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DECISION MAKING TIME

Sample by My Essay Writer

One of the most difficult decisions in my life was made when I decided to attend film school immediately after high school. This seemed like the most rational thing to do because I was passionate about film. Strangely, my mother supported me in my decision. I say it is strange because I’ve heard of many parents refusing to allow their child to spend a lot of money and time striving for an unlikely career. But my mother knew it was important to me, and I didn’t want to go through life asking, “Why didn’t I at least try?” The decision proved fruitless, in the career sense of the word – but I feel more complete for trying, and now I know I won’t regret not making an effort.

As the chapter suggests, perfect certainty is rare, and this is certainly the case when making many decisions about which course to take in life. For example, when I decided to enrol in film school, I had no idea about whether I would actually be able to secure a job after I finished. I didn’t even consider whether I would need funding for further education. This uncertainty creates risk, the chapter states. I was at risk of not finding a film-related job, but I had a mountain of student loan debt at the end of my studies. I also dedicated a year of my life and a substantial amount of savings.

The steps in the decision-making process as outlined in the chapter are more detailed, but identical to the steps I took when I was younger. For example, I first identified and diagnosed the problem: I knew I needed to enter post-secondary studies, because I’d be letting my extremely academic family down if I didn’t and I thought film studies would be fun, rather than strenuous. Second and third, I generated and evaluated alternative solutions: I thought I could take a year off and let my family down, or I could study business. Fourth, I made the decision to go to film school. Fifth, I carried out that decision. Sixth, I evaluated my decision.

While all steps are similar to what I performed, I didn’t delve into each as much as what the chapter recommends. While I considered the affects the decision would have on my family, I didn’t consider rationally the costs associated with enrolment, as I naively figured I could repay any loan relatively easily. Generating alternative actions, as suggested in the chapter, are often based on past experiences. I hadn’t experienced the need to make a decision like this, so I had no experience on which to draw. After all, this was my first major life decision. Evaluating alternatives, as outlined, I predicting what might happen if an alternative decision was made. I then made my choice, which was assertive, rather than being based on what can happen: “paralysis by analysis.” Then it was time to implement the decision, during which I predicted how my future would look, performed the necessary steps to put my plan into action, found financial resources necessary for the plan, estimated the time needed and assigned the entire task to myself. Finally, it wasn’t until after the year program that I was able to evaluate my steps and discover I couldn’t find a job in my field and I was confronted by debt.

I would again conduct each one of the steps outlined; however, I am wiser and would consider other outcomes, such as the difficultly in repaying student debt. I continue toevaluate whether I gave the profession the full effort it deserves. However, I felt satisfied knowing that I made an effort. Looking back, it would be easy to say I would instead take a more secure route. But without knowing the consequences of the decision that I do now, I’d still be wondering for the rest of my life about whether I should have taken a shot at a career in film.

DO THE RIGHT THING: AN ANALYSIS

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Spike Lee’s “Do the Right Thing,” 1989, is an interesting look at several factors that played into the racial and ethnic relationship between white and black people in the 1980s. The story is centred around one hot day, when the dynamics between the two ethnicities boils over and spills into violence, and eventually death. In this essay, I will analyze how the film depicts the power dynamics in the context of race and police authority. In addition, I will show which relationship dynamics in the film are successfully depicted, and those that weren’t as successful. Also, I will give my opinion about what I think the film is attempting to achieve in the way that it represents each race and ethnic group in Brooklyn, NY. The film shows the perception of racism that took place at the time, and provides a good benchmark on which to compare the way races and police authority relate today.

The film investigates the building tensions that were taking place in the Brooklyn neighbourhood and it eventually built into violence and then tragedy. The film shows the ways that society, through racial intolerance of people who are often marginalized and oppressed, choose to handle that discrimination. From the beginning of the film, Lee uses the Public Enemy song “Fight the Power,” to set the tone. This helps show the type of film it will be, and the attitude at the time of people, particularly black people, to fight the authority that many police at the time exercised over them. In particular, it shows there is an Afrocentric tone to the movie. The song criticizes Elvis Pressley and John Wayne, who are cultural heroes of many white people. The song also has pro-black lyrics and is very defiant of the politics surrounding culture in America at the time. Each time Radio Raheem playing his sound system, the song plays, and it plays again during the credit sequence, and this shows the song is really a theme for the movie. Police were often criticized, and still are, for the ways they stereotype black people as being criminals, and they treat black people differently than white people. This power dynamic is something that helped build tension between the black and white people, and it fueled much of the violence that eventually spilled over at the end of the movie.

The film shows that it is very difficult for the back people to go about their daily lives with the police authority appearing to keep a discriminatory eye on them. But the dynamic is challenging because when the black people wanted to cool off in the water, the police came and turned it off. It seems as though the black people weren’t malevolent in the film, for the most part, but were just victims of circumstance. I think many people who don’t have air conditioning would support opening up a fire hydrant to cool off on a day that is tempting the 100 degrees Fahrenheit mark. It was just one or two people who decided to turn on the fire hydrant that were the real criminals, but that seemed to paint a dark picture for all of the black people in the neighbourhood, and that type of behaviour led the police to stereotype the black people and fueled much of the hate that they had towards them. This is an example of how the film does a tremendous job at showing how one or two bad apples can spoil the bunch.

Another example is when the police kill Radio Raheem. The black people retaliate by trashing Sal’s pizza restaurant, which a few felt didn’t belong in their neighbourhood because it didn’t have pictures of black people in it. This shows that the behaviour of the police, because they were white, reflected poorly on other white people, and Sal, even though he appeared to like black people most of the time, had to pay the price. Sal’s character showed the conflicting opinions about black people that white people possessed. Sal was in love with his black worker, Mookie’s, sister and he looked at Mookie as a son. However, when Radio Raheem wouldn’t turn his music down when he was in the restaurant, he started saying racial slurs. This shows how magnified the actions of each race was at the time, and when a member of one race did something wrong, it painted a bad picture for everyone belonging to the racial group.

While keeping on the topic of magnification, it is important to note what started the whole ordeal. When Buggin Out gets upset about the fact that there are no pictures of black people on the wall at the pizzeria, he becomes furious and tries to get a boycott going. However, not including a black person on the wall wasn’t meant to be an insult to the community. After all, Sal, as mentioned, loved black people, and all he wanted to do was put pictures on the wall of Italian Americans to reflect his heritage. This was what he had wanted his pizzeria to look like. Taking this small details and turning it into something it was not, is what eventually caused the riot and Radio Raheem’s death. Lee emphasizes this point by having the mentally challenged character put a picture of Malcolm X and Martin Luther King on the wall near the end of the film. The reaction Buggin Out had to there being no pictures of black people on the wall shows the sensitivity that he had and which was present throughout the film with nearly everyone involved. This is explained in “Unthinking Eurocentrism:” “The sensitivity around stereotypes and distortions largely arises, then, from the powerlessness of historically marginalized groups to control their own representations,” (184). But the question about whether Buggin Out was being sensitive is debatable. For example, as “Black Looks: Race and Representation,” points out, “From slavery on, white supremacists have recognized that control over images is central to the maintenance of any system of racial domination” (2).

The film also depicted the various power dynamics that were expressed between the white and black people. White people were usually in positions of power, such as was the position of Sal in the pizzeria, as Mookie was his employee. It was also evident in the police. However, when the white man driving the vehicle through the neighbourhood asked the black people to direct the water from the hydrant in another direction, he was rude to them, and they decided to instead direct the water at him and the vehicle in which he took so much pride. There was a consistent power struggle between the black and the white people, as Mookie continually questioned the authority that was on him. Furthermore, the black people were in control with the white man in the car wasn’t able to get by them without having his vehicle soaked. This shows the building tension that were simmering like the summer heat between the two races.

Also, when the biker accidently stepped on Buggin Out’s shoe and scuffed it, this shows how each culture was essentially walking all over each other, and there was little each could do to stay out of the others’ way. There was so much tension due to the fact that white people actually used black people as slaves at one point, and that there were so many other inequalities that were present with black people throughout the history of the United States. Much of the tension was also based on gentrification. For example, the black people were criticizing the white person for buying a home on their block, and they asked him why he would want to buy a home in a black neighbourhood. They also used the world gentrificationwhen describing what they thought of the man who decided to move into what they considered to be their neighbourhood.

Sal and his son, Vito, weren’t Eurocentric, or feel that their race was somehow superior to the others. The same could be said of the South Korean couple who owned the corner store, although they could have been saying at the end of the film, “I am like you,” just so their store wouldn’t be burned down. Furthermore, Mookie seemed to be very accepting of white people, and wasn’t at all racist, even though he threw a garbage can through the pizza restaurant’s window, which essentially started the riot (However, he was aware the restaurant had insurance). But for the most part, each person depicted in the film felt that their race was superior. This is similar to what is said in “Unthinking Eurocentrism.” For example, the text talks about the typical perception of people who have an opinion on Eurocentrism. This attitude, whether it was by the police or by Sal’s son, or, for that matter, by Radio Raheem, who consistently played “Fight the Power.” Instead, an ethnocentric attitude would be more precise to describe the attitudes of many of the people in the film. However, “Unthinking Eurocentrism” shines an accurate light on the type of perceptions that were evident in the film. “Although Eurocentrism and racism are historically intertwined – for example, the erasure of Africa as historical subject reinforces racism against African-Americans – they are in no way equitable, for the simple reason that Eurocentrism is the ‘normal’ consensus view of history that most First Worlders and even many Third Worlders learn at school and from the media” (3).

Each group felt they had a right to the neighbourhood. The Italian-Americans had been in the neighbourhood for 25 years and they felt they were entitled to stay. The white biker owned a home in the neighbourhood and he thought it was “a free country.” The South Koreans saw a business opportunity and they wanted to serve somewhere, and for whatever reason they decided to open up shop in Brooklyn. Finally, the black people felt it was the only place they could afford to live, and anyone else who moved in were causing gentrification. Each of the relationships look to be appropriate for the time, and this might still be the way things are in that neighbourhood. The film achieved its mission of depicting the challenges, tensions and misunderstandings of each group in the film, and the depiction shows the progress that has been made in race relations throughout Canada.

References
Hooks, Bell. Black Looks: Race and Representation. Boston: South End Press, 1992.

Shahat, Ella, and Robert Stab. Unthinking Eurocentrism: Multiculturalism and the Media New
York: Routledge, 1994.

Spike Lee, Do the Right Thing. Film, Spike Lee. (1989; Los Angeles: 40 Acres and a Mule
Filmworks/Universal Pictures, 1989). Film.

LEGALIZATION, THE BEST WAY TO FIGHT DRUGS

Sample by My Essay Writer

The amount of money that the United States has spent on the drug war is too much to tally, as no official price tag has been released by the nation’s government and there are too many variables to consider to even attempt to estimate the damage. Despite the endless effort by authorities throughout the nation – acting under the direction of the federal government – there has been no impact on the drug trade: “Efforts of interdiction and law enforcement have not been met with decreases in the availability of drugs in America,” (America, 1996). Similar to how the amount of legal activity and costs to the taxpayers increased during prohibition in the 1920s, the drug trade is ramping up gang violence, fueling a waterfall of costs to enforce the laws, cramming prisons and increasing government costs at the expense of taxpayers. In order to move out of the dark ages in the fight against drugs, narcotics should be legalized and the money spent on the drug war should instead go to treat those who are addicted to drugs.

The effects of drugs are seemingly insurmountable. Those who abuse drugs are continually in court, further increasing costs; hospitals are filled; prisons are filled; violent crimes result and they take their toll on neighbourhoods; and the children of drug users are abused, abandoned or neglected. Drug dealers are the only people who benefit from the drug trade; “[Yet] the government has, to no avail, spent countless billions of dollars in efforts to eradicate the supply of drugs,” (America, 1996). Money is already being spent each year on fighting the distribution of drugs, but if the government were to dedicate that money – or even a portion of the funds – to treatment for those who are addicted, the demand for drugs would decrease because there would be fewer addicts. Furthermore, legalizing drugs and selling them at pharmacies, for example, would allow the government to tax their distribution. This is money that could be used to help fight the addiction and to improve the availability of health care to addicts. However, the amount of health care that is needed would actually be lower if the drugs were sold at pharmacies, or similar stores, because the equipment used to inject the drugs would be sanitary, which would reduce the number of people requiring care.

Trying to pin down the number of the amount of money spent on the drug war is like attempting to count the drops of water that fall from Niagara Falls each year. However, as Richard Branson, the multi-billionaire owner of the Virgin chain of businesses, stated in an article he wrote for The Telegraph, “Over the past 50 years, more than $1 trillion has been spent (in the United Kingdom) fighting this battle… Just as prohibition of alcohol failed in the United States in the 1920s, the war on drugs has failed globally,” (Branson, 2012). Branson points out that it isn’t just America that is failing the battle. The futile attempt to curb the amount of drug-related activity – while spending loads of cash – is a global problem; it’s a plague that has struck the globe. According to the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, $368 million was spent in 2004-05, mainly for drug-related law enforcement initiatives (Canada’s, 2007). The national news organization cites a report from the British Columbia Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS, which says that despite the amount of money being spent, the problem is actually getting worse: “In 1994, 28.5 per cent of Canadians reported having consumed illicit drugs in their life; by 2004, that figure had jumped to 45 per cent,” (Canada’s, 2007).

So if the drug war has failed in so many countries throughout the world, why doesn’t the American government – and all governments, for that matter – throw in the towel and focus spending on educating people about the effects of drug use, and treating those who are addicted? Surely something could have been learned from the 1920’s prohibition on alcohol to which Branson referred. For example, while the number of gallons of pure alcohol in the U.S. in 1921 (when prohibition was enacted) dropped from just under 0.8 gallons per capita to just over 0.2 per capita was a substantial improvement, the number jumps to more than 0.8 in the following year. The amount continues to increase through each of the following years. This suggests people were finding illegal places to get their alcohol (The End, 1996). This is likely the same scenario with drugs. All that making drugs illegal does is create a market for drug dealers looking to capitalize on a product that is high in demand.

While it may seem counterintuitive to many, legalizing drugs is better than the alternative of keeping them illegal because of the aforementioned facts. To reiterate: the vast amount of money that the government is spending on the fight against drugs is only fueling a turbine of illicit activities that affects a vast number of people. Legalizing drugs, taxing them and providing a safe way to take a dose, will decrease the number of people in hospital and it will provide the government with a source of revenue to treat the victim of drugs and decrease the number of people relying on the product. Legalization will also lower the amount of gang-related activity, which will decrease the costs associated with law enforcement.

Works Cited

America is at War. (1996, Dec. 29). Stanford University.

Branson, R. (Jan. 23, 2012). It’s Time to End the Failed War on DrugsThe Telegraph.

Canada’s Anti-Drug Strategy a Failure, Study Suggests. (2007, Jan. 15). CBC News.

The End of Prohibition: What Happened and What Have We Learned? (1996, Dec. 21).

PROBLEMS FACED BY INTERNATIONAL STUDENTS IN CANADA

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Various problems reveal themselves to international students in Canada. These problems often stem from the challenges faced by living in a country that is far different from their own. The issue takes form in various causes and effects that international students need to overcome to be successful in Canada.

One of the major challenges international students face is the difficulty finding enough money for survival, and to pay for school. Very few international students are fortunate enough to have their expenses paid for by a parent or themselves. International students are also challenged with learning a new language.

Home sickness is another major issue that international students need to deal with. This can be a major factor in changing the entire experience that international students go through when living in Canada.

Many of these problems result in low grades, due to of the inability to completely understand the language. While low grades is one major result, these issues have multiple effects, and they could mean the students need to live in extreme poverty to just attempt to gain academic accreditation and then move on to stable employment. Not understanding the language also presents major issues, such as not understanding the lectures. Also, they are challenged to be able to read the class material. Finally, they are challenged to communicate themselves clearly on written assignments. Even with tests that are multiple choice, the student often struggles to understand the questions. In order to fix this, students coming to Canada need to ensure they have a solid understanding of English prior to arrival. Or, students can choose to live in Canada prior to beginning their studies. Many students choose to work in the country before beginning studies, and this can help them understand the language and secure funds for their education. Also, not being able to understand the culture can lead to various problems, including not knowing where to secure health care. Many challenges like these can add up and make it difficult for students to find the time for studies. Other challenges that result from not understanding the culture are, for example, difficulty finding a phone plan, or knowing what the custom is when moving into a new apartment. International students also begin to miss their family and they want to return home; they become depressed and this could lower their academic achievement; they give up their studies because they start looking negatively on the situation that they are in. In order to fix this, it is important that the student become involved in the new community, and embrace it. It becomes a lot easier to not miss friends and family as much when the student has new friends to hang out with.

Causes and effects play such a significant role in all of our lives. In fact, the relationship is a factor in every component of our being. We are tired, so we sleep; we are hungry, so we eat; and so on. Being an immigrant in Canada is just one examples of the struggles that people can face, and these struggles are driven by the relationship of causes and effects.

CHAPTER 13, “STATEMENT OF CASH FLOWS”

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The statement of cash flow is useful in providing a snapshot of the company’s financial position. With private companies, this can provide a solid benchmark by which to measure a company’s ability to achieve its goals. With a publicly traded companies, it becomes necessary, because the company is obligated to disclose to the public the financial position of the company. This is a solid tool for the investor to figure out what position the company is in, and this will help them to decide whether they should invest in the firm.

Preparing the Statement of cash flow is an important process because it puts the various aspects of the company into perspective. Without the statement of cash flow, it is difficult to put the core profitability of the company into perspective. There are signs that can be gleaned from the cash flow statement that are more difficult on an income statement. The net earnings are an important component, but it can be gleaned from the income statement, as well. The cash flow statement provides the best the clearest, most concise view of the operations of the business.

Issuing common stock is an effective way for a company to secure funds for projects such as expansion. The money the firm receives by issuing common stock provides it will an effective way to increase the amount of money with which the company can work. However, in order for shareholders to become interested in purchasing shares of the company, it needs to be issued dividends. These dividends cost the company money, but in the long run, the firm is often better off by issuing the dividends. Some companies do not need to issue the dividends, because it is an attractive enough stock that it does not need to add an extra incentive for investors to purchase shares of the company.
Issuing shares and providing frequent cash flow statements are very interlinked, because when a company is public, it needs to keep investors updated on the various aspects of the company, so that the shareholders are kept up to speed on the way the company is operating. If the cash flow statements show a steady increase in the amount of money coming in, it can also attract more people to invest in the company, which creates an extra incentive for people to invest in the firm. However, if the cash flow statement shows a decline in the amount of money that the company has, or it shows that it has a negative cash flow, then many people will be disinterested in the firm, and will likely sell shares. Furthermore, people will not be interested in buying shares of the company.

The cash flow statement needs to be up to date as a requirement of the Security and Exchange Commission. Companies are required to issue a quarterly cash flow statement to meet the requirements of being a publicly traded company. This keeps the investors well-aware of what it going on with the firm.

CHARACTER ANALYSIS OF STEVE JOBS

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Apple Inc.’s founder and former CEO Steve Jobs (deceased in 2011) is a man praised for being a genius, and for essentially changing the way the world communicates. In fact, many go as far as saying that he was the greatest business leader of his time. However, there are those who criticize Jobs for being destructive to his employees and associates, and for being highly abrasive. In this essay, I will make an argument for why I believe Jobs was an ethical leader, and why many of the criticisms he has faced should be taken with a grain of salt. Steve Jobs was one of the most important people this century, because he managed to change the way people live their everyday lives by facilitating quick sharing of information and streamlining communication.

Carmine Gallo’s “The Presentation Secrets of Steve Jobs,” uses personal examples to guide its direction, and can be used to provide some insights into the man’s character. Gallo highly touts the abilities of the man who brought the world the iPhone and other ground breaking Apple products that changed the way the world operates. The book explains to the reader how Steve Jobs was able to make the type of presentations he made. The book literally goes through the steps to becoming a savvy speaker to a large audience, and uses Jobs as an example. For example, “Scene  1” is about planning the analog – and then the book goes all the way to “Scene 7,” where it talks about revealing a hero that provides a better way to accomplish something. But it’s also a fan book, for people who idolize the man – often, these people are obsessed with technology and couldn’t possible imagine a life without constant access to the Internet. So is Jobs only widely praised for his technological achievements? Was the man actually an evil genius?

While not really anyone can deny that Jobs was a visionary, many people have associated other characteristics with the man. People have said that he is a “controlling person,” and “callous.” “Everyone knows that Steve had his ‘rough’ side. That’s partially because he really did have a rough side and partially because the rough Steve was a better news story than the human Steve,” states Ken Segall in the book “Insanely Simple: The Obsession That Drives Apple’s Success.” Of course, it is impossible to know what the man was actually like without meeting him, but I agree with Segall that his every move was likely sensationalized by the media. After all, Apple is the most-watched firm in the world, and various writers are looking for ways to sell a story. And, as Segall points out, there were many of the stories that praised Jobs, and these eventually “ran their course.” However, stories about the possible darker side of Steve Jobs weren’t as abundant, and likely prompted writers to unethically release those stories.

One of those stories is about how Steve Jobs was “arrogant,” and “cruel.” Those were the words that were used to describe Jobs in the biography that was written by Steve Wozniak, who also said the leader inspired people at one moment, but then demeaned them in the next. CNN put it this way: “According to the book, Jobs would often berate employees whose work he didn’t’ like. He was notoriously difficult to please and viewed people and products in black and white terms. They were either brilliant or ‘sh-t,” (Griggs, 2012).

The information that Wozniak is using is not from the original source: Steve Jobs. Everyone is going to have their own opinion about Jobs, but it doesn’t necessarily mean that he is a tyrant. While I have a bit of a subjective opinion about Jobs, due to the fact that I love my iPhone, I take some exception to Wozniak portraying Jobs in the way that he did. If he had said those things while Jobs was alive, he might have be sued for defamation of character. At the very least, Jobs would have been able to defend himself. Jobs left one of the greatest legacies of the century, and now that his character is being questioned because of these accusations. It wasn’t only the print media, but also a psychological journal that got in on the criticism of Steve Jobs. In an article entitled “Cutting-Edge Leadership,” by Ronald E. Riggio, he called Jobs a tyrant who would often throw temper tantrums and often “yelling at employees and board members,” but I doubt this is true.

To conclude, it is impossible for me to say whether Jobs was an ethical leader or not. I would assume that his business associates would have left him if he was not treating them properly. Jobs may have needed to be tough with his employees, but that might be part of the reason for the man’s amazing success. As was shown in “The Presentation Secrets of Steve Jobs,” the man was extremely affable in his speeches, and that is really the only first-person account we can gain of the man. I’ve seen videos of him speaking, and I can only use my own judgement to say that he seemed like a decent person. Of course, Jobs was likely a different person when he was presenting, from when he was disciplining an employee, for example. But because of the accounts of a few people, that were likely sensationalized by the media, the entire legacy of the man has changed, and he is now not held in as high of esteem as he once was. Jobs wanted the best out of those that he employed, and he only hired those who he saw extreme potential in. He was on a mission to change the world, and this required great scrutiny in how he did business. Jobs may have needed to occasionally discipline those who worked for him, but Jobs had a vision, and those who didn’t perform to his high standards needed to be held in check. This is likely where the questions about the man’s character stemmed from.

Works Cited
Gallo, Carmine. (2009). The Presentation Secrets of Steve Jobs: How to Be Insanely Great in Front of Any 
Audience. New York: McGraw-Hill

Griggs, B. (2012, Oct. 8). How Steve Jobs’ Legacy has ChangedCNN Tech.

Riggio, R. (2012, Feb. 7). Why Steve Jobs Is a Leadership NightmarePsychology Today. Retrieved from

FINANCIAL BENEFIT OF COLLEGE EDUCATION

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College education is something that is progressively becoming more of a necessity to finding a decent job. The amount of money earned by a person is usually higher if that individual graduated from a post-secondary institution. Generally, the higher the education the person has, the more money they will make. This doesn’t just apply to post-secondary school. For example, someone who graduates from high school will usually earn more money than a person who was unable to graduate. Moving forward with their education, a student who attains a bachelor’s degree will earn more than a person who graduated high school. The additional earnings from achieving a bachelor’s degree over a high school diploma increases the average person’s salary by $1 million over a lifetime, (The Value, 2005). In most cases, post-secondary schooling is required to earn a higher rate of pay than that earned by a person who has only graduated from high school.

The average increase in earnings among people with a bachelor’s degree is 75 per cent more than that earned by a person with only a high school diploma. And the amount of money these individuals are earning over their high-school counterparts has increased over time. “For example, for full-time male workers between the ages of 35 and 44, the earnings premium associated with having a bachelor’s degree versus a high school diploma has risen from 38 per cent in the 1980-84 period to 94 per cent in 2000-03,” (The Value, 2005). What’s more, and what many readers might expect, is the quality of the school from which the bachelor’s degree is acquired further increases the amount of money the employee makes in comparison to high school graduates.

But while the earnings are much higher among the well-educated, costs for schooling needs to be considered before a final tally of the advantages of higher education. Furthermore, the earnings that are forgone while the student was in school needs to be considered. “When these calculations are made, the benefits of a college education are seen to be more than three times as large as the costs,” (The Value, 2005). The financier might find the following calculation intriguing: The annual rate of return on a college education is 12 per cent per year – and that’s above and beyond inflation. However, despite the economic benefit, only one-quarter of Americans have a university degree. This is largely due to a lack of brain power, lack of funding or no motivation.

While the Arizona State University claimed the average bachelor’s degree graduate earned $1 million in 2003, the University of Hawaii estimated in 2012 the benefit is $1.2 million more through the duration of a career. The research was compiled from the U.S. Census Bureau. The difference in estimations could be due to minor fluctuations in calculating the amount, but it could be a sign – as research at the Arizona State University has suggested – that there is an trend towards higher income earners possessing a degree. “There is considerable support for the notion that the rate of return on investment in higher education is high enough to warrant the financial burden associated with pursuing a college degree,” (College Degree, 2012). The increase in wages is about $400,000 higher when the graduate holds an associate’s degree.

But the financial benefit to those who hold a college degree goes further than just earnings: The amount of money retained by the graduate is much higher than the amount saved by a person who has only graduated from high school. “A 1998 report published by the Institute for higher Education Policy reviews the individual benefits that college graduates enjoy, including higher levels of savings,” (College Degree, 2012).

Other areas of a person’s life that are related to finances include a greater likelihood of receiving health and pension benefits at their job. Health care costs were also reduced when considering that those with a college education encouraged people to lead healthier lifestyles: “Within each age group, college-educated adults are less likely than others to be obese,” (Baum et al. 2010).

While it is difficult for many people to afford a college education, the investment is well worthwhile. Of course, people need to be smart and dedicated enough to enter the world of post-secondary education, but there are programs that can not only help students pass their courses, but also to attain enough money to pay for their tuition and books. It is also interesting to note that students should be aware of the return of investment. A 12 per cent year-over-year return on the amount of money that is invested into attaining a degree is better than what the average stock earns on the S&P 500. With an increasing societal trend towards post-secondary education, it is likely that the earnings gap between those who have a college degree and those who only have a high school diploma will only increase over time. That is why it is more important now than ever to ensure students enrol in college after they have completed their high school education.

Works Cited
The Value of Higher Education: Individual and Societal Benefits. (2005, October). Arizona State
University.

The Value of a College Degree. (2012). University of Hawaii Community Colleges.

Baum, S. Ma, J. and Payea, K. (2010). College Board Advocacy and Policy Center.

CASE STUDY ON OREGON AND CANNABIS

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Facts:               
The case discusses the use of medical marijuana. While people are authorized in the Oregon Medical Marijuana Act to use pot for medical purposes if they have a medical card, the Federal Controlled Substances Act prohibits certain elements, such as manufacturing. An employer is arguing that because the federal laws prohibit possession of pot, he doesn’t need to accommodate his employee’s marijuana use, even though it is being used to “treat a disabling medical condition.”

Issue:               
The question is about whether the employee using the medical marijuana is authorized.

Outcome:                   
The court concluded that the statutory interpretation was that that use of the marijuana is allowed based on the state’s law, but not by the federal law, which pre-empts the state law. “The Oregon Medical Marijuana Act affirmatively authorizes the use of medical marijuana, in addition to exempting its use from state criminal liability.” Specifically, the text goes on, the person who is in possession of the registry identification card can have the medical marijuana, and it is only subject to certain restrictions.  But because the federal law does not allow the marijuana to be exempt from criminal liability, the court ruled that

Reasoning:                  
The court determined that it understands the employer’s argument that the Supremacy Clause of the United States Constitution requires the court to interpret Oregon’s statues in a consistent way with the federal Controlled Substances Act. This means that there is “without effect” of the Oregon law because it is in contradiction to the federal law that outlaws the marijuana use.

Dissent:                       
There was a dissenting opinion that allowing medical marijuana is no different from exempting it from being a criminal act. Therefore, it should be assumed that if medical marijuana use is exempted from criminal liability in Oregon, and it is not pre-empted by the federal laws, then the state law that allows marijuana use shouldn’t be pre-empted either. The forfeiture of pre-emption of the allowance of medical marijuana is enacted because it doesn’t interfere with the Controlled Substance Act. The dissention argues that marijuana use also doesn’t interfere with the Controlled Substance Act and shouldn’t be subject to pre-emption either. However, as the case points out, the dissention’s premise is flawed because it assumes that the law exempting the medical marijuana use from liability is valid only because it is not pre-empted.

Comments:                 
I think the courts could be more useful if they were able to put their decisions into a language that is more understandable. The wording through much of the case was very technical, and not very clear. When the court explained the areas where the federal pre-empted the state law, there was a lot of uncertainty about the precise areas that were pre-empted. I also didn’t like the way the case would say that the courts agreed with the state law, and then spend a considerable amount of text explaining why, but then they would say that they actually agree more with the federal law because it pre-empts the state law. It would be much simpler to state that the court agrees with the federal law because it is supposed to pre-empt the state law. It could go on to say that the state law would have sanctioned such behavior. But the case study is not logically linear. Furthermore, the court decided to agree with the state on some levels, saying that the federal laws don’t pre-empt those areas, or at least that the court “doesn’t have an opinion” about those areas. I think this country would be better served if the citizens were actually able to understand the rulings and, therefore, have a better understanding of the laws.

CASE STUDY ON HAIMES V. TEMPLE UNIVERSITY HOSPITAL (1981)

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Facts: 
The plaintiff in this case, Judith Richardson Haimes, testified to the court that she was born with special psychic powers. She said that a person who has these powers is able to use their extra sense, in addition to the four other people have. The plaintiff started work in a new office in New Castle, Delaware in the late 1960s. She read auras and provided various types of psychic counselling. She also helped law enforcement agencies. In the mid-1970s, she went to the Temple University Hospital for a CT scan. She said after the CT scan her abilities to be a psychic were hindered and she was no longer able to work in her profession because she suffered from headaches and nausea.

Issue:               
The issue is whether the CT scan resulted in the plaintiff suffering from illnesses and not being able to perform her work as a psychic.

Outcome:       
The jury concluded that the $600,000 should be paid to the plaintiff for the damages that were done by the CT scan. The money was meant to make up for lost wages that she was suffering due to the scan that left her ill.

Reasoning:      
The jury came to the decision because they believed that there was medical malpractice when the plaintiff received her CT scan, and this caused her to have many side effects that impaired her ability to continue her line of work as a psychic.

Dissent:           
There was much dissenting opinion about the outcome of the trial. In fact, the defendants decided to appeal the decision and they have been granted a new trial. The public also disapproved of the decision, and this was cited in the case report as being due to the nature of the plaintiff’s line of work, the verdict’s amount and the massive attention that was concentrated on the insurance crisis that was “under the guise of tort reform.” Various legislatures, government agencies and lobby groups were disturbed by the facts in the case and the basis that the jury used for its verdict. In fact, the decision was accused of being responsible for an ensuing insurance crisis.

The defendants were also disturbed by the fact that the trial judge was away during the defendant’s testimony. Furthermore, the judge was also away during the testimony from the plaintiff’s expert. This absence was not explained by the court, and this caused a “negative inference and prejudiced the jury.”

Comments:     
I think this case is quite ridiculous and sets a poor standard by which determine subsequent related cases. The issue is mainly in the fact that it appears anyone can go through a CT scan and then say the procedure interfered with various components of their lives. The symptoms that were experienced by the plaintiff were nothing more than what one might experience when suffering from the flu. When reading this case, I thought it was made up, because it shows how completely faulted the court system is in England. Either that, or this case is an extreme rarity.

I was also baffled by the amount of money that was awarded to the plaintiff. $600,000 is a considerable amount. I would think that even if the CT scans did cause her to not be able to continue her work as a psychic, she would not receive that much money. I had thought that the sum a person would receive due to lost time at work, would be the equivalent to lost wages, though I suppose if the symptoms were actually caused by the CT scan, the plaintiff would be entitled to compensation for pain and suffering.

Finally, I want to point out that the very basis of the court system is to provide that the defendant is innocent until they are proven guilty beyond a reasonable doubt. In this case, I didn’t see any evidence that the CT scan was the true cause of the plaintiff allegedly suffering from various symptoms that impaired her ability to work.

CASE STUDY: RYKO MANUFACTURING COMPANY

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I. Situation Analysis
The situation of the firm as of the end of the reading (dated 1983), is that Ryko Manufacturing Company has terminated a distribution contract it held with Eden Servicer. This is because Eden was consistently violating many of the terms that the two companies entered in a 1977 agreement. According to the termination letter sent by Ryko to Eden, “… you have failed to perform pursuant to the terms of the contract in that you have consistently taken positions against the company, have interfered with contractual relationships, have attempted to interfere with the other distributors’ relationship with the company and are selling products and equipment of direct competitors of the company,” (646).

The problems arising at Ryko started to happen when Fred Eden took over distribution of Ryko products in 1977 in the District of Columbia, northern Virginia and Maryland, after Nick Keenan retired. There was much contention in the northern Virginia area, because the territory was already designated to Woodbridge. However, Eden approached Woodbridge and came to an arrangement that Eden would act as an agent for Woodbridge and pay a portion of the profits in the territory to the company. However, in 1980, Ryko terminated the contract with Woodbridge because the distributor wasn’t meeting quotas. Eden still wanted the area, as it was a major metropolitan area and it was in close proximity to Eden’s base. When Eden contacted Ryko’s East Coast factory representative to request the agreement with Woodbridge be continued, Eden said he was told it would. However, Ryko’s owner, Larry Klein, said Eden was only allowed to perform sales in northern Virginia on an as-needed basis. This was the launching point of the contention between Eden and Ryko, as Eden – despite being told that the sales were only to be completed in northern Virginia on an as-needed basis – made two sales.

Problems intensified, as Eden wanted to negotiate the terms of their distribution agreement. Other distributors had signed the document about three years after it was issued, but the Edens wanted several changes, and they still wanted to distribute to northern Virginia. At a meeting in 1982, where the Edens wanted to discuss with Ryko the terms of the contract and distribution in northern Virginia, Eden indicated it was in talks with five companies about purchasing the equipment, but the distributor wouldn’t disclose which companies talks were with. This is because of the difficult business relations between Ryko and Eden.

Later, Eden accused Ryko of intentionally cutting the company off by adopting a special usage account. Other distributors took issue with this account that was took several major operations out of distributors’ regular rates. Instead, sales to these operators was to only garner $1,500 commission plus the installation charges. The assessor sales wouldn’t generate additional commission. After the distributors opposed, Ryko generated a new special usage account that would lower commission less drastically.

A. Mission
The business is involved in selling car washes. The customers are primarily oil companies, rental car fleets and convenience store chains. The company is meeting the needs of the gas stations, though details about whether the gas stations are happy with the car washes wasn’t discussed in the case study. The mission statement doesn’t need to be revised.

B. Capacity
Ryko’s production capacity can meet the demand of the market. Generally, large oil companies have driven much of the company’s sales. Ryko’s financial capacity was not discussed in the case study. However, the company is able to finance the installation of the car washes and provide oil companies with free trials. The marketing capacity of the firm was challenged by Eden because the distributor began selling its own products or products that weren’t of the Ryko name. This affected Ryko’s ability to market itself.

C. Competitive Environment
The competitive environment was essentially limited to the companies that were approved by oil companies. This was an exclusive list to which Ryko was able to become a part of.

D. Strategy Criterion
The company’s strategy is to distribute its product through its distributors and to pay those distributors a commission.

E. Business Decision
Larry Klein, president of Ryko Manufacturing Company, decided to terminate relations with Eden because the distributor was in violation of several terms of the contract.

F. Symptoms 
The main indicator that there was a problem at hand, was when Eden refused to disclose the five potential buyers in northern Virginia. This shows that the company was not happy with the way relations were going with Ryko.

II. Marketing Problem
A major problem that occurred is in relation to the 1982 meeting between Eden and Ryko when Eden told the company that they weren’t disclosing who they are in talks with about selling equipment. According to Eden, there were five companies interested in buying the equipment. However, Eden not disclosing who they are is a sign that the company didn’t trust Ryko. This is a sign that the two companies were having problems working together and there is a lack of trust on the part of Eden.

A secondary marketing problem, and one that likely spawned the tensions between the two companies, was the refusal by Ryko to allow Eden to exclusively distribute to northern Virginia. This is an area that was very deer to the hearts of the Eden owners and they took issue with not being able to distribute in this area. That refusal was a sign of things to come.

III. Alternative Solutions
(1) The solution to satisfy the contention that was occurring between the two firms was to give Eden northern Virginia. This would have likely satisfied the company and the two firms could be most likely be able to work together again.

(2) Alternatively, Ryko could have not set up the special usage account. All that account did was damage relations further, as Ryko got greedy and wanted to limit the commissions of distributors.

(3) Also, Ryko could have made some concessions to the distributors’ contract. As the case study explains, all of the distributors took issue with the contract and were reluctant to sign it. This caused further tension between the distributors and Ryko, and it was a topic of discussion at a meeting in 1982 between Eden and Ryko.

IV. Evaluation of Alternative Solutions
(1) If Ryko gave Eden northern Virginia, the gesture would have essentially been in good faith and there wouldn’t likely have been many of the issues that came along with the two companies doing business later. Good business relations is the main advantage of giving northern Virginia to Eden. Ryko would still make some money from the area, it just wouldn’t be a district distributor. A disadvantage to doing this would be the obvious decrease in the amount of money that Ryko would earn off of the area if it were to continue to use a middleperson to do business in the area.

(2) The special usage account could have been eliminated or never proposed. This would have prevented some of the issues with the distributors and the company. Ryko was, again, getting greedy and not implementing this plan would have not abandoned the distributors’ financial interests. A disadvantage to axing the plan is the fact that it was imposed to lower company expenses, and by not doing so, expenses would remain at the same level and that might not have been sustainable for the company.

(3) Right off the bat with the distributors’ contract, Ryko could have worked more closely with distributors to come to a better arrangement. Not doing so set up bad relations from the start. However, a downside to conceding with the distributors would be that Ryko would be giving some control to the distributors, and that might be a bad place to start relations. Furthermore, the distributors may have been asking for too much.

V. Solution
The best alternative to dealing with the Eden situation specifically would be to give the company northern Virginia. This is a good-faith move that would strengthen relations moving forward. If this decision were made from the very beginning, there would likely have been considerably less tensions between the two companies and Ryko would likely have not had the types of issues with Eden breaking several contractual provisions such as selling the competition’s equipment. Furthermore, if Ryko had allowed Eden to distribute in northern Virginia, it would be showing to the other distributors that Ryko is willing to work with the distributors, and this would have improved relations across the board. Ryko likely spent more money going through the process of exterminating the contract between the two companies, hiring lawyers for advice, and finding a new distributor in the two areas that Eden did cover, than it would have lost by allowing Eden to distribute to the area of northern Virginia.

VI. Implementation
The implementation of allowing Eden to distribute to northern Virginia wouldn’t be much of a problem. The main issue is going back on the letter that was already sent to Eden about the termination of the contract between the two companies. The best course of action would have been to initially respect the former arrangement that Eden had in northern Virginia with Woodbridge. However, that can’t be done at this point and now there is a lot of back-stepping that needs to take place in order for the companies to work together again.

Ryko might not be able to completely trust Eden anymore, but if the two parties are able to sit down to come to a compromise, then this could be the best solution for Ryko. The company has continually shown that it has little regard for the well-being of its distributors, and this is where the company is bound for failure.

Ryko will need to pay for a lawyer to draft a new contract, and there will likely be many revisions. Ryko will then have to meet with Eden to talk about how the two companies can work together in the future. At this time, Ryko can make certain demands from Eden so that the company doesn’t start selling other companies’ merchandise in the future. In order to have the companies effectively work together again, Ryko will need to do regular checks on Eden until trust is regained.

Ryko also needs to establish the cost benefit of working with Eden again. While there will be a loss of revenue from the loss of being able to directly distribute to northern Virginia, costs will be saved by not having to find a new distributor to the area. Furthermore, there could be a loss of sales if Eden isn’t the distributor, because the company could have those 5 interested buyers as it previously indicated. Furthermore, it is already familiar with the area and business.