200-212. doi:10.1097/hmr.0000000000000073

Coogle, C., Jablonski, R., Rachel, J., & Parham, I. (2008). Skills-Enhancement Training Program for Home Care Providers: Implications for Redefining Quality Care. Home Health Care Management & Practice20(4), 312-322. doi:10.1177/1084822307310762

Cross, S. (2007). Integrating Primary Health Care – Leading, Managing, FacilitatingIntegrating Primary

Health Care – Leading, Managing, Facilitating. Nursing Standard21(18), 31-31. doi:10.7748/ns2007.

Harrison, P. (2009). Managing change in health care. Gastrointestinal Nursing7(6), 46-47.

Silber, G. (2008). Management Styles and Care Dilemmas. Journal Of The American Geriatrics Society56(11), 2140-2141.


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“‘Master Harold’ … and the Boys”, written by Athol Fugard, is the most personal of his works, stemming from a childhood incident that haunted him and later became the inspiration for this play. The play which was first produced at the Yale Repertory Theater in 1982 not only depicts the incident from Fugard’s past but also portrays an experience that is relatable by universal humanity. The focus of Fugard’s works on the injustice brought about by apartheid meant most of his earlier works were presented to small audiences to avoid government attention. “’Master Harold’ …and the Boys” was banned by the South African government, but enjoyed massive success on Broadway and in the main cities such as London. The play is considered one of Frugard’s most skillful works (Pavis et.al, 2008)

The three-character play, here directed by Mr. Fugard himself and featuring Leon Addison Brown, Sahr Ngaujah, and Noah Robbins opened on Monday, November 7, 2016, at the Pershing Square Signature Center, 480 W. 42nd St. Midtown West. It opened to a cathartic reception at a time when systemic racism and discrimination have once again become a topic of discussion in America (Behan, 56). Sitting among an almost equal proportion of both black and white audience facing a stage designed as a tea room with the words “St. George’s Park Tearoom” branded against what would be the shop’s window, there was no mistaking that the ominous pelt of the rain was indicative of an emotional show.[“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

The play is set in 1950, in a simple tea shop located in the town of Port Elizabeth. Sam (Leon Addison Brown), a middle-aged man of about 40 years or so, works as a waiter and dons a waiter’s uniform and has a co-worker. Willie (Sahr Ngaujah), who is in his 40s as well, does the most handy work for which he has dressed accordingly in dowdy brown attire and an apron. The two are black while 17-year-old Hally (Noah Robbins), the tea shop owners’ son, is white. He walks in from school on a rainy afternoon and cheerfully greets Sam and Willie. The relationship between the three seems to be a warm one, despite Willie referring to Hally as Master Hally while Sam refers to the boy only by his name. Hally’s cheerful demeanor is changed by the news that his mother has left for the hospital to bring home his father whom Hally has an apparent dislike for. In the ensuing scene, Willie throws a rag at Sam, and it accidentally hits Holly who immediately reprimands Willie telling him to “cut the nonsense and get on with his work” and for Sam to “quit fooling around.” The seemingly warm relationship is now dictated by the color of their skin, which allows a 17-year-old boy to talk down to older men, who are not his peers. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

Despite this, Sam has a fatherly accord with Hally, especially in a scene where they recall a day shared flying a kite. Hally complains about being punished at school but is shocked by Sam’s description of police brutality, particularly, being canned by the officers. This shows another aspect of racial discrimination much relevant to current times. Hally’s conscience tells him that this is morally wrong, which he voices by saying “I oscillate between hope and despair for this world as well, Sam, but things will change…One day somebody is going to get up and give history a kick up the backside (Behan, 2012)”

Mr. Brown delivers an understated yet immensely moving performance depicting Sam who despite being uneducated, flips through Halley’s books and marvels at the world he doesn’t know. He underscores his moral intelligence yet shows dignity and compassion by putting up with Halley’s occasional slips in demeanor.

Mr. Ngaujah, portraying a more juvenile character in Willie brings a bubbly and endearing personality on stage. His apparent humor is highlighted by his rant about his girlfriend’s heavy feet regarding an upcoming dance competition.

Mr. Robbins performs excellently as well playing Hally. He Begins with a stellar South African accent and consistently portrays all the nuances of his character; his real nature that is influenced by Sam, his intelligence, occasional hints of patronization and his strained relationship with his father.[Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

The play has a distressing conclusion as Sam gently criticizes Hally for disrespectful utterances about his father and Hally lashes out. This moment is upsetting, and one cannot help but wonder, watching Hally absorb the enormity of what he has done, whether this young boy will defy the odds of his upbringing to become an individual with respect for human dignity, despite race.

Works Cited

Behan, Tom. Dario Fo: Revolutionary Theatre. London: Pluto Press, 2012. Internet resource.

Pavis, Patrice, Marvin Carlson, and Christine Shantz. Dictionary of the Theatre: Terms, Concepts, and Analysis. Toronto, Ont: University of Toronto Press, 2008. Internet resource.

“Press Release: Master Harold … and the Boys.” Colony – World Class Theatre in the Heart of Burbank,


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Under the Articles of Confederation of 1783, each American state was supreme and only cooperated with other states in a league of friendship to tackle national issues. However, a confederation approach to governance was unsatisfactory and dangerous to the American people because states pursued self-interest at the expense of the nation and denied liberties to some of their state residents (Cook, 2014). As a result, delegates drew up a new constitution that denied full sovereignty to state and national governments. Both states came from the grant of authority from the American people through the constitution that assigned different roles to the separate spheres of government.

Most countries around the world have a unitary system of government where there the central or national government is the only source of power. However, America has a federal system of shared power between at least two governments with authority over the same geographical area. Federalism is a dynamic government framework that fits in the fundamental nature of the American society. In the history of American, the US Constitution has acted as a flexible document that has facilitated change in the division of power between national and state governments and change in the conception of American federalism. Balance of authority between the spheres of American power is persistent issue in American politics, which cannot be settled because s President Woodrow Wilson observed,
By the opinion of any one generation.” Social and economic changes, shifts in political values, the role of the nation in the world — all these things, he continued, have required each generation to treat federalism as “a new question.” (Tarr, 2015).

Spheres of Government in American Democracy
In American federalism, the constitution is the source of authority for the national and state governments, which ultimately reflects the ultimate power in a democracy. In America’s federal system, laws of the national government are situated in the Washington and they apply to all people who reside within the national borders. Laws of the state vary from state to state and they apply only to the residents of a particular state. The Congress does not have the power to abolish a state. Also, a state cannot assume the powers of the national government. National and state powers operate concurrently over the same geographical territory because they play different roles (Burgess, 2013). The federal government focuses on general concerns while the state powers concentrate on local matters. American federalism allows state and national authorities to co-exist as independent units because they both are present to serve the American people.

Impact of government actions on everyday life
The US Constitution mandates the federal government to create and enforce laws to ensure that the there is stability and order within the American society. The US constitution outlines the country’s law making process and establishes the legislative, executive, and judiciary to carry out this function. The federal government controls America’s economy by controlling the creation of a national currency. The national congress has the power to regulate the value of printed currency, and regulate interstate and international commerce. The US constitution mandates national security to the federal government. The federal government represents the American interests abroad and makes foreign policy which is an important duty as nations become more connected in the modern international system. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

Local and state governments exercise vital functions that directly affect daily activities of the American people. These governments plan and pay for roads, provide water, run public education institutions, establish zoning rules, arrange elections, organize fire and police services, and license professions. Local and state governments cooperate in services ranging from resident’s welfare to transportation and serve the same population (Cullingworth & Caves, 2013). However, the state government is obligated to make the final decision over local functions. Local authority emanates from acts of the state legislatures or special state constitutional provisions. The state government has the jurisdiction to merge the local government with other entities, abolish it, or give it more authority; which makes local authority creatures of the state.[Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

Efficiency of delegating public duties to the private sector
Public services provided by the government in the United States have encountered problems in availability of resources, accountability, and quality of the public services. Recently, the public sector has been under pressure to privatize some of its functions. For example, privatizing public school systems is controversial while the shift off in the public health services to the private sector has been allowed with minimum forethought (Burgess, 2013). Privatization of education in America is aimed at improving quality, professionalism, equity, and efficiency. Private schools give more option to the parents by breaking school monopoly and ultimately improving competition and quality of education provided to the students. Competition forces the schools, both public and private, to provide equitable education. More so, decentralization of education offers professional autonomy to the teachers who develop better work attitudes and improve the learning environment for their students.

On the other hand, privatization of public services leaves a void in developing mechanisms that hold private institutions accountable to the government and the American people. Public services such as public education systems promote democracy, achievement, social cohesion, and equity (Cook, 2014). However, if public utilities are specialized for niche audiences, there will no longer be an emphasis on values common to the American people.

Unnecessary Government Actions
The federal government has some actions that lead to unnecessary and wasteful spending. The national government controls programs that would be more efficient if they were devolved to the local and state governments. The federal government continues to provide public services that might be performed better by the private companies. Some citizens feel that the government directs programs to recipients who are not entitled to government benefits. Also, the federal government develops and implements outdated programs that lead to wasteful spending. However, the American government is always faced with mismanagement, inefficiencies, duplicative programs and fraud.

More specifically, Washington spends 25 billion dollars per year to maintain vacant federal properties. Government Accountability Office reports a duplication of 342 economic development programs that cover the well-being of at-risk youth, ECD programs, safe water programs, and funding for international education programs (Burgess, 2013). Another audit by the GAO showed that almost 50 percent of purchases on government credit cards were embezzled, improper, or fraudulent. Health care fraud costs the taxpayer approximately 60 billion dollars annually (Romzek, 2014). Most of these examples indicate government spending that most American citizens would consider wasteful. Lawmakers should address budget deficits by eliminating slightest justifiable spending and addressing long-term management costs.
Understanding of the American people on the importance of the government

America is too large to operate as a direct democracy and is best suited to operate under the values of federalism. Americans are still finding it hard to participate in their governments in constructive and meaningful ways. However, democracy still works partly because of linkage institutions such as the media, interest groups, electoral campaigns, and political parties, which allow the citizens to voice their issues and concerns to the government. [Click Essay Writer to order your essay]

In conclusion, based on the above arguments, it can be observed that federalism has had a significant impact on America’s development over the years. Federalism is indeed the central pillar of American greatness.


Burgess, M. (2013). A conceptual reappraisal of federalism, federation, confederation, and federal political system. Routledge Handbook of Regionalism & Federalism, 1696.

Cook, B. J. (2014). Bureaucracy and self-government: Reconsidering the role of public administration in American politics. JHU Press.

Cullingworth, J. B., & Caves, R. (2013). Planning in the USA: Policies, issues, and processes. Routledge.

Romzek, B. (2014). The Veterans Affairs scandal reflects the tangled web of accountability in US government. LSE American Politics and Policy.

Tarr, G. A. (2015). Political Identity and American Federalism. In Federalism as Decision-Making(pp. 40-61). Brill.


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Fahrenheit 451 is set in the twenty-fourth century and introduces a world taken over by media, overpopulation, and censorship. Within this new world, people are not accepted as individuals, and books are outlawed and evil because they teach people intellectual topics and how to think. In page 59 of the novel, Captain Beatty describes the law enforcement of the society as “Stand[ing] against the small tide of those who want to make everyone unhappy with conflicting theory and thought” (Bradbury & Mugnaini, 1953). The people who live in this world are shown the present through television, and receive no reminders of their history and ancestry. Within the world of Fahrenheit 451, the censoring of books and intellectual knowledge creates a melancholy and mindless dystopian society, illustrating the dangers of censorship in modern societies.

The introduction to the world of Fahrenheit 451 makes us question how long such a world could last, without question or conflict. In the short term, we expect to be introduced to a character who will resist against conformity, and in the long term we might expect to see them break the mold and cause others to question their censored society. This is confirmed when we meet Clarisse McClellan, a girl with an inquisitive nature who is curious about the books another character is burning, Guy Montag. In Chapter 1, Clarisse describes her feelings about school to Montag when she says “It’s a lot of funnels and a lot of water poured down the spout and out the bottom, and them telling us it’s wine when it’s not” (Bradbury & Mugnaini, 1953). In this statement, Clarisse is explaining how the educational system keeps flooding students with information that is untrue and not believable to students who know how to think. When Clarisse expands on this, and begins to question Montag about his job and the contents of the burned books, we observe Montag beginning to stray from his position. These introductory chapters illustrate the instability of censored societies, and how easily they can begin to fray.  [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

In maintaining a censored and dystopian culture, the society of Fahrenheit 451 is creating a community of little to no progress or learning, further demonstrating the risks of censorship. Throughout the society shown in the novel, any books that demonstrate intellectual thoughts are destroyed and burned, and the only knowledge known by the population is the knowledge known by everybody else. This means that there is no available learning beyond what is already known, severely limiting the progress of the community. As stated by Beatty in Chapter 1, the lifecycle of the society in Fahrenheit 451 can be described as “Out of the nursery into the college and back to the nursery; there’s your intellectual pattern for the past five centuries of more” (Bradbury & Mugnaini, 1953). This means that no learning is occurring throughout a person’s lifespan; they maintain only the intelligence of a child and maintain that throughout their lives, never learning and never progressing. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

While the leadership figures in the novel attempt to justify censorship as creating an equal society, it creates a mindless society of depression and melancholy. On page 58, the captain attempts to defend the morality of censorship by stating “We must all be alike. Not everyone born free and equal, as the Constitution says, but everyone made equal. Each man the image of every other; then all are happy, for there are no mountains to make them cower, to judge themselves against.” (Bradbury & Mugnaini, 1953). This quote describes the philosophy of the world of Fahrenheit 451, that is, by taking away the differences between people, and not letting them feel beneath or above anybody else, people will be happier. However what actually occurs as a result of this is that, by eliminating the differences between people, everybody sinks to the lowest level of understanding and intelligence, effectively hamstringing the ability of the society to progress. [Click Essay Writer to order your essay

Through his novel, the author appears to draw upon the real-life experiences of many individuals, exploring how difficult it can be to contain the freedom of expression in any society. The frustration that censorship evokes in societies is illustrated by this quote from Montag on Page 70, “Is it true, the world works hard and we play? Is that why we’re hated so much?” (Bradbury & Mugnaini, 1953). The exploration of censorship and human rights issues leads us to believe that the implied readers, or target audience, of this book would include young adults, the future of our society. As this novel takes place in the future, it represents what the technology and government we possess could become in the next three centuries. This is in particular is relevant to our present day society, as we are in a period of important political decision-making.


Bradbury, R., & Mugnaini, J. (1953). Fahrenheit 451. New York: Ballantine Books.


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I do agree with you that people have left the judicial systems to make critical decisions such as that of gay marriages when they should be at the forefront fighting for their brothers and sisters. However, I would attribute this tendency to the many challenges that people have faced in the past such as gender equality and racism, which required people to fight the initial system and force changes. There could be a possibility that people appreciate the accomplishment of these previous issues that they fail to recognize the gay rights issue as an important one in this era.

It is indeed sad that culture plays a significant role in the population dynamics of countries. As you have stated, Africa and India have cultures that promote childbearing while Japan has women looking to better their careers, a situation that lowers their fertility by the time they are ready to bear children. My biggest concern is India’s tendency to promote childbearing and abort in case the expectant mothers are expected to bear girls. The world has now developed to a stage in which gender equality applies to everything but the biggest obstacle to this global development is culture. For the case of Japan, I have always interacted with many children in my school life and would not like to imagine being in a class alone for 11 years. The situation needs to change so that AIDS prevalence is reduced in Africa, abortions stopped in India, and birth rates increased in Japan. [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

Racial discrimination is still an issue to date and the story of the Loving’s clearly shows how powerful love can be with two people involved. [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]I am glad to see that now people marry interracially without any objections. Even though history does not give the Loving’s the credit they deserve, they still managed to mark history as people who were willing to battle society to prove that even people from different races can love each other and peacefully co-exist.  [Click Essay Writer to order your essay]