The War on Terror
The response of the U.S. Government after the 9/11 attacks resulted in various measures aimed at increasing public confidence in government, curtailing operations of terrorist cells worldwide, and reducing possibilities of such attacks. Some of these steps may be deemed excessive or limiting the freedoms of citizens and infringing on human rights in foreign nations, but are arguably necessary to protect the country from terrorism. As much as some legislations resulting from the September 11 events may seem to cause an emergence of fear, its contribution towards curtailing terror attacks and the sponsors of such warfare is the most significant. The term ‘War on Terror’ in itself, can, therefore, be argued as a justifiable effort by government arms in the prevention of terror activities worldwide. [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]
The administration of the time declared war on the Al Qaeda, which has resulted in the changing of the worldview on combating terrorist attacks. These attempts included the instillation military sanctions of nations in the Middle East, resulting in wars that led to significant costs to both sides. However, the benefits of these attempts are observable when one considers the overthrow of terrorist organizations such as the Taliban and the Al Qaeda (Mythen, 2016). The interest of the US in these regions also motivated the contribution of other nations to which the war on terror was scaled globally. For the benefit of warfare on the global level, the initial response in carrying out investigations and securing the rest of the nation was limited in size, with the response of non-governmental organizations being more significant. In this regard, the limited capacity of the federal government necessitated the contributions of state resources and the involvement of the lower tiers of government. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]
Mythen (2016) goes on to write that the ability of the government of the time to such calamities was limited by the lack of experience with attacks of such magnitude. Mobilization of resources was done much later on after the effects of the assault had set in, and with the increasing of confusion, racially instigated protests and violence had erupted. The contribution of politicians in addressing the issue, for example, was delayed long enough to permit the growth or hate and resentment against communities. As Mythen (2016) asserts, the measures in curbing the travel and interaction of persons of Middle Eastern descent with other Americans fuelled the increase of hate and fear on religious and racial grounds. [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]
According to Prieto (2009), The Patriot Act solely facilitated the increase in national security through the active detection and prosecution of persons involved in terror-related crimes. Its abilities, as per its provisions, empower the American government and its arms to gather intelligence and carry out operations with minimal consultations or permissions. Such access and freedoms allow functioning of security arms without consultation of other units of the government, and in this way, rapid response and handling of terrorism-related incidents. As much as these provisions may allow the formation of rogue units and agents, its contribution towards national security is larger than the social impact it may have on the American society (Prieto, 2009). The comparison of the social consequences of these measures in increasing the confidence of Americans in government and patriotic acts against terrorism also shows an increase, following the enactment. This action cannot be argued as being excessive, as its justification lies in the ability of the government to secure the country against terrorism.
Since the Act was intended to enhance investigations by the federal government into terror activities, each provision allows information sharing and undetected surveillance. Since the interaction between agencies such as the FBI and the CIA are direct contributors to the enhancement of intelligence, its contribution to the efficiency of government bodies is significant (Prieto, 2009). Also, the facilitation of foreign intelligence through several provisions and justified warrants is noteworthy in dealing with sensitive investigations. Since the agencies in questions are empowered with the ability to search and seize evidence, the capacity to deal with illegal trade (drugs and weapons) is enhanced. These illegal activities are commonly linked with the funding to terrorism and an increase in criminal threats in internal security; the ability of each body in the execution of the law is thus enabled in the war on terror (Mythen, 2016). These capabilities can be better appreciated when considering the relationship between internal security and organized crime with its impact on terrorism on an international level.
Information sharing and installation of wiretaps are amongst the most controversial provisions of the act, but also the most critical in the war on terror. The application of these intelligence capacities of the federal government cannot be underplayed when discussing terrorism in the United States. Since these activities fall under the cooperation of the justice and security agencies, the provision of support between these departments is also necessary as defined by provisions of the Act (Prieto, 2009). Through the criminalization of activities that facilitate terrorism by the judicial system, it is possible for agencies to execute the laws and survey investigate and curtail possible terrorist activities that would have otherwise resulted in terror threats to the country. All these efforts, as facilitated by the departments of the federal government, are imperative in the application of the Patriot Act.
On the other hand, the expansion of intelligence and surveillance on a domestic level has contributed towards monitoring and preventing terrorism on a national scale since the 9/11. The participation of intelligence bodies and investigation bureaus in the assessment of threats on a national level is imperative for the increase of internal security and aversion of possible terrorist attacks. These expansions have facilitated the formation of dedicated units to investigate threats deemed significant, and in this way, potential attacks can be investigated by dedicated agents in different agencies (Prieto, 2009). Since the Patriot Act facilitates these agencies, their surveillance programs can operate with minimal approval from the judicial system, which may consume valuable time in investigations of this matter. Therefore, the potential for terrorism can be restrained by the increased activity of dedicated commissions and organizations of the government.
In sum, the models that surround the ability of the United States to deal with internal threats to security necessitate extreme measures. As much as these measures may have socio-cultural influences of fear and interrupt privacy or discretion of citizens, the benefits to such persons are obligatory. It is possible to engage the resources as provided by the federal government by each of these agencies and arms of the government.
QN2: The Role of Population Growth in Water Supply Problems
Population growth strains the available water supply systems, increasing demand for water at various levels of consumption, industrial use, and auxiliary functions that relate to human consumption. The ability of a water supply system to efficiently serve a populace’s needs includes the chemical properties, physical state, and location in the hydrological cycle (Cook & Bakker, 2016). Consumptive use alters the physical and chemical state of water and reduces the usability of such water in successive stages of recycling. Increasing population, therefore, results in the creation of demand and reduction of usability of water resources, either from natural resources or recycling. These effects result from consumptive use, agricultural output (which also increases with population), industrial processes, and their relation to the number of people in a catchment area (Cook & Bakker, 2016). The water cycle is affected by the populace in a number ways. The most significant of these ways relate to consumption, pollution of resources, and non-consumptive use. Since consumptive use reduces the sizes of water resources, especially with increasing populations, there is a reducing volume of freshwater bodies. As an effect of the reduction of such water resources, there is a decrease of the volumes in the cycle, especially within plants, in the atmosphere and solid water reserves. [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]
Consumption alters the location of water in the cycle and reduces sizes, through which instability may set in. Commercial uses of water that are non-consumptive reroute water, with examples of dams and irrigation resulting in similarly oriented disruptions (Cook & Bakker, 2016). Such disruptions stall movement at certain stages and speed up progress at other sections of the cycle. Irrigation, for example, increases evapotranspiration and reduces infiltration and deep percolation. It reallocates water, disrupts movements, and change in state. Water pollution, on the other hand, changes the composition and chemical setup, interrupting interactions between water and the environment. The addition of chemicals through pollution alters the ability to absorb latent heat during evapotranspiration, vaporization, and condensation. ETo, for example, depends on the chemical presence of salts, which may originate from agricultural pollution (Cook & Bakker, 2016). Solutes and contaminants also limit the ability of plants in the uptake of water, and thus stalls the cycle at this stage. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]
Public Health Concerns Related to Fresh Drinking Water Worldwide
Among the most significant concerns, include the processes of disinfection, water security and availability of freshwater resources. The limitations of technology and resources contribute to the lack of consumption water in developing nations. The concerns of the chlorination of water and its effects in environments where technology may be insufficient (especially in developing countries) surrounds the ability to assess the quality of water (Cook & Bakker, 2016). In this regard, developing countries may not have sufficient technology to carry out a qualitative assessment of water treated for consumption.
Also, water security in dry environments is a concern where the desertification of such regions results in the limited availability of water. Security cannot be assured where the environment does not facilitate underground storage or storage in ice sheets. The availability of resources, therefore, is a concern for regions where water is of low quality or unobtainable for consumption (Cook & Bakker, 2016). Water, in such environments, is limited to obtaining in small volumes, and use is limited. This results in a shortage of clean water for use by an increasing populace.
Why a Source-Separation Recycling Program is More Sustainable than a Centralized Program
The law facilitates the accompaniment of an action by a similarly oriented entropy, which, in such setting is significant towards the molecular disintegration of material within recycling. The Source-Separation approach is based on the application of energy in the disintegration of materials on an elemental level of the materials source as compared to a centralized program (Cook & Bakker, 2016). The comparison, therefore, based on levels of energy needed and the amount of material released in solid form creates a basis to compare sustainability in pollution and energy sustainability (Li, He, & Zeng, 2016). Since a centralized program consumes transportation energy, processing labor and fuel and massive pollution amounts at the central point, it is deemed unsuitable on a large scale, and therefore unsuitable. On the other hand, handling of waste at its origin cuts down energy consumed in the transport and haul processes and increases efficiently of the entire process (Ludwig, Hellweg, & Stucki, 2012). Waste management can be made to produce fewer pollutants from burning by handling it in small portions at its source where materials are separated, reused, and minimal amounts destroyed.
Cook, C. & Bakker, K. (2016). Water security: Critical analysis of emerging trends and definitions. In C. Pahl-Wostl, J. Gupta & A. Bhaduri (Eds.), Handbook on water security (pp. 19-37). Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing.
Li, J., He, X., & Zeng, X. (2016). Designing and examining e-waste recycling process: methodology and case studies. Environmental Technology, 0(0), 1-9.
Ludwig, C., Hellweg, S., & Stucki, S. (Eds.). (2003). Municipal solid waste management: Strategies and technologies for sustainable solutions. Berlin: Springer.
Mythen, G. (2016). Terrorism and War: Interrogating Discourses of Risk and Security. In R. McGarry & S. Walklate (Eds.), The Palgrave handbook of criminology and war (45-60). London, UK: Palgrave Macmillan UK.
Prieto, D. (2009). War about terror: Civil liberties and national security after 9/11 (Working Paper). New York, NY: Council on Foreign Relations.