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BUSINESS CASE: GORDON AND BIERSCH

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I. Summary of the case.
When two people from different backgrounds (experience and education) meet and share their ideas about opening a business, a new era of restaurant ownership begins. Dan Gordon and Dean Biersch created a new trend in the restaurant business by combining their experiences with an idea of micro-brewing beer that is served in a restaurant. On one hand, we have the talented first ever (in 30 years) American who completed his Dpl. BR. Ing degree – which is the highest technical degree in brewing engineering from Germany – and on the other hand: a passionate man who wants to do something that he loves, which is food and cooking. Not only does Dean Biersch have passion for his work but he also has a wide range of multicultural learning experiences.

In four years the duo opened three successful locations which are Palo Alto, San Jose and Pasadena. Soon, they became one of the major suppliers of micro-brewing beer in that area, and catered to things such as San Jose Sharks games and the San Francisco airport. [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

Once people are successful their tendencies are to open more businesses and they wonder how they will get more success. These two visionaries want their business to grow nationwide and create a brand name by expanding the whole infrastructure to create 100 restaurants. Now, when they are planning for a massive expansion which requires a lot of managerial experience and of course a lot of money, they are paling and looking for investors who they could work with and at the same time who they can make sure the standard which they created can be continued in new restaurants. So they talked with venture capitalists such as the Fertitta family, as well as banks.

II. Critical Issues – What are the major problems facing the entrepreneur in this case?  Be sure to categorize identified problems into one (or more) of these groups:

A. Marketing problems: We know that Gordon and Biersch have no experience of marketing in a large circle. They opened a couple of restaurants and they did not choose any marketing strategy except word-of-mouth marketing. This can be a good strategy in a small area, but when you are going to nationwide, you have to have a certain marketing strategy. When we see any restaurants like Applebees or the Olive Garden, we see various types of TV advertisements. Or they promote their brands in other ways. In the expansion, there is no certain marketing plan. As a result, they have three locations, not the 100 that they want. But there are other problems. [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

B. Management problems: One of the keys to the success of their three restaurants was Mack Tilling, who worked day and night with his passion to make each restaurant successful. If within the massive expansion process they could hire a bunch of MBAs and managers, they might not find the same enthusiasm which they found in Mack Tilling. The new employees might not be efficient; besides, they do not have knowledge of the right Performa of hiring people and how to place them in the right order. They have only managed three restaurants so far, and they have to know that managing three and managing 100 is not the same.

C. Operational problems: Gordon was in charge of brewing and Biersch was in charge of food and the restaurant. When they have three restaurants, Gordon can make sure that the quality of his beer is nearly perfect. Since he is the only person who knows about the brewing engineering, he cannot physically brew on all proposed locations. He needs to train at least 25 people in different regions where the potential restaurants would be located. He needs people who can represent Gordon’s standard. But in this process, they have to build a training facility to train the employees, which is not in their business plan.

D. Financial problems: Another major problem in this expansion is finding a reliable source of money. On one hand, we have Lorenzo Fertitta, who is from a well-known casino business family who has a very lucrative offer of $11.2 million and $42 million post-money valuation, which is coming with a huge amount of managerial experiences from the Fertitta family. But in return they have to give away the controlling interest of the company.

E. Strategic problems: In the restaurant business, the weather and surrounding the environment has a great impact. A seafood restaurant may be doing very good in the west coast but in east coast it might be not work perfectly. So far, Gordon and Biersch had been succeeded in few restaurant and micro brewing bar. They have no particular idea or a survey about the whole United States micro-brewing industry.

F. Other problems: Not only does Lorenzo Fertitta want control over the company, he is also offering Gordon to make microbrewery for all of their casinos by which he will eventually know the secrets of Gordon’s brand of beer and then there will be no problem for him to get more control over the company.
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III. Critical Analytic Tasks/Results – In this section you identify the steps necessary to adequately analyze the critical issues in the case.  What research mechanisms must you explore, quantitative methodology needed, who do you need to talk to, etc., and why, in order to understand and make solid recommendations related to the case.  Once you describe the work required, you need to explain the results of your research and analysis.

There needs to be an analysis of the competition. There are market segments where other companies are beating the men’s business. This is in areas where the men aren’t catering to the tastes of the locals.

There also needs to be more information about what the bank is willing to offer the men and when a response is expected from the bank.

Interviews need to be conducted in order to find out if there is anyone able to do the type of work that Mick Tilley was doing. Also, is there anyone out there who is skilled enough to brew the beer to the level that Gordon brews it?

Also, is there the managerial know-how to complete the tasks and general running of the business that would be facilitated by adding the Frititta family to the mix? Interviews should also be conducted to discover this.

IV. Recommendations – what should the entrepreneur do to address each problem identified in part II?  You MUST support your recommendations with a discussion of the implications and feasibility of each recommendation.  Which recommendations, in your opinion, are most important to turning the situation around and why?

A. Marketing problems: The word-of-mouth advertising is some of the strongest there is. This creates loyal customers from the advice of customers who are already loyal. However, this method doesn’t get to as many people as the men would probably like. While a company like Starbucks can get by from word-of-mouth advertising, a company such as Biersch can’t. This is because there is a Starbucks on so many streets. It’s hard to miss a Starbucks. But Biersch doesn’t have the number of locations that Starbucks has. This is why they need an advertising approach. An effective method at restaurant/bars is to create events. They may want to market to local sports teams, with specials on that night. The men don’t have the budget to market on TV, so they could pay for promos in elevators of buildings, for example. The radio is also a cheaper alternative to television advertising.

B. Management problems: Mack Tilling has to work excessively in order to run the three restaurants. This says there are already problems in the management. Before the men can take expansion seriously, they need to be able to get the three restaurants to a point where they are running efficiently. There shouldn’t be a member of the management team who is working day and night. This is unreasonable and there must be an issue with recruitment or money if this is happening. The men have a lot to learn about what it takes for the company’s management to be working effectively before they can expand.

C. Operational problems: Because Gordon is the only one who knows how to brew the beer in the best way possible, he needs to find apprentices that can carry on his recipe in the other restaurants. I recommend that he can begin by training one person. Once he finds the right person, that employee can be transferred to a new location. Gordon won’t be able to brew at all locations, so it is necessary for him to find someone who is willing to relocate. Essentially, he will need a brewer at each location, or someone who can travel and brew at various locations. This would depend on the frequency of brewing that is needed.

D. Financial problems: The process of securing funds from an investment bank proved to be too long of a process, so financing wasn’t secured to expand their five existing restaurants. Because the funding wasn’t secured, the Fertitta family approached the men and offered the money in exchange for a portion of the company. The owners should hold tight and they shouldn’t offer the Fertitta brothers a stake in the company. Gordon and Biersch might not even be ready to expand and if they can secure money from the bank, then they only have to pay that money back with interest. The bank will have no control over the operation of the business, and they won’t be entitled to a percentage of the revenue. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

E. Strategic problems: A strict analysis of the competition needs to be compiled before the men can think about expanding. Due to the competition in some areas, the men need to figure out what type of dining they should cater to. I believe the restaurant should take into consideration to type of foods that can be found in that area. For example, Atlantic salmon could be a menu item in Maine.

F. Other problems: Because the Fertitta family could become familiar with the brewing process and take further control of the company, the men should refrain from going into business with the Fertittas. The microbrewery and restaurant is such a good idea that it should be kept to the men. The beer recipe could be the strategic advantage, and Gordon and Biersch should be careful about who they bring into “The Know.” They need to be patient and wait for that bank loan.

V. Answers to Case Questions

The questions from each case (when supplied) must be answered (in detail) in this section.
1.     Identify the key factors responsible for the success of Gordon Biersch to date. What concerns, if any, do you have as the company looks ahead?
The company has been successful so far because they have a niche that people haven’t really tapped into yet. The company has taken advantage of some recent change in legislation that allows them to brew and sell beer on the premises. Because they had enough capital to open up their restaurants and they were knowledgeable in the business, they were able to build a company that is successful.

2.     Evaluate Gordon Biersch’s organizational alternatives to realize its growth ambitions. Recommend a course to follow.
The company could advertise more. Gordon needs to find an apprentice so that he has someone who can facilitate the brewing in additional restaurants. There also needs to be an evaluation of the competition, so the business knows where to expand to.

3.     Evaluate Gordon Biersch’s efforts to raise outside capital. What would you have done differently?
I would stay patient and not take the offer from the Fertitta family. There is too much risk from the family taking a large share of the company. If too much is given up, Gordon Biersch won’t be able to expand in the way that it wants. The company should wait until they find out about their bank approval.

4.     Which offer, if any, should Gordon Biersch accept? Why? How should they proceed?
They haven’t been offered anything worthwhile, at this point. They should wait for an offer from the bank. However, I think it is unlikely that they will receive an offer from the bank that is as large as the offer from the Fertitta family. The growth might be slower if they wait for the bank, but I think they should be patient. There is no need for them to be greedy by opening up so many locations.

HOW DOES/CAN A BUSINESS BALANCE PROFITS AND SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY?

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In order to make a profit, companies sometimes make decisions that aren’t ethical. This could be intentionally deceiving customers in order to make a profit, or it could be manufacturing in a way that destroys the environment, for example. Other companies might hurt fellow workers, mistreat employees and mislead investors. In carrying out a business, a company needs to have a set of moral standards that are written into the company’s code of ethics.    [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

Principles and moral codes need to be formulated so a company carries out its business ethically. These codes have to go beyond simplicity and deal with the macro issues. Currently, a code of ethics is simply in place at many companies for the very reason that they can say they have a code of ethics. But these codes aren’t always far-reaching. For example, they could cover in-house issues such as respect for the property of coworkers, honoring contracts and personal honesty. But this traditional way of compiling a code of ethics doesn’t consider the many issues that develop when dealing with the public and the environment.

Some people might argue that there are checks and balances to ensure that companies aren’t breaking the ethical code. These companies would say that what they are doing isn’t overly unethical, that it is necessary for the production of a much-needed good. The people who are working can leave at any time if they don’t like it here; Our customers know the product they are buying and they should use their own judgement about whether the product is worth purchasing; Our shareholders knew they were taking a chance when they purchased our stock; Those who are concerned with the environment are overly protective tree huggers, the unethical business owners would say.

All of the arguments are weak, as they are all deceitful. The anti-environment argument was strong through until the mid-1990s. Then it was proven that these “tree huggers” were actually on to something. Until very recently, companies showed little regard for their operations’ effect on the environment. These companies knew that what they were doing couldn’t be ethical. Officials witnessed the sludge that was being poured into lakes, rivers, streams and oceans, but if they didn’t dispose of this muck in a cost-effective way, they would be cutting into profits. Fortunately there are now checks on these companies to ensure they aren’t blatantly polluting the world. But there is still clearly corruption among corporations throughout the nation. The companies that claim they need to be unethical in order to achieve the most profits are deliberately leaving out an encompassing code of ethics. It is particularly easy for non-public companies to do, because they aren’t under the close watch of public scrutiny. < Click Essay Writer to order your essay >

In order to balance profits and ethics, business managers need to look long and hard at what stakeholders are affected by the decisions the company makes. There needs to be clear rules about how the business will conduct itself in certain situations, but there also needs to be general guidelines that the company can fall back on when it has to deal with an unanticipated situation. The argument that a company should just do what is right is not far-reaching enough, as it is too vague. Managers need to be specific about the way it will interact with the stakeholders and environment around them. The ethical culture of business has come a long way since its early days of mass pollution and little regard for the customers it serves. Fortunately the free-market principles have provided much competition and companies now need to meet or exceed standards to retain and attain customers. Business ethics has reached a point where being ethical is now a way to make profits, instead of being a hindrance. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

CLASS TOPICS: INTRODUCE PRIVACY CONCERNS ABOUT GOOGLE GLASS, FACEBOOK AND APPLE PRODUCTS

Topic 3: Introduce privacy concerns about Google Glass, Facebook and Apple products

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Privacy concerns have been raised consistently in recent years over technology. Much of this concern has been directed at the major technology companies, Google, Facebook and Apple. Each of these firms has made amazing developments in technology that have impacted the world significantly in the way that it communicates. In this essay, I will discuss an example of the products that each of these companies has, while mentioning whether it is possible to draw a line where privacy becomes invaded. Privacy regulators have their work cut out for them in determining what an acceptable line is to create a privacy policy. [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

Google has recently been under fire for their new product that is set to be available for sale in 2014: Google Glass. The eyewear has a camera attached to it, and is able to record sound and images without people knowing it, (Downey, 2013). The company has been asked by privacy regulators in several European countries, separately, if they can test the device to see if it infringes on that nation’s privacy regulations. The concern is that a person could be recorded at any time without them knowing about it. However, it is very difficult to make a law that governs whether Google Glass should be acceptable or not. After all, there is not law refraining people from having a hidden camera. And Google Glass would actually be much less hidden than a camera, because the product is likely to attain widespread use, and people will be well aware that the person who is wearing the eyewear could be recording them. < Click Essay Writer to order your essay >

Facebook came under fire after it was determined the system was bugged, and this exposed millions of people’s profiles. The company admitted that the bug exposed the profiles, and the company wasn’t reprimanded for the mistake. The transgression even went against Facebook’s own privacy rules, (Shih, 2013). However, because there is so much information that is collected by social networking sites, there is the possibility that it could be exposed at any time. And this is a chance that people have to take. There is always the risk that information can be leaked, despite how strict privacy regulations are, and Facebook is just one example of that.

Apple Inc. has also faced a slew of criticism because of their new iOS, which some regulators say infringes on people’s rights to privacy, (Apple’s, 2013). The company has faced a slew of requests from law enforcement and government about many of its clients. However, the information that is requested from the company is very sensitive, and the firm is balancing between cooperating with authorities, and breaking its privacy contract with users. The line where the investigation of the law enforcement outweighs customer privacy is difficult to pinpoint, because the person in question is innocent until proven guilty, and they were told they would have their privacy when they became a client at Apple. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

Knowing where to draw the line on privacy regulation is a difficult task, but it is one that needs to be given thorough consideration. After all, technology is moving at a staggering pace, but regulators are known to take a long time in developing laws. These conflicting priorities have not only created a lot of grey areas in what is and is not allowed in the collection of data, it has also put into question the acceptable level of privacy that needs to be observed by tech company

Works Cited

“Apple’s Commitment to Customer Privacy.” (2013, June 16). Apple Inc.

Downey, S.A. (2013, July 17). The Potential for Face-Recognition Technology is Troublesome.
Variety. 

Shih, G. (2013, June 21). Facebook admits year-long data breach exposed 6 million users.

BRINKLEY’S “THE END OF REFORM”

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In Alan Brinkley’s book, “The End of Reform,”  he discusses Franklin D. Roosevelt’s New Deal, a liberal economic maneuver established to fight the Great Depression, which appeared by many to be the death of the American capitalist system. Brinkley argues that the New Deal liberalism was carried out by World War II, digging the United States out of the Depression. The greatest impact of this new deal, in an effort to keep the economy thriving after the war, was increased government spending – an initiative that would last through the 1960s. < Click Essay Writer to order your essay >

World War II changed the way in which the New Deal was established, and as Brinkley argues, it helped the ideal progress to fruition. It was at the end of the war that Roosevelt saw the only way to have a prosperous country was to create a high amount of consumption. It meant the government would also need to increase spending – and they did, on social welfare, the military and on public works. These public works projects weren’t necessarily meant to build communities, they were to create jobs. This is a practice that is even in place today, and it has helped pull the U.S. out of the Great Recession, much as it kept the U.S. from sinking back into the Great Depression after the war. During this time, the government needed taxes to fund the initiatives, or inflation would increase substantially. The public works initiatives were part of the government’s plan for full employment: “We shall plan to balance our national production-consumption budget at a high level with full employment, not at a low level with mass unemployment,” (250). But as it was made clear in the “The Life and Times of Rosie the Riveter,” there was a massive demographic that wasn’t part of this full employment. In fact, as men returned from war, they were given their jobs back and women were expected to “return to the kitchen,” and to create a home for their husbands.

The government was encouraged by the National Resources Planning board to increase social welfare. This would allow even impoverished people to contribute to the economy because they would have money to spend. “The two efforts would complement one another: Economic growth would make a generous welfare state possible; a generous welfare state would help stimulate economic growth,” (257).

The liberalism that evolved by the end of World War II had its challenges. The war created a lot of work and a low number of people able to do that work. Many of the jobs related to manufacturing the products that would help in the war effort and because the men were at war, women were hired to take on the task. The New Deal was weak in that it did little to help women after the war. Women who had attained much training, even more than the men that they replaced, weren’t given a fair chance. They could, however, find low-paying jobs in kitchens as cooks. But these women had for the past several years been a part of something much bigger than cooking. They built ships, ammo and various other necessities for war. Many women lined up to apply for jobs after the war, but the positions were filled by men.  The Full Employment Bill did not “specify what kind of spending the government should use to create the necessary jobs,” (261). This means that women weren’t included in these plans for employment. [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

But the bill is weak because full employment isn’t possible without increasing the cost of labor substantially. The basic market principals apply here: supply and demand. If there are many jobs, the demand for workers will increase and because there would be a low supply of workers in a full-employment economy, the price for those workers would increase substantially. “Employers (mobilized through the Chambers of Commerce and the National Association of Manufacturers) and commercial farmers (mobilize through the American Farm Bureau Federation) feared that a high-employment economy would raise their labor costs and make it difficult to find workers for menial jobs such as seasonal farm work,” (262).

It should also be noted that steady development is not sustainable, and it is extremely damaging to the environment. Unlike today, the environment wasn’t considered as a reason not to build something. If this policy had continued the way it was proposed – with full employment and the relentless drive to keep building for the sake of creating jobs – there would be nothing left to build in the coming centuries. The effort would also create massive inflation despite increased taxation; the government were to continue to print money for the sake of funding the projects and paying for the workers. Money would bear no value. Furthermore, as prices for labor continues to increase, the Consumer Price Index would increase substantially too, because people would be willing to pay more for products and services due to the increase in money. “Fiscal conservatives recoiled at the idea of using deficit spending as a normal tool of economic planning and sought to remove from the bill and suggestion that government spending would be the preferred route to economic growth,” (262). While some form of government stimulus was adopted and lives on today, it isn’t at the levels that would support full employment. Governments know that this would cause too much inflation and it would be exceedingly difficult to find workers for tasks such as dishwashing. Eventually, the bill was amended to get rid of the reference to “full employment” (263). This represents the continually changing ideas of the American liberals. (265). [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

But the government continued to seek employment for as many of its citizens as possible and this included the initiative to use some government spending to do so. In this mission, and for a short time, the government promoted the free market and frowned upon monopolies. However, this effort to keep the free market as free as possible, and to stop any dominant company from taking over, was short lived, (265). The effort didn’t work because corporations were too powerful, much more than in the days leading up to the war.

This government stimulus appeared to be necessary, as the production orders from the military decreased substantially after the war. This was leading unemployment to be on the rise and something needed to be done. The biggest problem the government faced was turning a war economy into a civilian economy. After all, the government couldn’t revert back to the pre-war state and it needed to ride the wave of spending that increased during wartime, due to the jobs per capita at the time. The government also likely learned from the war that spending on military initiatives is what drove the U.S. out of recession. But without the need to produce war materials, the government needed to find a new way to spend its money. The pump had to be primed via another way and that is where government stimulus for public works projects came in. It was an aggressive move that had varying degrees of government spending and claims for what it could do for the economy. However, it would eventually find a middle ground and persist, which it would do through the 1960s. The importance of this government spending is proven in the stimulus that is offered by the government to create jobs during the Great Recession. It is what’s helping this country pull itself out of the major financial crises. The recession was a result of the abuse of the credit market, which is the other option for increasing consumer spending (the other is government stimulus). But without the credit market pumping money into the pockets of consumers during that time, the government needed to step in and

WORKSAFEBC: THE MONOPOLY IN PERSPECTIVE

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In any democracy, free market principals should rule. When monopolies start taking form, there becomes a lack of ability for individuals to have choices. This is the case when employees are automatically docked pay so that they have workers’ compensation coverage, which is provided by WorkSafeBC – formerly called the Workers’ Compensation Board of British Columbia. Since 1917, this provincial government agency has provided workers with coverage in many cases if they are unable to work due to an injury on the job. The insurance also covers someone if they fall ill because of their place of employment. WorkSafeBC then completes an investigation and then it determines if the government-run insurance agency should cover the employee for any lost pay or hardship. The agency covers over 2.3 million workers, which makes up over 93 per cent of the labour force in the province. Approximately 200,000 registered employers are also covered under the insurance (WorksafeBC, 2012). Without a privatized workplace insurer, the rates that each member has to pay increases because of a lack of competition that would otherwise push the price down in a free market. Models in areas of the United States should be observed and one should be implemented in B.C. so that people have free will to decide where to find coverage. < Click Essay Writer to order your essay >

Public workers’ compensation is attractive to those who own businesses because it limits the number of lawsuit in which it has to settle. However, WorkSafeBC makes it mandatory for employers to be a part of the program, rather than them being able to either choose a different insurer or not buy insurance at all. The latter option would increase the amount of risk an employer takes on, as they could be liable for covering the cost of lawsuits if an employee becomes injured. WorkSafeBC is modelled around employees forfeiting their right to sue employers.

Among employers in Texas, who have the option about whether to find insurance, 68 per cent were happy not having insurance, while 60 per cent of those who had insurance were satisfied. In 2001, approximately 35 per cent chose not to subscribe to an insurer (Shields, 2001).

California has a state compensation fund that can help cover many of the lawsuits laid against employers who, in the Sunshine State, are liable for all costs associated with an injury. This state fund is similar to the WorkSafeBC model, but instead of both employee and employer paying into the insurance, it is just the employer (O’Brien).

Throughout the United States, workers compensation is mixed between private and public, depending on the state. Near the beginning of the 20th Century, many believed that forcing employers to enter into workers’ compensation, violated the U.S. Constitution because the benefits were designated to include coverage even to those employees who were at fault due to their own negligence. However, in 1917 in a U.S. Supreme Court case, it was determined that a case between New York Central Railway Co. and White, that the employer’s rights weren’t affected.

Governance of the U.S. workers compensation is different depending on which state is administering the insurance. The broad majority of states operate on a private insurance basis. Only 12 states use public insurance fund, while several are state-owned monopolies, which is consistent with WorlkSafeBC. The state funds are usually used as a last resort or to educate and mitigate risk – this helps prevent pushing private insurers out and taking away from free-market principles. However, private and public options exist in many states. Both are overseen by a state governing board. This helps ensure that the employers are reasonably educating and protecting their workforce, proving that a change away from a WorkSafeBC model, which strictly enforces and sets standards for employers, wouldn’t take away from any mandatory safety standards that are government enforced. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

Most of the U.S. employers are now required to pay for the education and training that is provided through private or public insurers. Employers who don’t pay for coverage are subject to penalties. It should be reiterated, however, that employers in Texas are able to opt out of workers’ compensation. These employers can be subject to being sued by an employee that worker can prove employer negligence resulting in injury. The damages gained in these instances are usually much more comprehensive than what is earned in the Canadian and United States insurance coverage (Labor Code, 1993).

As the largest private workers compensation insurer in the United States, Liberty mutual has programs that help people get back to work quickly. The insurer also has its own Medical Service Center focusing on rehabilitation programs. United States companies charge at a case-by-case basis by analyzing each person’s medical history, age and other factors to determine a rate. So while some people will pay more for coverage, many others won’t have to pay for those who are unhealthy.
In B.C., while a person could claim that having workers’ compensation covered by a government improves the health and safety regulations, those same requirements could be imposed by the government on private organizations. This is the case for every business in B.C., which is audited if the company sparks the interest of the government’s safety regulators. The government’s role is to serve the interests of the people, but when it imposes itself as insurer, the government is limiting the options of the population.

The WorkSafeBC model could also limit a person’s need to consult a lawyer before being reimbursed, though this isn’t always the case. A government agency is subject to stricter scrutiny and would likely have less reason to attempt to rip people off. A corporation likely has a stronger grip on the money available for payouts. While a government agency has a budget, the money available for payouts is less likely to bottom out or be overly restricted.

Greater accountability to the public also facilitates eager political opposition critics to point to areas where the current government is lacking. This has included finger pointing at massive ICBC profits that went into the provincial government’s general revenue. For example, in March 2010 when ICBC reported an expected $778-million surplus over the following three years, the New Democrats accused the Liberals of using the funds to pad provincial coffers. However, the government argued the move would save tax dollars. “Why did the ministerchoose to tell motorists in British Columbia to take a hike, instead of allowing the board the option of giving them further rebates?” NDP House Leader Mike Farnworth said at the time (CBC, 2010).

While the aforementioned accountability argument appears to endorse publicly run insurance, it actually points out that despite being overcharged, residents have no option but to stay with their current insurance provider. WorkSafeBC digs even more aggressively into employees’ pockets by docking the money directly from each person’s pay, without giving them the option to opt out. With car insurance, people at least have the choice to start taking the bus, walking or riding a bike, for example – And many do, because of the outrageous prices they are charged due to a lack of competition.

If a person is not satisfied with their coverage in any public insurance model, they don’t have the option to go elsewhere. So while the opposition critics can slam the government as much as they want, there likely isn’t much that will be done by the government to change service delivery. It doesn’t take the voice of one upset customer, it takes a class-action suit to stir up any change in a public agency.
WorkSafeBC is a case of government inaction. And without a population that is pushing, little will be done. One could argue, however, that if there isn’t enough push to change WorkSafeBC then maybe the corporation is doing its job and satisfying the population – but the fact remains, people in a democracy need to have the option about which insurance company to choose.

After all, the B.C. government could increase rates whenever it pleases, regardless of how many opposition critics and residents are attempting to screen its actions. Take the monopoly vehicle insurance rates in Atlantic Canada as an example. Rates in 2002 jumped there by between 24 and 40 per cent in one year (Fogden, 2003). This was a reflection of mass insurance payouts and what was at the time a suffering economy. Of Canada’s 10 provinces, three have publicly run vehicle insurance corporations, six have private and Quebec offers both.

A study by the Consumers Association of Canada claims public car insurance is more affordable to the consumer than private insurance. However, the person making that claim, President Bruce Cran, compares the price between Saskatchewan and Alberta, saying the rate paid in Alberta, which has private insurance, is greater than that paid for in Saskatchewan, which is public. However, as Mark Milke points out in his article “Auto Insurance: Comparing Apples and Oranges,” which was printed in Frontier Centre for Public Policy, the payout for an average insurance claim in Saskatchewan is $4,135, compared to $11,895 in Alberta (Milke, 2012). [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

Taking away from the free-market principals limits democracy not only for the general population, but for entrepreneurs as well: Those wanting to start a workers’ compensation insurance company are left hopeless because of the government domination of the sector. This is bordering on dictatorship and has been rampant for so long that it has become an accepted product of living in B.C. and Canada, take Employment Insurance as another example.

But just across the border exists a brighter insurance climate, one that allows competition among insurance providers. In the United States, workers aren’t automatically docked pay to cover their insurance. They instead have a choice whether to attain coverage. While this can put many people in difficult situations if they become injured, it does provide the opportunity to save or spend that extra bit of money each paycheque.

A model similar to that found in Texas appears the most appropriate form of workers’ compensation coverage, whereby an employer is responsible for paying for the insurance, which can be either private or public, and it is the employers’ option to even have insurance. The premiums for each employer would increase in B.C. because the burden for payment would be distributed to fewer insurance holders (the employers). This makes sense because the employer is providing the workplace and should take responsibility for the safety of the area. Despite any possible downloading of costs by decreasing pay, this would lower regulatory concerns of the government, decreasing costs to the taxpayer while leaving the employee with options of employers if costs are downloaded.

References List
Fogden. S. (2003, Aug. 21). The Increasing Cost of Insurance in Canada. Maple Leaf Web.

Government looting ICBC, says NDP (2010, March 4) CBC 

Labor Code. (1993, Sept. 1). State of Texas.

Milke. M. (2012). Auto Insurance: Comparing Applies and Oranges. Frontier Centre for Public Policy.

O’Brien. D.W. (N.D.). Introduction to California Workers’ Compensation.

Shields. J. (2001). A Study of Nonsubscription to the Texas Workers’ Compensation System: 2001
Estimates.

WorkSafeBC History. (2012) WorkSafeBC.

BUSINESS AND MARKETS

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1. In determining how to approach running a business, it is important to set out specific targets and compare those to what might be specified at a larger business. My business will look to break even as it is introduced to the market. So a ratio of 1 per cent revenue over expenses (profit margin) would be acceptable in the start of the company. However, larger companies often have a profit margin target of 10 per cent.

2. Debt financing can provide the opportunity to grow at a faster pace than it might otherwise be able. Debt can be a good thing for several various factors. For example, if a person was looking to open a clothing store, but they don’t have enough money to purchase the site, a debt could provide an opportunity for the owner to purchase that site instead of renting it, which wouldn’t allow the business owner to invest into the value of the building in which they are operating. In addition debt financing allows the company to borrow money at a cheaper interest rate. Another advantage to debt financing is the ability of a company to design the business in the way that they want, which might not be affordable to the owners if the company wasn’t able to use debt. Debt may also provide the owner with the start-up capital needed to open the business. Opening a business has many expenses associated with it and start-up capital can help curb those. Of course, there are disadvantages to debt. The more debt that a small business owner takes on, the more risk there is. For example, many small businesses find it hard to keep operating past the first several years. This is because the odds of being profitable are stacked against them. Not only does debt servicing pose an additional expense, it also could be the reason for the business closing. Debt could lead to the forced shutdown of the business if the assets are seized by the lender. This would also cause the company to accumulate a bad credit rating and it would be difficult to receive a loan in the future if the company has failed to meet its obligation to pay creditors in the past. The bonds also allow the company to borrow for a fixed rate for a longer amount of time, (Lee, 1999).

3. Many larger companies decide to go public so that they can raise funds for initiatives like research and development, or surveying or company expansions, for example. The company could also use the capital to pay for equipment and fund a project. This is called equity financing. By issuing stocks over bonds, the company is able to attract investors into the company. This is an easier way to attract investors than to canvass and hope someone wants to invest in the company, (Scott, 2012). However, the interest on bonds and debt other than stocks is that the interest is tax deductible. But the dividends on stocks are not tax deductible for a corporation. Also, bonds don’t dilute the ownership interest in the company. When people buy the stocks, though, there is less ownership in the company by each owner. . [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

4. While debt allows for greater capital to work with, it also increases risk. The financial returns accessed by the company are much more likely if there are additional funds for merchandise and advertisements, for example. However, the increased business is not guaranteed even when extra capital is put into advertising and merchandise. The more money a company borrows, the more that company is able to invest, which increases the potential for high returns, but also increases the potential for high risk. The more a company leverages, the harder they will fall if the company isn’t able to be successful.

5. Beta is sometimes used by businesses to measure the volatility of the assets and how they relate to the volatility of the benchmark that is set out by the company. There is always an asset that is being compared to a benchmark in the beta formula. This is measured with representative indices, which is often the S&P 500, which is a collection of a wide range of stocks consisting of 500. These represent a range of industries in the United States. There is some criticism about the measurement because it is one formula that uses past performances to indicate where the price of a stock would be. The beta looks at the risk of an investment by the sole perspective of what the market prices are. So this doesn’t take into consideration the individual business fundamentals and developments that may happen in the economy, such as what happened in the Global Recession. However, many people believe that the history of the financial markets will provide an accurate reading of what will happen in the future. This is an approach that has help company view where they are in comparison to where the average company that is publically listed is at. < Click Essay Writer to order your essay >

6. Systematic risk is used by a company to determine the chances of the market completely failing. This is in contrast to unsystematic risk, which isn’t the entire market failing, but an individual company. Systematic risk discusses the possibility of a complete collapse of the financial markets. The concept could be attributed to the instability of the capitalist system, though such an instability that would lead to such a collapse hasn’t been proven, though it hasn’t been disproven. There is some risk in the financial system because of interlinkages and interdependencies in the market. If one thing crumbles, then that opens up the possibility of others falling too. The unsystematic risk is, instead, the risk that is associated with an individual investment. For example, if an investor buys one stock, that is an unsystematic risk. If that stock fails, then the person loses all their money that was invested into that stock, (Definition, 2012).

7. If my company was awarded $1 million in a lawsuit, I would purchase the building that my clothing company is currently renting, so that I wasn’t paying someone else’s mortgage. I estimate that the building would cost about $400,000. I would then use the money to promote my company in a fashion magazine. This would help attract additional revenue, and would likely be a worthwhile investment. The advertisement and design would likely cost around $50,000. I’d then use the money to fix the lighting in the store so that it was more attractive to the public. I’d also renovate the change rooms and the outside signage. These renovations would likely cost around $50,000. Then, depending on the size of my company, I would consider taking it public and I would need someone to do the work to prepare a plan to go public. This would likely cost around $10,000. With the remaining $490,000, I would invest $250,000 in the stock market. I would then buy gold with the remaining $240,000 in case there was a systematic crash and there was no more financial market and everyone went back to the barter system, because gold will always be worth something if America returned to the barter system. These decisions would be made, of course, only if my company didn’t have any debts. It would be most prudent to pay off any debts that my company might have, so that it wasn’t paying interest, though I would ensure that I put money in the stock market, as the interest I would likely earn would be more than what I am paying on the interest to the banks.[“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

Works Cited
Lee, J. (1999). Why do corporations Issue Bonds? The Bond Market. 

Scott, E. (2012, April 26). The advantages of issuing stocks. eHow Money.

Unsystematic Risk. (2012). Investopedia.

BOOK REVIEW EPIDEMICS AND HISTORY: DISEASE, POWER, AND IMPERIALISM

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Epidemics and History: Disease, Power, and Imperialism. By Sheldon Watts (New Haven, Yale University Press, 1998) 400 pp.

The focus of Epidemics and History is on six of humankind’s most dreaded and dreadful diseases and on how Western imperialism, Western elites, Western religions, and Western medicine managed to make them even more dreadful. The pathogenic culprits in question are bubonic plague, leprosy, smallpox, syphilis, cholera, and the tropical fevers, malaria and yellow fever. The human villains, by contrast, are far more numerous. They include (but are hardly limited to) Church officials and the wealthy bourgeoisie who blamed plague on the Jews and the poor and stigmatized leprosy victims; the Iberians who initially carried pestilence like smallpox to the New World, and then launched the transatlantic slave trade to replace the native Americans killed by those plagues; men of medicine who first wrote about syphilis for profit and later were part of a general attack on masturbation, thereby helping the disease to [End Page 104] flourish; and most especially the British, who in rearranging first India, and then much of Africa, to suit themselves made it possible for cholera to kill millions of Indians and tropical fevers to spread over that continent south of the Sahara. [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

Such malefactors deserve the vilification that Watts delivers with relish and zeal throughout a work that leaves no doubt about his credentials as an anti-imperialist, anti-racist, and anti-capitalist, as well as an orientation that would seem to be anti-Western medicine, and perhaps even just plain anti-West.

Unfortunately, the author’s passion sometimes comes close to a kind of sneering that makes one wonder if the book should not have been entitled Epidemics and Polemics. Words and phrases, for example, are often intended to offend. Iberians, as well as students of Latin America, may find Watts’ resurrection of the Black Legend of Spanish cruelty and his labelling of the Spanish conquistadors as “guerilla terrorists” responsible for “Spanish genocide” a bit troubling, not to mention naive (94, 235). Similarly, medical historians may be disconcerted with a dismissal of “Ronald Ross [who] took credit for the intuitive insights of his Indian field assistant,” and Walter Reed who, while conversing with Carlos Finlay about the mosquito hypothesis of the latter, was “apparently intending even while Finlay was in the room to claim personal credit” (255). [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

Chronologically, the book ranges from the middle of the fourteenth century to the first decades of the twentieth century. Although its concern is mostly with the West, comparisons with the Middle East, Africa, India, and China are frequently drawn and the text is liberally sprinkled with useful demographic data.

The endnotes, which indicate that Watts has consulted and incorporated a vast amount of literature in this effort, comprise still another arena in which he chides and chastises. But I was left wondering how well the literature cited was actually read, especially when I found myself and others who have written with me accused of “disease determinism.” The charge apparently stems from our demonstration of a yet to be explained ability of slaves to resist yellow fever in the Americas, which Watts dismissed out of hand with no discussion of the evidence presented (228, 232, 269, 349). < Click Essay Writer to order your essay >

Such high-handedness can also be found in an irritating omniscience, as illustrated by such remarks as “whites felt” (215), or “Gorgas wanted the world to believe” (238). On occasion, Watts’ gross generalizations seem to reveal a shaky grip on epidemiological history.

“LIFE AS A DOG: HUMAN ACTION”

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The topic of animal care certainly hits home for me. This could be because my childhood dog, Heidi, practically raised me. Whenever my parents couldn’t find me, they would eventually come across my two-year-old self cuddling with Heidi as she took care of me inside her dog house like I was one of her pups. We created a bond that is comparable to that of human relationships. This could be one of the reasons why I am now a vegetarian. I thought it ignorant to love one animal so much and then support the abuse of another, prior to it ending up as dinner. The whole scenario seems barbaric, which is why I can relate to what Jonathan Safran Foer is saying in his essay, “My Life as a Dog.” His central argument is that dogs provide people with much happiness, just from the fact they are behaving the way dogs do: “Why does it make one feel, in the best sense of the word, human?” But he also refers to the paradox of loving one animal, and then supporting the torture of another before eating it.[“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

His paper starts by raising a political issue: Off-leash dog hours at New York parks. He argues that dogs that are allowed to be off-leash are happier. This in turn makes people happier. And it also decreases the number of dog attacks on New York streets, 90 per cent he said of a report. In turn, this allows us to be happy watching dogs behaving as we think dogs should (not hurting people). The very fact that dog park times is such a major issue is indication of how much people love and care about their pooches. But why are dogs treated differently than the animals people eat?

According to Foer, it is because we become more distant from animals when we grow older.  While this can be true, I would argue that the typical child may be petting their precious pooch while eating a hot dog. But children clearly don’t have as much of an ability to see past the taste of the hot dog, so they can be forgiven. However, adults do the same thing. Foer assumes that the distance adults have to animals is the reason most don’t have a problem eating them. But many adult dog owners aren’t vegetarian. So this leads me to believe that most people can be ignorant and extremely shallow. Ignorant because they don’t take the time to see how their meat is produced – which is quite disgusting when looking at the treatment of animals; and shallow because we choose not to eat the cute animals. Many would argue that pigs are cute, but they lack a soft coat of fur to place your hand around. Pigs suffer from a clumsy body. Perhaps if their snouts were softer and less wet looking… and their bodies not quite so hard, then maybe they would be allowed to cohabitate with people. Staying with the pig example: While they are considered more intelligent than many dogs, it is their appearance that places them next to sunny-side-up eggs with hash browns and toast on a breakfast plate. Who knows, maybe dog would taste better smoked, salted and sliced into bits. Oh, but they’re too cute, remember?              < Click Essay Writer to order your essay >

Dogs devote themselves to their owners. They have the emotional capacity to do so, which would leave a person to assume that an animal such as a pig would have the same ability. And if a pig can care, it has emotions just like a dog. How could a person in good conscience allow the abuse and then slaughter of animals that have the same emotional capability as the dogs that we love so much? In order for us to move forward as a people, we need to take a closer look at the actions we have on our environment. And this is something Foer touches on as well. It is not only our treatment of animals, but our treatment of nature as a whole that says who we are as a people, and a change in attitude could make us feel more human, without the help of dogs. It is almost as if we have to show love and care to select animals to make up for our abuse of others.

As Foer explains, dogs are important to making many people feel “human.” But what is lacking for us to need dogs to make us feel that way? After all, we are human. There won’t be many who will deny that fact. Perhaps if we were more rational in the way we approach our actions – such as choosing to not eat meat – we will find ourselves closer to being human, thus filling the void that dogs now provide to many people. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

BOOK REVIEW: BOOMERANG

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In Michael Lewis’s “Boomerang: Travels in the New Third World,” he informs the reader about the consequences of the overindulgence of the credit sector in foreign countries. It leads the reader to believe that the foreigners are foolish. But then he turns the attention to the United States and recognizes the comparable overindulgences of this country are plenty. He uses real-life examples and by using characters, he clearly lays out the picture of the results of the Great Recession. In this paper, I will discuss his use of three characters in Chapter 2 to describe the economic dilemma that exploded in 2008 throughout the world. < Click Essay Writer to order your essay >

While in Greece, Lewis visits the Greek minister of finance, George Papaconstantinou. He is the man charged with the task of taking the country out of debt and “sorting out the financial mess,” (46). Lewis puts Papaconstantinou in a mixed setting, which explains the country quite well. The country has such beauty, but it has a black mark because of the severe financial crises in which it still finds itself. “Athens somehow manages to be bright white and grubby at the same time,” (46). Papaconstantinou arrived in Greece just as the financial crises hit. The country had a 3.7 per cent budget deficit when Papaconstantinou arrived, but that increased to 12.5 per cent two weeks after he came, after he uncovered hidden debts (47). Lewis describes this character as being clean and “almost American,” (47), which is a compliment and somewhat ethnocentric of him to say, because it subtly implies that anything other than an American wouldn’t be clean. But Papaconstantinou is “open, friendly, fresh-faced, and clean-shaven,” (47). Lewis goes on to say the financial mess was already in place by the time Papaconstantinou arrived (47). It’s discovered after Lewis talks to Papaconstantinou that there were several omissions from the budget when he took over, one being a pension debt of $1 billion each year (47).

When Lewis meets Tax Collector No. 1, he emphasises that the meeting took place in private. And even though he met two tax collectors with generally the same “offense” and the same consequence – after they “blew the whistle on colleagues who had accepted big bribes,” (50) – they did not know Lewis was meeting with the other. He met both in separate hotels. The way he describes Tax Collector No. 1 as being in his early sixties, in a business suit, “tightly wound but not obviously nervous,” (50), gives the impression that this man has been around the block and had finally become fed up with the sustained abuse of the tax system. He used the man’s descriptions as a metaphor for the tax system: in a “business suit,” gives the impression that the system is fine, when in fact it is “tightly wound.” Also, while Tax Collector No. 1 is referred to as being “not obviously nervous,” this is a metaphor for the Greek tax system pretending to be fine, but it is actually “tightly wound,” and ready to break at any moment. . [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

When Lewis laughs at Tax Collector No. 1’s remark that if the tax law was enforced “every doctor in Greece would be in jail,” (51), explains the lack of ability to enforce the law and tells the reader how widespread the issue actually is. But it was Tax Collector No. 1’s reaction to Lewis’s laugh that explained how seriously the tax collector took the situation. “I laughed, and he just gave me a stare,” (51). [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

The setting in which Lewis meets with Tax Collector No. 1 allows him to provide the perfect example of how widespread the tax evasion is. He pointed out that the waitress who was serving the men didn’t provide a receipt (53). This, as the tax collector points out, is because even the hotel isn’t paying taxes. This provides the final stroke in the picture that Lewis paints for the reader, as he uses the appearance of the tax collector, his attitude, as well as the setting in which the meeting takes place, to draw subtle examples of the corrupt tax system in which the Greeks find themselves.\

The way in which Lewis introduces another Chapter 2 character, Father Arsenios, sets the monk up as a personification of the corruption in Greece, to whom much of the outrage is targeted. As the “brains of the operation,” Arsenios is the head of the monks, whom “Every right-thinking Greek citizen is still furious with … and those who helped them,” (66). Lewis describes him as being in his late fifties, but he could be about 20 years younger because the beard makes them look older, (66). This could be Lewis’s way of saying the Greek monks give off an air of elderly innocence and vulnerability, but on the outside, they are quite different.

Lewis goes on to describe the food the monks eat. It is a very scarce diet consisting of all homegrown vegetables and honey. But Lewis wonders why some of the monks are fat, including a couple of the top monks (67). This hints at the possibility that there could be corruption in the monetary. While the vast majority of monks look like they eat according to the local diet, there are 10 fat monks out of 110, which raises suspicion.

Father Arsenios’s office also lends itself into question. It has a new fax machine, two computers, a tub of vitamin-C pills and a cellphone (67). These modern luxuries are something with which a monk wouldn’t normally be associated.

Lewis does a remarkable job at using his characters to describe the political scene in which they find themselves, and in which Lewis is analysing. He finds elements in the settings to describe in Chapter 2 the ocean of corruption in which Greece is placed. He visits those in parliament who have been tasked with correcting the books that were poisoned by the former leaders, while also talking to those who witnessed the corruption first-hand, and those who are responsible for the corruption.

THE EMOTIONAL QUALITY BEHIND BEETHOVEN

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Beethoven is one of the most celebrated and talented composers ever. His music is still played frequently today in various households and in many movies we know and love. The appeal of his music is centred in the catchy stanzas of his compositions. The emotional quality of his music is perhaps the fiercest of any composer. In this essay, I will analyse two Beethoven compositions and provide an explanation of the emotional qualities that he is able to invoke in his pieces. Rather than it being something that is inexpressible or not being in common with the material world, there is a scientific (albeit limited) reason why people feel so connected with Beethoven’s music. [“Write my essay for me?” Get help here.]

What is perhaps most striking about the compositions to be analysed here, and about all Beethoven’s work, is their ability to generate strong emotion from their audience. His compositions are powerful, such as that in the Fifth symphony, but they are also more temperate, such as in the Pastoral Symphony. Beethoven is so popular because he is able to generate emotion in his audience. In the cases of most music, it is the emotional quality that either makes the music good or bad. Because composers don’t usually use words to describe their work, they have to use specific instruments and notes to tell a story to the listener.

The appealing aspects of Beethoven’s work are difficult to put into words. However, with a great deal of humility, one can begin to turn the intangible into the tangible. The “Sonata in A major for Cello and Piano Op. 69” and the “Serenade, Op. 25” are, in this writer’s opinion, his most powerful compositions. While all of Beethoven’s pieces go through peaks and valleys, much like a good book or movie, these composition are similar through their flowing use of both string instruments and piano. They flow from softer tones to heavier and more violent tones. Throughout the compositions, there is a consistent tempo in the back, often played by the rapid notes on the piano. This provides the heart of the music while, in the broader sense of the composition, the instruments play around that tempo and guide the listener on an emotional rollercoaster. [Need an essay writing service? Find help here.]

That emotion that is evoked from every part of the composition is a very valuable tool to use as a score in a movie, for example, and that is just the way that this music has been used. Some of the composition has been used more frequently than others, and its co-option is due to the fact that the symphony generates such a wide range of emotions. Each emotion is integral to communicating a section of a given plot. That is what makes Beethoven’s music so attractive to the listener, is its ability to generate emotion. These compositions capture the intense qualities of life, from being blissfully happy, to having tragedy strike in an instance. And this is what is most striking about them. As his high notes take on a melody that could conjure images of a butterfly testing flowers in the forest, he abruptly switches to a heavier section, which signifies danger. While the story isn’t directly told through the piece, one can begin to sense danger that is in the area, for example. Then, within a heartbeat, the listener is in the midst of a great battle. These sounds are not only art within themselves, but they are also able to make a mediocre film, for example, into something so much more genius. And that is Beethoven’s legacy.            I would have to assume that the emotional quality has to do with the various tempos that vary throughout. But despite one communicating itself clearly to those who either understand the language of music, or who are able to translate the sounds with only their emotions, both have the same concept. I think Beethoven chose the various tempos because it represents what he is communicating in his symphony. He has inspired people to cry tears of joy, and tears of sorrow.  < Click Essay Writer to order your essay >

The compositions communicate a style of political thought. It’s type of renaissance in the face of danger that Beethoven is trying to get across. The compositions don’t necessarily speak to a level of Western thought, because this music is also closely identified with the thought of the Eastern World. It is a thought that everyone on the Earth possesses, and that is the struggle of everyday life and dealing with the various challenges, often imposed by other people, on the way one carries out their life. While the music can closely connect with Western thought and philosophies, it can also connect closely with those of the East. For example, while it can connect with Jeremy Bentham’s Utilitarianism (the greatest good for the greatest number of people), it can also connect with Buddhism, which says that everyone is connected in a singular consciousness. This is told in the section of Beethoven’s compositions in these pieces that includes feelings of happiness, sadness and danger.

The meaning behind Beethoven’s work can also be reflected in the politics of his time, which were ripe with people calling for democracy, and a change to the classist system. In a previous work, the Ninth Symphony, we can see that this is the type of meaning that Beethoven wants to evoke. He refers in that symphony to the fact that we are all brothers, and I would add sisters; though perhaps there is no dividing gender trait relevant to Beethoven or Schiller’s (whose poetry he used as an opera in the symphony) definition of brother. But I don’t think the “Sonata” and “Seronade” say the symphony is a piece that is completely open to interpretation, because you can’t add any element you want to the music. It is clearly a composition about life and the various obstacles and challenges, until the ultimate death. That is made perfectly clear in the music.

Works CitedCooper, A. (2011, December). Criticism of Beethoven’s Pastoral Symphony in London and Boston, 1819-1874: A Forum for Public Discussion of Musical Topics. University of North Texas.

“First Movement.” (n.d.). Long Island University.

Hughs, V. (2012, Dec. 18). Why Does Music Move Us So? National Geographic.