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BEKHTEREV PSYCHOLOGY VS. STALIN’S VENGEANCE

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Vladimir Bekhterev is called the father of objective psychology and is known for his participation in developing the first research into the hippocampus and its role in memory. He studied reflexes and the Bekhterev’s disease. In this essay, I will discuss the importance of Bekhterev and his take on Joseph Stalin. These men had influence over each other’s lives and, in the end, Stalin marinated Behterev’s brains. [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

The importance of Bekhterev in psychology cannot be understated. But while the man flourished during his adult years, he suffered from a difficult childhood. He was able to transcend the boundaries that appeared to be set before him dur to a poor life. His father was a low-ranking Russian government official who died at a young age. While this caused much difficulty for the familiy, Bekhterev managed to get enroled at Vyataka gymnasium in 1867. This was one of the oldest schools in Russia. He managed to fund his way through the Mediosurgical Academy, where he developed an interest in physchiatry and neuropathology.

After spending some time in the war between the Ottoman Empire and Russia in the late 1870s, Bekhterev worked In St. Petersburg at the Phychiatric Clinin. It was here that he started to study physiology and anatomy of the brain. This is the area where he is most noted for his contributions to the science. He started to publish his research in 1880. He focused one of his early works on Russian social issues. During these studies, he looked into the various individual characteristics of Votyaks, which is a group of people who are under the rule of Russia and they live in the Udmurt Republic. This is located between the Vyatka and Kama rivers.

In 1881, he defended his doctoral thesis, which was called “Clinical studies of termperature in some forms of metnal disorders.” After completing this, he received a doctorate for his studies at the Mediocosurgical Academy of St. Petersburg. After receiving this designation, he was given the title of private docent, which is also defined as an associate professor. During this position, he was a lecturer who focused on the diagnostics of the nervous diseases.

Bekhterev was a major contributor to neurology. He conducted many research projects that helped people to understand the brain. Much of the information that he provided has led too much of the current information that people have about the brain. Various aspects of his research was contained in the work “The Conduction Paths in the Brain and Spinal Cord,” which was written in 1882. Two years later, Bekhterev published 58 scientific work, which focused on the various functions of the brain. He worked with many famed people who contributed to the field of science. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

As the reader has now seen, Bekhterev was a very important person in the field of psychology, but perhaps even more interesting than his research, is the man’s connection with Stalin. While there is some debate about whether Stalin is actually responsible for Bekhterev’s death, it is certain that he asked Bekhterev to recover his arm. Two days after the request, Bekhterev was found dead. People speculate that Bekhterev was poisoned by Stalin after the dictator sought revenge for the diagnoses.

The relationship between the two men began when Stalin requested medical help for his insomnia, severe anxiety disorder and anger. Bekhterev diagnosed him with a typical clinical form of paranoia in 1927. “Clinical paranoia explains ruthless killings of millions and brutal treatment of his own wives and children,” (Fitzpatrick, 2013). Bekhterev was recruited by Stalin because he was a well-respected doctor who could be taken for his word when making a diagnoses. < Click Essay Writer to order your essay >

Stalin allegedly had his henchman kill Bekhterev on Dec. 24, 1927. In the days leading up to the murder, Bekhterev was very busy. He had arrived in Moscow from Leningrad on December 21. During the following day, he had reported on the collective treatment suggestions and the hypnosis patients who had addictions, and he was particularly focusing on alcoholism and a variety of types of neuroses. On the following day, he was the supervisor of the Congress that was devoted to epilepsy. He visited on the same day a laboratory of the morphology located in the central nervous system. Congress was expecting the report during the following morning, on December 23, but Bekhterev didn’t appear at the scheduled time. People had said he was examining “Sukhorukoi paranoid.” People assumed that it was Stalin who had been diagnosed paranoid. Those who heard were afraid that such a diagnoses would offend the dictator. “It is possible that a quarter of an hour of careless phrase Bekhterev learned the KGB and then, of course, it was transferred to Secretary General,” (Did Stalin, 2010).

However, there are those who say Bekhterev felt sick after attending the theatre, where cake and tea was served. He was told to stay in bed due to the stomach pain he was feeling. By the evening of that night, he was feeling worse, before eventually dying. It was reported that after his death, the body was sent directly to be cremated. Some have said that his death could not have been murder, because it would have been too difficult for Stalin to plan a murder in one day. After Bekhterev died, his legacy was suppressed. “In the normal course of events his name would have been as well-known as that of Freud, Pavlov or, more lately, B.F. Skinner,” (Marxism, 2009).

Works Cited
Did Stalin Bekhterev his revenge for ‘Sukhorukoi paranoid?” (2010). Thematic Catalog of
Articles.

Fitzpatrick, S. (2013, March 5). The dictator and the composerThe University of Sydney.

“Marxism-Thaxis Soviet Cultural Psychology. University of Utah.

BITTER HARVEST MEDIA PIECE

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In Alfonso Serrano’s Time Magazine piece “Bitter Harvest: U.S. Farmers Blame Billion-Dollar Losses on Immigration Laws,” he proves that the current immigration policy isn’t benefiting the economy. The article discusses the fact that two owners of a farm require 1,000 seasonal workers each year. These workers grow and pack “more than 6 million boxes of apples on their farm along the Snake River in eastern Washington,” (Serrano, 2012). But their efforts to recruit people are coming up short even in an area that has a high number of unemployed people. . [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

The obvious implications that the media is unbiasedly portraying in a non-sensationalized way is that the 1986 Act, though it meant to improve on the failures of the 1965 Act, only exacerbated matters. Rather than improving the immigration system, it focused far too sharply on enforcement and did not take account of the economic factors that hinged upon facilitating the legalization of those who were already living in the U.S. and contributing to its economy, or who were unable to contribute to the U.S. economy.

The article supports immigration and doesn’t show any signs of prejudice, discrimination or stereotyping. It is simply saying, that the cost is ultimately born by taxpayers, particularly in Border States, as is also pointed out by (Provenza, 2008). This has significant effects on the U.S. economy. On the other side of the spectrum, however, farmers like Ralph and Cheryl  Broetje report that they depend on 1,000 “seasonal workers to grow and pack more than 6 million boxes of apples” annually (Serrano, 2012). However, immigration laws have made it impossible for them to hire the number of workers that they require and as result of the labor shortage American farmers are losing approximately a billion dollars (Serrano, 2012).   Furthermore, McClure argues that a Stanford economist estimates that immigration reform seeking to legalize those who are currently living and working in the U.S. should lead to increased rates of employment, which is correlated with reduced crime. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

As a solution, Black, Black and Pace recommend using the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) as a solution to the immigration problem. The IRS has the authority to investigate, collect public revenue and prosecute offences. With its access to a wealth of information, the IRS has the resources to gain access to information relevant to specific businesses and individuals via auditing processes and can therefore enforce the ban on hiring illegal immigrants. Black, Black and Pace’s proposal is predicated on the belief that should enforcement against employers be tightened, their incentives to hire illegal immigrants would be reduced and, as such, illegal immigrants would either be deterred or discouraged and would return to their home countries. However, the approach recommended by Black, Black and Pace conflicts with concerns expressed by employers that there is a lack of human capital in domestic markets and the demand for immigrant workers is high (Serrano, 2012). It therefore follows that Black, Black and Pace presents a solution that is counterproductive and wholly punitive to the illegal immigrant and at the same time harms the economy. If employers, particularly farmers, are suffering losses as a result of immigration, enforcement policies and laws, a tightening of those laws will only serve to further harm the economy not only for the farmers, but for the U.S. consumers who depend on locally produced produce. < Click Essay Writer to order your essay >

Provenza proposes a solution that would tighten border control. Provenza draws attention to the reduction in illegal immigrants in the immediate aftermath of 9/11 when border controls were tightened.  However, Provenza fails to take into account the exponential absorption of resources in terms of cash and human capital in tightening border control to the extent that it was tightened in the immediate aftermath of 9/11. The expenditure of human and cash capital at the time was necessitated by a national emergency. Incurring those kinds of expenses on a daily basis would be particularly problematic when employment, especially in the labour-intensive markets is in high demand and supplies are low since immigrants are either forced out or not allowed entry, (Legrain, 2007).

Works Cited
Legrain, P. and Myers, J. J. “Immigrants: Your Country Needs Them.” Carnegie Council for
Ethics in International Affairs. Public Affairs, (September 10, 2007). Web.

Provenza, P. “Illegal Immigration: What You Really Need to Know.” Louisiana State
University, English 2000, (2008). Web

Serrano, Alfonso. “Bitter Harvest: U.S. Farmers Blame Billion-Dollar Losses on Immigration 
Laws.” Time Magazine. Print. 21 Sept. 2012.

HOW TO WRITE A PERSONAL STATEMENT

My interest in the pharmaceutical profession stems from my strong desire to work in the

medical field, as this is the sector that has made the most significant positive impact on the

quality of human life and survival rates.

As I take pride in continued personal growth for the benefit of others and broader community, I feel that joining this noble community would allow

me to contribute to the betterment of our society and wellbeing of future generations. In

choosing pharmacy as my field of study, I can be a part of the continued effort to improve

knowledge of human health and thus enhance the practice of medicine. Early in childhood, I

developed an interest in being able to help others in need. I am particularly driven to learn

how to effectively formulate and administer medications and educate patients on their

therapies.

As my family moved to the US in 1991, I initially struggled with language, making my studies

at high school and college level very challenging. During this time, rather than focusing solely

on academia, I had to cope with various life stressors, such as my parents’ migration from

India to Germany, and back to India, before finally settling in the US. In addition, they

subsequently divorced, and the breakdown of our family unit has been a major setback both

personally and in my academic pursuits. Due to the lack of stability and guidance, these

struggles were adversely reflected in my undergraduate work. Still, they never stopped me

from striving towards my dreams and I now finally have to opportunity to turn them into

reality. At this stage in my life, I have the experience, stability, and determination to

accomplish my goals reflecting my true potential.

My long-term goal is to help underprivileged children and educate people on topics of health

literacy, diabetes, and lifestyle changes. A degree in pharmacy will open a wide range of

opportunities to make an impact and help others to improve their health. In my current

position as a certified pharmacy technician, I can observe first-hand the positive impact that a

pharmacist can have on daily lives of many individuals. By counselling and educating

patients on the course of their treatment, it is possible to improve their health and wellbeing

in immeasurable ways. Thus, the experience I have gained working alongside pharmacists

dedicated to their profession and helping others has further solidified my decision to enter the

pharmaceutical field.

On a personal note, I also witnessed the effects of ill health and benefits of proper dedicated

care. When my aunt had a hysterectomy, this was my first exposure to health care setting,

and I could closely observe the effects that patient care could have on person’s recovery.

The most amazing part was when I went to see my aunt post-surgery, expecting to see her in

pain. I was thus pleasantly surprised that she was really at peace, having the benefit of the

medical advances that could relieve her pain by a push of a button. This really enhanced my

curiosity about medicine and prompted me to explore the field. This helped me appreciate

that medicine is much more than science, as it requires an integrated effort by the nurse,

pharmacist, and physicians, in order to provide optimal care in each case. Having

subsequently had several family members that suffered illness, I grew further aware of just

how important having optimal medical care is. Seeing the power of medicine, pharmaceutical
.
and technological advances and their importance in health outcomes prompted me to look

into ways in which I could contribute to this effort. Ideally, I wanted to be in a position to

educate, spread awareness, help heal, and make impact on not just the people around me,

but also my community and broader society.

My experiences, both positive and negative, have shaped the person I am today, and have

prepared me to face challenges life has yet to bring. I see the pharmacy program as an

opportunity to truly flourish and achieve my full potential. Having managed a business,

consulted customers in the financial field, and owned a pre-school, I feel that I have gained

broad experience in working closely with people in a variety of sectors. In all my endeavours,

including my current position, I have consistently done well in managing employees,

exceeding goals, and increasing customer satisfaction in the various positions I have held.

My personal ambition to help others is what will help me succeed in pharmacy school.

Learning how drugs work on a molecular level in treating various illnesses fascinated me in

my Biochemistry course. It is my goal to earn a PhamrD and build a solid educational

foundation that will allow me to work as a pharmacist. I am eager to expand my knowledge in

a field that has so much potential in improving quality of human life. Having worked as a

pharmacy technician for over one year now has only served to confirm that I am entering the

right field.

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Special life circumstances: Please describe any special life circumstances. These include but are not limited to the following: raised in a single parent home, socioeconomic status of family, first generation attending college, overcoming adversity, resident of an under-served area or an area with a health professions shortage, race and ethnicity, and cultural background.  2000 characters

When I was very young and needed stability the most, my family moved from India to Germany, and back to India, before finally arriving to the US in 1991. Each time we moved, I not only needed to learn a new language, but also find my way around unfamiliar environment. In addition, I was aware that my parents were unhappy in their marriage, which added further stress to my already challenging childhood.

While they both showed love to me and my brother, my father was always abusive towards my mother, who tolerated it due to our cultural beliefs. She finally got the courage to seek divorce when I was at college. Witnessing her struggle, I was determined to become educated independent woman, who will never have to experience disrespect and humiliation.

As I got older, and the fights between my parents got worse, I started using college as an escape. Having a purpose and a peer group gave me a sense of achievement and belonging. While I really tried hard to succeed academically, the unstable environment at home took the toll on my ability to focus and my grades started to decline.
Once my parents divorced, they started living in different states, so I spent most of the time travelling back and forth between my mom and dad’s house. While moving to the US was supposed to be a new start for us all, I found myself struggling to cope. As a result, I did not achieve my full potential academically and had to lower my expectations regarding my future career and life goals. This was really hard to accept and I started experiencing depression and anxiety, which lasted all throughout college.

In a way, the fact that I graduated at all was an achievement in itself. Soon after, I got my first job as a bank teller. Within one year, I was promoted from a teller, to a banker, to an assistant branch manager. I was consistently the top performer and started getting job offers from other banks. Sadly, at that time, my mom fell sick and I had to move to Seattle, where she lived. While looking after her, I still found enough strength and energy to further my career, as I not only managed a hotel, but also pursued a Masters degree in Business. While these achievements may seem insignificant to many, given the hardships and setbacks I experienced, I feel that I did really well.
Seeing my mother suffer all her life has inspired me to work hard and ensure that I would always be self sufficient and independent.

ATHLETES AS ROLE MODELS

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Considering athletes as role models is tricky business. It is a vast generalization to lump all athletes into the same category and call them role models. Each individual athlete is different, and should be considered for their own contributions. I don’t think we can either say that athletes should or should not be called role models, as each one has their individual personality, and many of them shouldn’t be looked up to as being model citizens. Many people put responsibilities on role models, and say that they should act in a responsible manner because many people are looking up to them. But that is a burden those athletes didn’t ask for, and it is unfair for them to have to act in ways that provide inspiration for people, and particularly for children. On the other hand, athletes make a lot of money and that money is thanks to the fans they have, so, in a way, the athletes owe it to their fans to give back. [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

Professional athletes should feel some sort of responsibility to the public to do good, and to provide an influence for young people. They are in a position that allows them to be very influential, and it is only ethical for them to not behave poorly, as that is only promoting that behavior in others. However, I don’t think it is necessary for each athlete to proactively perform tasks that promote good behavior, or that provide inspiration to young people. While it is their duty to not act poorly, I don’t think it is their duty to have the responsibility and burden of meeting with kids and playing sports with them, for example. However, that would be the right thing to do, considering the privileged position the athletes are in, and the little effort it takes to make such a big difference in people’s lives, (LeMier, 2007).

Many athletes will visit children in the community who are sick, for example. Simply showing up and talking to children is a big way to make a difference, but I don’t think it is wrong of athletes to not take the initiative to help out. However, if a player was asked to visit children in a hospital, for example, and they said no, then I think that shows very bad characterin the athlete. But it doesn’t mean that they become a bad role model, they have simply not made the step to becoming a positive role model, (Should, n.d.). [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

Looking at athletes as role models is a given. Sports are extremely popular, and the athletes will no doubt become role models, simply by playing the sport. The position of them being in the public eye comes with the responsibility of not behaving in a way that promotes poor behaviors. However, I don’t think it means athletes need to take the time to do things that inspire children. Their amazing talents on the playing surface does enough to provide hope to children of achieving big things. However, athletes should feel some obligation to give back to the community.

Works Cited
LeMier, K. (2007, November). Relationship Between Athletes and Role Models. Minnesota State 
University. 

Should Professional Athletes Be Considered Role Models?” (n.d.). University of Buffalo.

SAMPLE ESSAY ON APPLE INC.

Apple Inc. is a leading multinational technology company based in Cupertino California that develops and sells electronics such as media players, computers, software and they also offer online services. The organization was founded by Ronald Wayne, Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak  in 1977.  Apple currently holds the spot as the second  largest information technology company based on revenue in the world. As the first U.S company valued at more than  700 billion dollars, Apple is the largest publicly traded corporation by market capitalization.  (Wikipedia, 2015)

Apple Business Strategies

The success of the  corporation is not only attributed to their innovations but Apple has been able to maintain such a dominate position in its industry because of it’s effective business strategies. Below are some strategies that the organization has implemented.

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  1. Creating a following

Apple has been able to be so successful because they’ve been able to cultivate a following or a tribe who feel special because they have one thing in common; they all own the a Apple product.  Apple releases products at an incredibly fast pace and their fans are there every step of the way to purchase each new product even going as far as camping outside of retail outlets to ensure that they are able to purchase the latest item.

2. New  and Innovative Products

When Steve Jobs held the position as CEO of Apple he focused on designing and manufacturing new, unique innovative products. While Tim Cook, the new CEO of the organization, believes in the same model,  he has been utilizing Apple’s loyal consumer base to provide incremental improvements to products. (Williams, Westray, & Owlett, 2012) This is evident in the Iphone 5 that has been re released two times with modest improvements.

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3. Litigation

In an effort to ensure that Apple products are truly unique, the organization has filed a lawsuit with Samsung to protect the company from patent infringement.  Apple accused Samsung of creating smartphones that were highly similar in design to the iphones. This strategy degrades they’re competitors.  However, eventually the company agreed to drop their lawsuit against Samsung.  (Alford, 2015) I believe that this business strategy has been ineffective for the company, because the organization ended up spending millions of dollars on litigation fees that eventually went to waste.

4. Differentiation

Part of Apple strategy is attempting to increase a demand in the market for their products. This is done through product differentiation. This entails designing super creative products that are unique to the technological industry as well as attractive to consumers. For the past decade, the organization has been successful in this aspect. Despite competition from other powerful brands Apple is able to create a demand for their products and maintain power over pricing through product differentiation and customer loyalty.

3. “Minimum Advertised Price” Retail Strategy 

While Apple does sell it’s product through their  own retail stores and online channel the company also works with indirect distributors such as wholesalers, retailers and third party cellular carriers.  Apple utilizes an effective retail strategy known as MAP (Minimum Advertised Price) this prevents dealers and resellers from advertising the price of Apple products at a specific minimum price. MAP policies aid in decreasing pricing competition. Apple even offers retailers incentives if they choose to sell Apple products at their  MAP prices.

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However, Apple does offer select retailers such as Wal-Mart and Best Buy by offering them marginal wholesale discounts.

Apple’s business strategies are simple yet effective. They are founded on two crucial factors product innovation and smart pricing.

Apple Global Competitiveness Plan

At a Goldman Sachs conference held in 2013, Apple CEO Tim Cook revealed that what set Apple apart from others in its industries is it’s company’s “expertise in software, hardware and services”.  Further, Tim said that “Apple has the ability on all three of these spheres to innovate like crazy and cause magic”. (Nielson, 2014)  Apple’s global competitiveness plan includes:

Multiple Products

Apple designs and sells multiple products including laptops, tablets, smartphones, media players and the company is working on new innovations such as the Apple Watch. Formerly, Apple had a consumer base for each of its three main products; Mac, ipods and iphones. The evolution of the iphone and the launch of the ipad has allowed the company to dominate the market in many categories of electronics.

Digital Assets

Itunes gives Apple an global competitive advantage. Apple is the biggest digital retailer with more than one hundred million Itunes customers. (Bajarin, 2011)

Expansion in Other Areas of Business

In recent years, Apple has expanded in other areas of business. They work along with other corporations to develop productivity applications and tools. Apple recently developed ResearchKit an open source framework that allows medical researchers and developers to easily create custom apps to aid in making life changing discoveries.

SWOT Analysis

What are some of Apple’s strength and weakness? A SWOT analysis revealed the followed:

Strengths Weakness
Customer Loyalty High prices
Brand Reputation Products are incompatible with most OS
Innovative products Big defects in new products
Strong financial performance Legal threats
Success retail stores Lack of confidence from consumers in new management (When Tim Cook replaced Steve Jobs)
Opportunities Threats
Market share growth Competition in the online music market
Booming tablet and smartphone market Security breaches
High demand of iPhone 6 Rapid changes in the technology industry
Increased demand for online storage Price pressure from leading competitors

External Scenario Evaluation

Currently, Apple is the leading global technology provider and digital assets corporation. In addition, it’s the only organization that generates and runs it’s own hardware and software.  However, every corporation has vulnerabilities. An external scenario evaluation the organization will be equipped to be able to adapt to social, economic, political and market share changes.

Scenario # 1 Political upheaval in manufacturing countries

It’s no secret that Apple outsources the majority of it’s manufacturing and production work outside of the United States. In an effort to reduce operating costs Apple outsources to Cork, Czech Republic, Ireland and China.  In the event that these countries undergo political instability this could potentially halt or slow down the manufacturing process. While the organization isn’t able to control such political factors, it can take measures to effectively handle if it does affect the company. Apple might consider developing more manufacturing plants within the U.S. Also, a lot of Apple’s overseas manufacturing plants are within the same country so the organization should also consider expanding they’re outsourcing horizons.

Scenarion #2 Reduced Purchasing power

Purchasing power is dependent upon the economy. What happens when unemployment rates increase and inflation occurs? Apple is known for selling products at premium prices. How can the organization still maintain steady revenue? Well, in the event that the economic state is in really bad shape I think Apple could rebrand older generation products and sell them at super affordable prices. Also, I think the corporation would benefit from designing less sophisticated classification of products similar to what they did with the iphone 5th generation.

Apple Business Process

  1. Product Innovation

Apple designs and manufactures new products. Next, the product is launched.

  1. Service

The customer places an order through Apple’s online marketplace or via the organization’s retail location.

  1. Marketing and Sales

The marketing and sales department develops marketing and advertising strategies to increase sales. In addition, the marketing and sales divisions assists in fulfilling customer orders through supply chain management.

Potential Ethical Issues

There are numerous ethical issues that a corporation may face. Below are potential ethical issues that Apple could face:

  1. Underage labor

Apple outsources to many different foreign countries. In recent years Apple has discovered multiple cases of child labor within its supply chain. An internal audit revealed that more than 100 children were employed at 11 different Apple manufacturing factories.  (Garside, 2013) This can be resolved by monitoring and increasing requirements on the hiring process.

2. Sustainability 

Apple is constantly launching new products and encouraging consumers to upgrade to the latest product. This can have an impact on the environment because this can lead to consumers improperly disposing of electronics. To help solve this issue the company should implement a buy back or recycling program in which consumers can turn in their old products.  Also,  the company should make sure that they are creating products out of recyclable materials.

                                                         References

Alford, H. (2015, March 5). Apple’s strategy evolves but their business model remains unchanged | TheHill. Retrieved from http://thehill.com/blogs/congress-blog/technology/234623-apples-strategy-evolves-but-their-business-model-remains

Bajarin, B. (2011, June 2). Why Apple Has a Strong Competitive Advantage | Tech.pinions – Perspective, Insight, Analysis. Retrieved from https://techpinions.com/apples-competitive-advantage/5

Garside, J. (2013, January 25). Child labour uncovered in Apple’s supply chain | Technology | The Guardian. Retrieved from http://www.theguardian.com/technology/2013/jan/25/apple-child-labour-supply

Nielson, S. (2014, February 6). Why Apple’s ecosystem is its biggest competitive advantage – Market Realist. Retrieved from http://marketrealist.com/2014/02/ecosystem/

Williams, B., Westray, A., & Owlett, J. (2012, December 7). Apple Business Strategy Under Tim Cook – Apple’s Use of Litigation as a Business Strategy and the Ripple Effects on the Mobile Marketplace. Retrieved from http://faculty.ist.psu.edu/bagby/432F12/T11/apple-business-strategy-under-tim-cook.html

ANOREXIA NERVOSA: AN OVERVIEW

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Abstract
frequent occurrence, particularly among teenage girls and young female adults. This research has evolved from a time where many believed that the condition was solely attached to the images that women see on TV, which females sometimes want to emulate. . [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]But more recent studies suggest that genetics could also plays a major role in the frequency by which anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa occur. In fact, it is only in the last 10 years or so that detailed research of genetic factors has occurred. These studies suggest that anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are hereditary. However, this information isn’t proven, as it is in its theoretical stage. But this discovery should not underscore the serious nature of the psychological factors, developmental factors and social factors that contribute to the condition. This essay explores the various components that play critical roles in the development of anorexia nervosa, before analyzing the treatment options for the condition. The collection of this data in a consolidated form will facilitate testing the credibility of each source by lining up each study’s claims to see if they match. The causes of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are still largely unknown, but studies are beginning to shed some light on the ways in which society can begin to address many of the devastating results that happen as a result of these eating disorders.

Description of the disease
Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder that restricts the amount of food that those who suffer from the disease eat. It is characterized by an irrational fear of gaining weight, and it includes a distorted view of one’s body.

Who discovered, when where and how
In 1689, English physician Richard Morton is credited as being the first to document anorexia nervosa. He was treating an 18-year-old girl, but he was unsuccessful and she died of starvation 3 months later. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

Therapy/treatment for a cure, if any
In H Agosino et. al.’s “Shifting Paradigms: Continuous Nasogastric Feeding With High Caloric Intakes in Anorexia Nervosa,” the researchers set out to investigate the approaches to treating people with anorexia nervosa. Agostino notes that those seeking treatment initially undergo physiologic stabilization. This is often done through nutritional rehabilitation that is balanced against the dangers associated with refeeding syndrome. Some of the alternative approaches identified by the authors include an emphasis on meal composition, including reducing carbs to decrease risk. In their paper, the researchers investigated the Montreal Children’s Hospital’s standardized high-calorie continual nasogastric refeeding strategy. This is designed for the primary management of the patients who are adolescents, and who have restricted eating disorders.

Social impact of the disease
Many believe that anorexia nervosa is caused by women who are struggling to meet the cultural ideals of body image, which is majorly connected to being thin. The disease is causing society to rethink the images that are common in the mass media, of very thin women, (Hirst, 1998). [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

Works Cited
Agostino, H. (2013, July 19). Shifting Paradigms: Continuous Nasogastric Feeding With 
High Caloric Intakes in Anorexia NervosaThe National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health.

Hirst, J. (1998). Biological Causes of Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa. Bryn Mawr 
College. 

Polivy, J., and Herman, C.P. (2002). Causes of Eating Disorders. University of Arkansas. 

RATIONALISM VS. EMPIRICISM

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The debate about whether rationalism or empiricism should carry more weight is an age-old question that only has convincing arguments on one side. Empiricism believes that knowledge comes mainly from people’s sensory experience. It is very important that the ideas stem from experience and evidence that is experienced by each person, and this experience forms ideas. In empiricism, it is very important that evidence is established, and that evidence is particularly valuable if it is generated through an experiment. The information that is gathered through this experience needs to be tested against observations in the natural world, rather than depending more on revelation, intuition or priori reasoning. Rationalism believes that reasoning should be the way in which true knowledge is gained. The very basis of rationalism is intellectual and deductive, rather than being sensory. According to those who believe in rationalism, the way of thinking is based on a truth that reality is logical in its structure. . [Are you asking the question “Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]Rationalism assumes that the intellect is able to grasp the truths about life. Those who believe in rationalism believe in reasoning, and they have confidence that people are able to reason well. In fact, rationalists believe that people are so capable of reasoning that physical evidence and proof aren’t necessary to find truth. In this essay, I will break down the arguments before coming the conclusion that empiricism is the most logical theory of knowledge. Rationalism gives too high of an esteem to people’s deductive powers, while tossing out the fundamental scientific evidence touted by empiricism about the science behind knowledge.
The reason empiricism is so much more logical than rationalism as a knowledge base, is because rationalism is too subjective. There is too much room for error if the person that is trying to find the truth is not correct in their views. Rationalism assumes that the person who is doing the thinking is a rational person. But if that person isn’t rational, they can come to conclusions that don’t conform to proper reasoning. This is where empiricism makes up for where rationalism lacks. Empiricism allows people to test theories on actual science, rather than having the so-called knowledge come from the very subjective mind.

Plato’s Theaetetus is concerned with answering the questions “what is knowledge?”While I don’t believe that his dialogue really answers the questions, it does show several interesting facts with which I agree. Mainly, he brings a lot of insight into perception, in his attempt to debunk the irrationalities associated with rationalism. Theaetetus believes that knowledge is based on perception, and while being encourages by Socrates, he states “It seems to me that one knows something is perceiving the things he knows and so far as I can see present, knowledge is nothing but perception” (151d).  Socrates summarizes this thought by saying that any given is to me such as it appears to me, and it is to you as it appears to you, you and I being men (152b). This clearly shows that the truth is in the eye of the beholder. Socrates is saying that a person’s perception is their own truth, and that makes it their reality. However, it can be presumed that Protagoras didn’t mean to say that the wind is not chilly and chilly at the same time. Instead, he is trying to make an epistemological point. Many academics have suggested that the point Protagoras is trying to make is an epistemological view that is in line with what Heraclitus’ metaphysical view that reality is constantly changing (152e). But Socrates doesn’t realize that the wind doesn’t actually change. For example, let’s assume that the outside temperature is -10 degree Celsius. If you go outside, that temperature stays the same. Also, if I go outside the temperature still remains the same. But if you wear warm clothes, you won’t feel as cold as I would feel if I was wearing shorts and a T-shirt. This indicates that the perception one has is guided by what they have equipped in their minds. This consists of experiences and opinions that have shaped how a person thinks, and therefore changes how they experience things (Jowett, 2004).

Furthermore, Socrates has the argument that the Socrates who is ill and the Socrates who is healthy are totally different subjects. In a similar line of thought, the Socrates who is asleep and the one who is awake are also two different subjects. That means that there can be two realities. For example, the ill Socrates might taste the wine and think that it is bitter, but healthy Socrates might consider the wine to be sweet. He is saying that it is through his experience that the truth comes out, and that means different people’s experiences can generate different truths. There is no one way or the other that is considered to be the correct view. It is the same wine, but it is tasted through a different filter, and that filter causes a change in the reality of the wine. If two people are healthy, the same wine will taste the same, he argues (Howe, n.d.). For example, if there are two people tasting the wine and they are both healthy, and one tastes the wine before dinner and the other tastes the wine after dinner, then there isn’t likely going to be a difference in the way that the wine tastes. However, in taking a look at the -10 degrees Celsius temperature, a meteorologist can show that the temperature is actually at that level. This is similar to Galileo proving that the Sun is actually the centre of the solar system, and not the Earth, by revealing that through his telescope. Because we can scientifically prove some of these theories, it is impossible to logically make conclusions through rationalism, rather than through the knowledge gained through the senses. In other words, empiricism is a more rational way of coming to the truth than is rationalism.

In the end, John Locke was right when he said that the source of our knowledge comes directly from the sense experience. He believed that the mind is a “blank slate” when we are born and it is through our experiences that we develop a way of perceiving the world. This means that there aren’t any innate experiences; all of our opinions about any piece of knowledge are direct results of the experiences that we have had. On the other hand, rationalism holds a very strong belief in people’s ability to reason. However, there have been so many pieces of evidence throughout time that would indicate reasoning is not one of mankind’s greatest traits. However, reasoning doesn’t help many people come to grasp things for what they actually are. Rationalism assumes that people possess the innate qualities with which to come to logical determinations, and this is the fundamental way to have knowledge. If the world functioned in the way that rationalists wanted, there would be no need for scientific evidence. But as we have proven more often in modern times, scientific evidence is needed to come to true knowledge. If everything was based on a person’s very subjective beliefs, then there would be no need for forensic scientists at a crime scene, for example. There is nothing rational about rationalism, as it undermines the very foundation of logic. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

Works Cited
Howe. R. (n.d.). Is Knowledge Perception? An Examination of Plato’s Theaetetus. HoweRetrieved from

Jowett, B. (2004). Selections from Plato’s Theaetetus Converning Knowledge as PerceptionUC 
Davis. 

FIGHT CLUB: A HARSH SOUND MOTIF

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Fight Club, a 1999 David Fincher film, is a psychedelic journey into the mind of an insomniac (Ed Norton) who forms a relationship with Tyler Durden (Brad Pitt). After the insomniac’s home explodes, destroying all his worldly possessions, he phones Tyler, a soap-selling nihilist – who he had recently met on an airplane during a work assignment – and asks to meet for a drink. The insomniac implies he needs a place to stay and Tyler offers him a room in his dilapidated home; Tyler then asks the insomniac to punch him as hard as he can. This is when the story takes the men on a journey, with Tyler teaching the insomniac how to be nihilistic. The men form a fight club, which catches on throughout the country before it is eventually discovered that the insomniac is imagining his best friend, Tyler. [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

From the very first sound cue in the film, Fincher begins the chaotic journey, which is not only fueled by the actions and dialogue of the characters, but also by the use of harsh sounds, on which this essay will be focused as the film’s motif. Because the two lead actors play the same character (Pitt as nihilistic Tyler Durden and Norton as insomniac Tyler Durden) the actors’ last names will be used to refer to each character.

During that first bit of sound, Fincher begins with about a second of classical music before it is stopped – like a needle harshly being pulled off a record player – and then a rushing chaotic electronic rock song invades the tempo of the movie, much like how Pitt invades the life of Norton. During this opening scene and first example of the sound motif, the camera tracks what appears to be the inner working of the human brain. This links nicely with the theme of the movie, which is Norton’s mental condition. The shot pans out from his brain and rests at the trigger of a gun. It is later discovered that Norton’s mind, or more specifically his imagination, has caused the gun to be there, which immediately identifies Norton’s mind as the cause of the chaos.

But Norton finds relief from his insomnia when he attends support groups, during which Fincher plays soft classical music. This provides a construct to which the audience associates good and bad: when pleasant sounds are played, good is happening, and when harsh sounds are played, bad is happening. But when Marla Singing appears in one of the support groups, a character that would interfere with Norton’s ability to sleep, a high pitch string sound that resembles something that would be heard in a horror movie, reverberates in the background, (Mathews, 2013).

But the sound motif is even more impactful when Norton is about to meet Pitt. Just after Norton explains to a fellow airplane passenger about the car business in which he works, he imagines an airplane crashing a few aisles in front of his. This causes a sharp sound when a hole is blown through the plane, much like how Pitt will blow a hole through Norton’s life. This crash is a sign of the destruction that Pitt will impose onto Norton with his nihilistic lifestyle. Immediately after Norton wakes from this dream, he meets Pitt. Throughout the men’s initial conversation there is an eerie airplane noise in the background.

The second time Pitt and Norton speak, sirens are heard in the background as the two talk on the phone. This is like a warning to Norton that Pitt is a destructive character in his life. The eerie background noise continues after the two men leave a bar and crickets are heard. Later, when Pitt asks Norton to hit him as hard as he can, a harsh train horn is triggered in the background. These background sounds set the tone for the movie, gelling with Pitt’s nihilistic view of the world and the outlook he presents to Norton. The sounds represent the chaos in Norton’s mind, and the insanity that will manifest itself in his life after meeting Pitt.

Most of the rest of the movie is full of fists slapping against flesh, as the men start a fight club. This is where the warning sirens, and eerie crickets and airplane sounds, come together in the hard packing sounds that continue the motif that ties the film together. But the pounding doesn’t stop during the fighting. Once Pitt meets Marla, the two hook up and Norton must come home to them having sex. Even when Norton is in bed, trying to sleep, the entire house is falling apart from the rough sex that is going on in Pitt’s room. Marla screams and the bed squeaks, adding to the harsh sounds of the film and building on the chaos in Norton’s mind, (Bernaerts, n.d.).

Later, when Pitt pours lye onto Norton’s hand and burns it, a piercing electronic sound resonates. This is the point in the film where Norton is hitting rock bottom, to which Pitt is guiding him. To this point, it is perhaps the most pain Norton has experienced and, thus, the darkest moment on his nihilistic path.

As Pitt and Norton are driving along the freeway and Pitt releases his hands from the steering wheel, veering into oncoming traffic, horns blaze and wheels screech. At this point, Norton learns to “let go,” and this is when he appears to hit rock bottom during the journey on which Pitt has sent him. The audience later discovers that his morals won’t allow him to fully hit bottom.

When Norton suspects after a conversation with a bartender that he could be Tyler Durden, a high pitch winding sound is cued, providing a final link to the sound motif that ties the nihilistic philosophy of the movie together. This finishes the harsh sound motif nicely at the end. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

Works Cited
Bernaerts, L. (n.d.). Fight Club and the Embedding of Delirium in NarrativeNorthern 
Illinois University. 

Mathews, P. (2013). Diagnosing Chuck Palahniuk’s Fight ClubAcademia. 

“’THE END OF PLENTY:” WHEN’S THE NEXT GREEN REVOLUTION?”

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In his article published in National Geographic entitled “The End of Plenty,” Joel K. Bourne Jr. discusses the pandemic that people throughout the world face when it comes to meeting the challenges of finding enough food for sustenance. This article sheds a clear light on the struggles many people face and the types of action that can help address the issue. Bourne puts clearly into perspective the privileges of people in developed countries and how the United States and countries like it compare to the devastation of living in a third-world nation. But his article isn’t just about the need for food in these places, it is also about the results of the overindulgences of those who lived in privileged nations. He sheds light on the current incompetence to harvest one’s own food from the land around them, and this has real consequences for suffering nations. This article serves as a wake-up call that developed nations need to take on the responsibility of consuming in a more sustainable manner, and it will take real reform in order to meet this outcome. [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

Bourne mentions the skyrocketing price of food that Americans began to notice between 2005 and 2008. This brought the attention to Americans that the current way of growing, processing and delivering food to each American’s dinner plate isn’t the best way to live. The level of consumption has been too high, and the level of carryover stockpiles has decreased to an all-time low. This is because people have been eating more than what is produced, drawing on the reserves, limiting the supply and, therefore, increasing the price for food. The scariest bit of information is the rate at which the world is populating compared to the increase in food production. But the price isn’t only increasing for those in developed countries; it’s also going up for those who have a harder time affording food. While those in developed nations have to dig deeper to pay for their mean, those in third-world nations have no choice but to stare at an empty plate.

One of the most devastating aspects to the fact that these needy people are unable to have food at a reasonable price, is that about 50 to 70 per cent of their money goes towards paying for food as it is. Now that these prices have increased by so much, many of them aren’t able to afford to spend any money on food. Despite the Global Recession, the prices that were seen around 2005 have been largely unchanged. “Even though prices have fallen with the imploding world economy, they are still near record high, and the underlying problems of low stockpiles, rising population, and flattening yield growth remain,” (2). This means that if a massive recession can’t drop the prices, then not much can. Perhaps the recession actually acted to simmer the price inflation down. Once the global economy fully recovers, those prices could be skyrocketing even more.

The question remains about what the world can do with the rapidly rising costs. There is an increasing concern, given the fact that the world’s population is set to burst to over nine billion by 2050. In order to address the future need, there is a requirement for production to double by 2030. And nobody really knows what will happen if that outcome isn’t met. While there was a green revolution between the 1950s and 1990s, it would be difficult to repeat that trend, particularly with the increasing number of people demanding organically grown foods. This type of food is much less efficient than food that is grown with pesticides, as there is the need for much more land than what is needed with the latter option.

The problem appears to have been persisting since our ancestors stopped hunting and gathering and started plowing and planning about 12,000 years ago. The number of people on the planet has increased at a comparable rate as the number of developments in creating options for eating. This means that as people become better at finding ways to produce food, the population will grow anyway, and take away any advantage that the growing innovation had created. For example, if food production increases, prices will drop and people in Third World Countries will be able to afford more food. This will increase the survival rate, which will increase the population – due to the very fact that those people are living into adulthood and living longer – by providing a greater opportunity for people to reproduce. Those new babies will be more likely to survive, and in turn they will go on to make babies of their own. As long as they are able to afford the food that is available to them, they will continue to reproduce at a rapid rate. This new batch of babies will demand food, raising price again – and so on.

The issue appears to have no end, and some nasty critics of creating more food supply have even said that such a production would increase the surplus population, such as what was depicted in Charles Dickens’ “The Christmas Carol,” (4). So in an effort to ensure the greatest good for the greatest number of people, some might consider feeding all the needy only exacerbates the problem, causing people to grow up in misery. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]However, as long as there are mouths to feed, and the world population isn’t doomed to die out, every effort should be made to sustain the lives of as many people as possible. And if the world’s population reaches 100 billion and there is no more room to produce food, then there would be the need to come to a new solution. People might wonder if Scrooge is right, and that there should have been an end to feeding everyone in every nation, but only the wickedest person would say that today needs to see the end to producing enough food for the Third World. But before it comes to that, a new way of food production needs to come on board to spur on the next Green Revolution.

FINDING “AN INVISIBLE WOMAN”

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Bharati Mukherjee’s “An Invisible Woman” is a critique on Canadian racism. Specifically, she alludes in her work to her perception that the Canadian attitude towards immigrants from South Asia, especially women, were growing more intolerant while she lived in the country. Her position comes from her personal account of what took place in her life and how being a person of a different culture made her to be the subject of racist attitudes. Mukherjee is able to create a first-person account of the results of being of a different race in Canada because she was born in India and moved to the United States. [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.] She would later immigrate to Canada, where she found the level of racism to be too intolerable, and so she returned to the U.S. Mukherjee’s experience in Canada was intolerable due to the fact that she was the subject of racism, and this made her leave the country, and this shows that at the time Canada wasn’t the multicultural and accepting country that it claimed to be. Because of this first-person account, it brings credibility to the research, and the use of the author’s outside interviews adds a new level of credibility that makes it an important piece for those interested in Canadian politics, and those who are also immigrants. It is through the personal account that draws the reader and makes the care about what happens in the story, and it is through the author’s research that brings credibility to the story and leaves the reader feeling informed, rather than just feeling they only heard a harsh opinion on race relations in Canada.

Her story shows the torn identities of herself, who is a South Asian. It also shows the cultural tensions that led to her bad experiences, and this type account helps draw in the reader, many of whom are likely immigrants themselves and have experienced similar situations. She takes a position against the idea of there being the possibility of being a successful individual, and this is shown when she say “Our girls can take their places with the best anywhere in the world,’ Mother John-Baptist, the headmistress, had promised my father on my first day of school. (And we have, all over India and the English-speaking, even German-speaking, world.) On a sticky August night in 1961, when my younger sister … and I, on my way to the University of Iowa, left by Air India for New York, I felt that I could,” (329).

Mukherjee establishes for the reader her perspectives, and this helps the audience gain an idea of the feelings behind the story. The piece is largely driven by opinions and perspectives, and this makes it interesting also for people who haven’t experienced being considered a foreigner, because it sheds light on the situation. That is a very useful technique by Mukherjee to appeal to a wider audience. As she explains, despite her living in many countries, including India, Great Britain, the U.S. and Canada, it is Canada that is the most racist of them all. Startling remarks such as that help keep the reader’s interest, as Canada has considered itself a leader in immigration.

In the essay, the author uses a first-person narrative style to write the essay, and this is held throughout the piece. She gains the audience’s attention by telling a story of her experience, and the fact that the story is so descriptive draws the reader in. Essentially, Mukherjee gives a broad account of what was going on inside of her head throughout her experience in the various countries. This makes the story less visual, and more of a thinker’s story. It especially relates to people who are of different cultural backgrounds than Canadians who were born in the nation. This is because they can relate their own experiences to those that were experienced by Mukherjee. She is very forward in her descriptions, and doesn’t let political correctness hold her back: “

Mukherjee is also effective in her story by utilizing interviews she conducted with Pakistani and Indian people who are from various parts of Canada. The fact that they live in different areas of the nation is a good researching technique, because Mukherjee is writing an account of the racial perspective throughout Canada, and not just one area. While she can attest to her specific experience in the areas that she inhabited, it is not possible for her to make a blanket statement for Canada’s race relations without researching the rest of the country. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.] By doing this, Mukherjee ended the paper discussing some of the experiences others have had in relation to race in Canada, while at the beginning of the essay she was more focused on her personal experience with race relations. However, she ties the two experiences together in her analysis. She says both her and her friends had a shared promise, and while some have stayed to work with the various levels of government, others have fought, and others, like her, have left.

Works Cited
Mukherjee, Bharati, “An Invisible Woman.” Landmarks: A process Reader. Roberta Birks, Tomi
Eng, and Julie Walchli, eds. Scarborough, ON: Prentice-Hall, 1998. 324-331. (Orig. 1981)