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ETHICS IN LEADERSHIP SAMPLE

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Good leaders have a certain quality to them called idealized influence. This is a behavioral type that is adopted by leaders to make followers want to emulate their actions. But in order to act in a way where people want to follow the leader, the leader must act in ways that exhibits a high moral standard. However, “moral” is a very abstract term and can take on different definitions depending on who is interpreting the action. According to Jeremy Bentham, a deceased English philosopher, an ethical decision can be calculated based on whether it has the greatest impact on the greatest number of people.

Leaders should have the ability to communicate clearly to their audience what is the best way to proceed. This requires an ability to analyze a situation, sometimes quickly, before taking action. When a leader can clearly communicate their ethical decision, it can clearly define the acceptable behavior of the group. It begins to define the qualities of the group and this statement is often infectious when a leader is well-respected by the group they are leading. The bond that is built is strong when a leader has high ethical standards and communicates their message clearly. Some of the decision could challenge what the group may believe, but with strong enough leadership, a new outlook among the group members can be forged. Challenging the status quo can trigger the group’s members to develop forward thinking.

The type of mentality that is taken up by a group that has been around for a while might sound something like this: “This is the way we’ve always done it.” That way of thinking doesn’t provide for evolution of practices. Also, the leader shouldn’t just tell the group what to believe, they should ask for input so that each member feels they are part of the decision-making process and this will also strengthen the unit.

Values
It takes some time before a leader is able to impact their followers. The followers may at times doubt their leader, especially at first; this could lead to testing the leader to see how assertive they are and how worthy they are of leading the group. But through time, a good leader is able to build the trust of the followers, and so the followers are more willing to trust their leader.
The best leaders are able to frame what they envision as being the best strategy for the group. This helps the group learn about what the leader has in mind about their direction. As relationships build over time, the leader’s job becomes easier because they aren’t working upstream against the doubt of the followers. Once the minds of the followers are opened, the leader is more able to influence their way of thinking. When a leader doesn’t have the trust of the followers, there is a lack of coherency in the group, which may cause the group to not have any direction. In most situations that require a group, the members need to get along to work to achieve a common goal.

Poor leadership, or a difficult group of followers, could mean all the difference between being successful as a group and failing. In almost every situation, the views of each group member need to be molded to conform to the beliefs of the other members in order to act as a unit and not become entangled in various viewpoints.

Once the trust is gained, the leader needs to make sure they stay consistent and drive home the beliefs they possess, otherwise the leader can lose credibility. The leader’s values must be the foundation that holds the group together and, over time, these values will spread throughout the group.

Managing Poor Leadership Skills
Poor leadership skills can take their shape in many forms. Generally, a lack of communication between the leader and the followers is the source of most poor leadership skills. The leader needs to feel comfortable addressing the followers and needs to communicate well in order to relay their values and build the group of followers into a unit with the same goals.

Meetings need to be arranged and each member of the group should be involved. The followers should feel they have an opportunity to share their beliefs and observations. They may have problems that need addressing by the leaders, and they may provide valuable feedback. This is also an opportunity for the leader to find out who is potentially at the top of the group. The leader must also push the employees hard in order to get the most out of them. Planning needs to be taken extremely seriously so that each member of the group is working together. A training plan should be put in place so that the followers are able to work with precision. The experienced employees should be utilized to pass on their knowledge, rather than having each new employee start from the bottom themselves.

Each leader should take responsibility for their group; otherwise, there is a chance no-one takes responsibility. Also, the leader needs to play a role in the performance of everyone, in order to help everyone focus. Without a shared vision, the leader will have a difficult time meeting the company’s goals. The leader also needs to take competition very seriously, because customer retention is the building block for the sustenance of many companies. In order to execute the vision of the company in the best way possible, the leader should be well aware of what is happening within the company. This requires them to monitor the employees, while not micromanaging them. Giving them the right amount of scrutiny is needed, and finding the right amount of supervision is vital in ensuring they perform and are not over managed. Over management could lose the respect of the employees and it could decrease the enjoyability of their job.

EARLY STANDING BUDDHA GANDARA

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The Standing Buddha Gandara is a sculpture created by an unknown artist in the 1st-2ndcentury CE. The sculpture is shown in the Tokyo National Museum and is a Greco-Buddhist statuary. In this essay, I will analyze the stylistic characteristics of the statue. Essentially every element used in the sculpture is tied to the philosophy behind Buddhism, and remarkable similarities can be seen with this style and the style used by the Greeks.

Analyze the stylistic characteristics (light, line, color, scale, medium and subject matter).
The almond color that is used in the depiction of the Buddha is a neutral tone, which is ideal for this sculpture because the Buddha himself is a neutral person. In the Buddhist philosophy, one is to clear their mind of distraction, particularly of attachments. This lack of desire is a very neutral state, and the use of the almond colour in this sculpture fits well with that way of thinking. The light is also very soft and neutral which furthers the idea of the Buddha finding nirvana, which is a state of bliss. There are no harsh tones in the light, as it is just soft and simple, much like the way of thinking that is promoted in Buddhism.

The lines that are used in the statues clothes are gentle and swaying. They don’t have any sudden movements associated with them. This steady and gentle movement tells me that the sculptor wanted to communicate the gentleness of the Buddha. The artist wanted to show the unassuming nature of Buddhism and of the Buddha himself. The lines are like the spiritual path that Bodhisattvas are on to trying to achieve the Buddha state of nirvana. The medium of the statue is also of significance, because it is carved into a statue. This shows the everlasting nature of samsara, which is the never-ending cycle of life, death and rebirth. The subject matter is certainly depicted in every one of these elements, as the artist carefully picked out each feature to communicate the gentle nature of the Buddha, and of the greater culture promoted by Buddhism.

Why is the artwork stylistically significant? How does it represent its regional, religious or cultural style?
The Early Standing Buddha Gandara reveals the meditative nature of the Buddha. The face is tranquil and detailed. The stance is also neutral and reveals a sense of trust for the surroundings, an acceptance of the elements of life, and an embrace of those features. In essence, the sculpture shows a sense of serenity and repose. The mudra hand posture shows that the Buddha is in a meditative pose, and that he has accomplished spiritual awakening. The sculpture communicates the cultural element related to spiritual awaking by showing that the Buddha-nature possesses a wisdom that is inherent in virtue and wisdom. The sculpture is able to capture the enlightened nature of the Buddha, and this represents the region’s way of thinking.

What stylistic influences can you identify?
Much of the various elements in style of the representations of the Buddha are largely influenced by Greek art. This includes the similarities in the toga-like wavy robe, which has a heavy swag that covers both of the shoulders. This is evidenced in the Early Standing Buddha Gandara, which is a perfect example of how the Greek influence has shown itself in this art. Furthermore, the hair that is depicted in the image is curly, and this shows the Mediterranean style, which is also presented in a topknot of the hair. This shows the inspiration and the influence of anthropomorphic and naturalistic sculptures that are depicted in Greece. Furthermore, like its Greek counterparts, the sculptures have full lips, an almond-shaped face and a straight nose. The finished product is significantly naturalistic, and it looks similar to the sculptures of the gods and emperors as depicted by the Greco-Romans. Both styles had a certain neutral quality to them.

NEWS STORY SAMPLE ESSAY

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            Mass media communication, in general, has played an important part in our society for about the last 150 years. The term, mass media, is comprised of many media methods that are used to reaching a larger population of audience that includes: sound recordings, television, Internet, print, movies, and radio, among others[1]. With these various mediums comes the ability to educate, inform, and entertain the public in different ranges of issues that are happening in our daily lives. To achieve this, it requires a lot of knowledge and skills in various areas and fields. In this paper, I will discuss and analyze the news story among popular cultural materials. Mass media is vital to the vibrancy of our society, particularly to the preservation of democracy, but this democratic component is withering away due to media corporations’ desire for profit.

News stories are noticed as one the most common cultural phenomenon in democratic nations. It is recorded that in the world millions of viewers commit a lot of time just to watch news stories, current issues, and current events[2]. Much of the news is reported not long after the event takes place and most of this news includes follow-up information that keeps the readers, viewers and listeners updated on the various progressions. News stories touch on almost all sectors of the society that include politics, economics and society[3]. People and institutions with fame, such as politicians, and organizations with big influence in the society, are the newsmakers in today’s world. For an event or an issue to be considered newsworthy, it needs to be important to the reader, viewer or listener[4]. Natural events and phenomenon as well as manmade events that cut across a large population in most situations have been presented as news events[5]. News stories need to have relevancy to the reader, listener or viewer for them to be worthy of publication or broadcast.

Skinner, in his article: Converging Media, Diverging Politics: A Political Economy of News Media in the United States and Canada, says that in production analysis of news stories, many issues are presented that cuts across many areas. In presentation of news stories, media ownership determined the kind of news stories that are presented, and the timings that such story is presented. Due to the fact that less and less people own media in many parts of the world, in some instances news presented has been compromised when the owners feel they have an interest over the issues[6]. If they feel the news stories can tarnish their name or interests and their associates and friends, they can have an influence or determine if the news stories will be published or not. It is noticed that many media owners have political interests and political friends, and therefore in some examples that they report the positive sides of their political friends in relation to news events and stories. For example, Ted Turner own CNN, and this could give the station a Republican slant, due to Turner’s political affiliation. It is also important to note that politicians mostly have been called newsmakers, and this has forced some of them to engage in good relationship with media owners, and as a result they have witnessed biased report of news events and stories. Large corporations and businesses groups in some instances have owned media houses, and in this case media houses have become part of their large business empires and groups.

Media is also a critical tool to reach intended targets in business, specifically through marketing and advertisement. The corruption of news media is not limited to political parties, as many powerful corporations have been accused of compromising the kind of information being presented, especially news events touch the negative part of such corporations. For example, if a news event that criticizes any product from such corporations may be due to bad quality or unfair pricing and competition from opponents, there is the possibility that the facts will not be presented. After all, many of these news organizations rely on a single advertiser for a significant amount of revenue. This means when an advertiser does not wish to have a news item published, the media outlet needs to decide if printing the story is more important than having the advertiser keep advertising[7]. In other cases, media has prevented their competitors from actively utilizing their media in advertising and marketing by being tactical and limiting competitors from using prime time in news stories to advertise[8]. Many civil groups in the world fighting for free media and freedom of information have noted that monopoly and few numbers of people owning media have been the greatest hurdle in eliminating challenges facing media in production analysis, as well as other form of critical analysis[9]. Such groups have noted that independent media and large ownership by many people and individuals will ensure credible and quality news stories are presented that has no bias in any perspective.

News stories mostly reflect the class values of the producers. Throughout society, there are various different people from different social classes that include the upper, middle and lower classes. News producer shave been accused of being biased in the kind of news stories that they present, Lisbeth Clausen notes in Global News Production[10]. If news reporters or presenters come from a middle class, one would come up with stories that relate to that person’s daily life. This prompted Huff in his book Censored 2013: The Top Censored Stories and Media Analysis of 2011-2012 to argue that such situations a person would present what one is familiar with, and they might happen unconsciously[11]. People will normally relate to what they are familiar with and what they understand better. Views and perception about issues is determined directly and indirectly by the social class. What might be viewed as news story by somebody from lower class might not be worthy of a news story to somebody from upper class. It is been noticed that middle class and upper class in most places have controlled and determined the contents in news stories. Also, values that relate to gender and race have determined at times the kinds of news stories that have been presented. This has also compromised news stories presented, and therefore contributed in general to the challenges that face mass media in performing its mandate of educating, informing and entertaining without bias or fear, says Paul Manning in News and News Soruces[12].

News stories have been observed and presented in some instances as commodities, that is, they have been commercialized. It is asserted that indeed news stories attract a large number of audiences either in visual or audio setups. It is also noted that during news times, most corporations and businesses use this time to present their advertisements and marketing, and in most instances it is described as “prime time”. Experts and scholars in media-related affairs have noted that this attitude has in turn promoted consumption values and habits, which have both positive and negative effects[13]. News stories in some incidences are sold to media houses that pay to cover the news story. Also, a citizen journalist may sell a “newsy” photo to the media outlet. This has raised moral and ethical questions regarding journalism and mass media in general. Manning, in News and News Sources: A Critical Introduction, cautioned that commercialization of news stories has lowered the standards of mass media and communications in general, and this has been the position of most media and communications experts. It is an important concern that has to be addressed in popular culture[14]. This supports the idea that journalism is becoming less democratic.

News stories produced and other popular culture have faced constraints in the production process, and therefore this has determined and twisted the contents produced. In some instances accessing information that will constitute part of the news has been challenging. Those with information in some instances have willingly held on to the information may be due to one reason or the other[15]. Information being critical that can either makes or break an institution, individual or organization, people and organizations, in some instances, have been unwilling to share information. Specific people in organization are allowed to speak over an issue and not anybody else. This has had an impact in the content and accuracy of news being presented. In such circumstances, it has forced news presenters to come up with stories that are not fully complete, and in some instances they have been made to hypothesize. Some of the information presented in news story is also censured to cater to certain interests in the public such as abusive language or ugly scenes that might have devastating effects to viewers and listeners. Therefore, in such situation, content presented has been shaped and not presented, as it ought to have been presented, further eroding at the commitment to democracy that journalism once had.

Two common terms used to describe such happenings are “commercial’ and “technical “constraints. Some news stories also have been edited and presented in a way that limits commercial contents over an issue[16]. In such incidences, news stories are edited in such a way that they will not give the concerned parties any commercial advantages through marketing and advertising. Technical constraints at times occur in news stories due to technological failure and this may be because of a faulty device that might have encountered a problem. Electronics devices used to prepare and present news stories might experience a technical problem, and therefore it is not a guarantee that they will work. Such devices have also failed to work in other areas different from mass media, and therefore this should be viewed as common and normal issue. Such constraints have affected the way news stories are presented not only in the present times but also in the past[17]. This uncertainty in the accuracy of technology erodes the facts, which decreases the promotion of democracy.

Lastly, it is also important to point out that accessibility to media outlets has been a challenge and restricted place for most consumers. In other words, the newspapers are not working with the people that they are supposed to be the voice of and the voice for. The ironic part about this is that it is the consumers, including viewers, listeners and readers, of products from these media outlets contribute to revenue by making purchases. Media entities have to establish a mutual relationship among its customers[18]. On this note, critiques have argued that media houses restrict visitors because some media outlets work from terrible places that do not meet basic standards and environment of work places, and therefore to cover this challenge, they restrict access to their consumers. Ott and Mack in Critical Media Studies: An Introduction noted that such issues have mostly been observed in popular culture of radio and news stories presented from such media; it can be difficult to tell precisely how the work places look. It is also noted from this discussion that viewers and consumers of such products such as news story are only presented with beautiful and entertaining items that are selectively chosen. Most consumers do not know and understand the processes that it entails to produce news stories and the challenges faced.

In production analysis, the discussed and presented issues are looked at from all angles, perception and possibilities in relation to mass media. News stories have played important roles that have shaped the political structure in many ways. Politicians, being part of newsmakers, have had great interests in mass media, especially in news stories because such popular culture has influenced either directly or indirectly in shaping their destiny and future[19]. It is also important to note that most of the popular culture that exists, including news stories, are driven by one major ideology and concern: profit. Media and mass communication in general has proved to be a critical component that determines and shapes our societies and communities.

In conclusion, it is important to emphasize the relevance of all popular culture in mass media and communication, yet this importance is becoming less substantial due to the fact that media corporations are interested in profit before democracy. Many cultures have contributed tremendously in realizing the goals and objectives of mass media in society, but these goals are not being honoured. Critical analysis of all the popular culture is good and healthy for growth and development of media in the world in the broad-spectrum. Where media has been critiqued, it has to address those issues if possible, which touch on sensitive parts of the industry such as ownership, commercialization, values, accessibility and constraints. In analysis, not only production contents should be addressed but also historical, audience and textual so that a clear and in-depth understanding of the issues touching on mass media and communication can be attained.  Ultimately, mass media needs to reclaim its roots of being a vital component to the promotion of democracy.


Bibliography
Clausen, Lisbeth. Global News Production. København: Copenhagen Business School Press, 2003.
Goodyear-Grant, Elizabeth. Gendered News: Media Coverage and Electoral Politics in Canada. Jefferson, NC [u.a.: McFarland, 2008.
Huff, Mickey. Censored 2013: The Top Censored Stories and Media Analysis of 2011-2012. New York: Seven Stories Press, 2012.
Manning, Paul. News and News Sources: A Critical Introduction. London 2001.
Ott, Brian L, and Robert L. Mack. Critical Media Studies: An Introduction. Chichester, U.K: Wiley-Blackwell, 2010.
Skinner, David. Converging Media, Diverging Politics: A Political Economy of News Media in the United States and Canada. Lanham, MD [u.a.: Lexington Books, 2005.
Vivian, John, and Peter MaurinThe Media of Mass Communication. Toronto: Pearson Allyn & Bacon, 2009.


[1] Vivian, John, and Peter Maurin. The Media of Mass Communication. Toronto: Pearson Allyn & Bacon, 2009.
[3] Huff, Mickey. Censored 2013: The Top Censored Stories and Media Analysis of 2011-2012. New York: Seven Stories Press, 2012.
[7] Skinner, “Converging Media.” 8
[8] Goodyear-Grant, Elizabeth. Gendered News: Media Coverage and Electoral Politics in Canada. Jefferson, NC [u.a.: McFarland, 2008.
[9] Goodyear-Grant, “Gendered News.” 21
[10] Clausen, Lisbeth. Global News Production. København: Copenhagen Business School Press, 2003.
[11] Huff, Mickey. Censored 2013: The Top Censored Stories and Media Analysis of 2011-2012.New York: Seven Stories Press, 2012.
[12] Manning, Paul. News and News Sources: A Critical Introduction. London [u.a.: Sage, 2001.
[13] Ott, Brian L, and Robert L. Mack. Critical Media Studies: An Introduction. Chichester, U.K: Wiley-Blackwell, 2010.
[14] Manning, Paul. News and News Sources: A Critical Introduction. London [u.a.: Sage, 2001.
[15] Clausen, Lisbeth. Global News Production. København: Copenhagen Business School Press, 2003.
[16] Goodyear-Grant, Elizabeth. Gendered News: Media Coverage and Electoral Politics in Canada. Jefferson, NC [u.a.: McFarland, 2008.
[18] Huff, Mickey. Censored 2013: The Top Censored Stories and Media Analysis of 2011-2012.New York: Seven Stories Press, 2012.
[19] Vivian, John, and Peter MaurinThe Media of Mass Communication. Toronto: Pearson Allyn & Bacon, 2009.

ONE COAL COMPANY THAT WON’T GIVE YOUR PORTFOLIO BLACK LUNG

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By Phillip Woolgar – August 19, 2013 | Tickers: ANRACIBTU | 3 Comments

Phillip is a member of The Motley Fool Blog Network — entries represent the personal opinion of the blogger and are not formally edited.

Coal companies are facing challenges from all sides. Higher operating costs are eating away at margins, natural gas production is becoming easier with new shale technology, and environmental regulators are stomping out damaging production practices and use.

Not all companies are doomed, however, as coal exports are still promising. Let’s take a look at which firms are in trouble, and which could be profitable for the next several years.

Peabody steps to the plate
Peabody Energy (NYSE: BTU) could be set to play ball in China. The industrial production in that country could very well improve as demand rises. While progress is being made in some parts of China, the nation is still not heavily regulated and Peabody could cough out considerable cash from the country.

Let’s not forget that metallurgical coal is used to strengthen steel, either. That could mean that Peabody will profit from an increase in the number of buildings being erected in the developing world as well. The firm already deals closely with China, and that is the likely source of the majority of development.
Analysts see a storm before the calm. This year, the firm’s earnings per share is expected to decline by 92%. It will then rise next year by 306%. Those contrasted estimates could be due to an expected recovery in steel demand next year, as well as an improving Chinese economy.

No Alpha dog here
Alpha Natural Resources (NYSE: ANR) is combining the operations of its old production efforts with the new. Since purchasing Massey Energy in 2011, Alpha has worked to create synergy between the existing company and the new arm. The Massey mines are close to the Alpha operations, something that allowed the two to combine and improve logistics.

The large basin in which both companies were operating is full of production issues, however. The area is focused on metallurgical coal, which has had a low price for more than a decade. Morningstar estimates that in order for the area to be profitable, the coal needs to be worth $250 per ton, while it has actually been priced at around $100 per ton over the last 10 years.
Analysts also think that the company is doomed. Earnings per share is expected to fall 165% this year and recover 14% next year, but still post a loss. Revenue is pegged to plummet 27.4% this year and gain only 0.1% next year.

A downward Arch in share price
Arch Coal (NYSE: ACI) won’t be able to realize much in the way of profits in the next few years because it will need to take care of its massive debt (see chart below.) Realizing a profit from coal at all is a hypothetical situation, however. I believe that the company’s heavy investment in Central Appalachia exposes it to too much metallurgical coal production, and I don’t see prices increasing any time soon.

ACI Total Long Term Debt data by YCharts
The company is also heavily invested in the Powder River Basin, though, and that area has lush coal deposits to extract. This presents the potential for a favorable profit margin. The coal is also in high demand by coal power plants because it has a low sulfur content, something that coal plants prefer. This could increase the price for that type of coal.

If you’re going to invest in coal, this is where I’d put my money
While I am scared stiff about the prospect of investing in coal, if I were to buy a coal company then it would be Peabody. It is a risk that could be worth taking due to the low price of nearly every coal company around. Those prices are largely justified, but you might find a diamond in the rough with Peabody and secure a bargain that could add steam to your portfolio.

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Phillip Woolgar has no position in any stocks mentioned. The Motley Fool has no position in any of the stocks mentioned. Try any of our Foolish newsletter services free for 30 days. We Fools may not all hold the same opinions, but we all believe that considering a diverse range of insights makes us better investors. The Motley Fool has a disclosure policy. Is this post wrong? Click here. Think you can do better? Join us and write your own!

FOSSIL FUEL ETHICS SAMPLE ESSAY

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Should we continue to rely on fossil fuels for energy? Why or why not?
I don’t think we should continue to rely on fossil fuels for energy, because they are harmful to the environment. Furthermore, there are alternative forms of energy that can sustain life as we know it.  Admittedly, much of the technology that could replace fossil fuels haven’t developed to the point where they are capable of supporting the mobile requirements of the planet. However, governments should give more subsidies for the development of electric vehicles, for example.

Many governments are now behind the idea of cutting off the massive pipelines expansion of companies such as TransCanada Corp., which is attempting to execute plans to carry oil from the Alberta oil sands to Louisiana and Texas, (Jones, 2013). However, President Barack Obama has said that he would only allow the pipeline to be installed if it was shown that the project wouldn’t have a negative environmental affect. This shows that fossil fuels are indeed a concern, and we should tread very carefully when deciding whether or not to use the fuel. ExxonMobil is the largest publicly traded company by market capitalization, and it has been the target of various environmental groups for what they believe to be damaging effects of the company’s operations on the environment. The Political Economy Research Institute state ExxonMobil is the United States’ sixth-largest contributor to greenhouse gases. With so much evidence being compiled about the damaging effects these companies are having on the environment, we need to take a serious look at developing greener forms of energy.

Works Cited
Jones, J. (2013, July 18). TransCanada ramps up effort to sway U.S. on Keystone XL projectThe 
Globe and Mail.

FOOD PRODUCTION DEPENDS ON PESTICIDES

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
•          Introduction —————————————————————3
•          Problem ——————————————————————-3
•          Solution ——————————————————————-4
•          References —————————————————————-6

Introduction
Already, one billion people suffer from a lack of food. Approximately 400 million are chronically malnourished. Approximately 11 million children younger than 5 die each year because they are too hungry (Scialabba, 2007). To keep up with the demand for food, people must either come up with a better way to produce food or they must stick to conventional growing methods. In order to address the food shortages throughout the world, people need to recognize that the health benefits they thought they received from these organic products aren’t as real as they imagined. Changing the perspective of people will encourage them to eat food with pesticides and this, in turn, will have society more inclined to live sustainably, which includes the use of pesticides.

Problem
Organically-grown food only produces an average of 80 percent of what food grown in the traditional way can produce (Letourneau and Bothwell, 2008). A Wageningen Universiteit study compared 362 published organic-conventional crops and compared the yields. The study claims that there are challenges in the upkeep of nutrients because they are unsustainable when growing organic products. There is limited availability of organic manure.

Not only is an increasing population making this planet unsustainable, but the number of these people being poor is also rising. This makes it further difficult to feed these people’s mouths. The United Nations reported that the countries most greatly affected by this suffering are South Asian, specifically India and sub-Saharan Africa. The UN anticipates the problem persisting through 2020, but predictions beyond that haven`t been committed (Global Poverty, 2009). But poverty is reaching every country on the planet, even the United States and Canada. Fewer people can afford food at current prices, let alone organic foods. Organic foods are 10 percent to 100 percent more expensive than conventionally-grown foods. However, there is no scientific proof that eating organic food has any extra health benefits. Furthermore, organic farmers also use chemicals and pesticides (Melik, 2012). Consumers today see the word “organic” on food labels and automatically assume it is healthier, a phenomenon known as the “health halo effect.” Because of this illusion, consumers perceive these products as tastier and lower in calories. They pay higher prices for them even if they do not really offer health benefits (Lee, Shimizu and Wansink, 2011). Some companies have even been caught labeling their products as organic, when they are in fact the same as the typical product on grocery store shelves.

As if the inability to meet the demand of a growing population who are increasingly poor aren’t enough to deter policy-makers away from the cultural hurrah of organic farming, it should also be noted that organic foods are not as clean as we imagined. In fact, they are full of bacteria, as organic pesticides are not as effective as conventional pesticides. Organic pesticides also don’t pass safety standards. Organic farming can also potentially increase the rate of global warming because it requires more land, water, nutrients, and manpower (Johnston, Rob). By the definition of “organic farming,” organic farms are not allowed to enrich their soils with nitrogen fertilizers, since they are produced from an industrial process. Therefore, many of these farmers rely on composted manure, which creates a perfect home for microbes such as E. coli, a lethal pathogen (Miller, 2010).

Solution
More awareness about the effects of eating organically need to be known in order to have a society that eats more responsibly, which is with pesticides. While the idea of living solely on organic farming is ideal because of its ties to treating animals humanely, providing workers with a better environment and apparent health benefits, there is not to this day a clear partnership with organic farming and feeding the world’s hungry. Developed countries should take a lesson from the situation in Third World nations, which are essentially a snapshot of what can happen in developed countries in the future. As more and more pressure is put on water sources in various nations, and the amount of arable soil makes way to development that comes with population increases, countries such as the United States and Canada could more closely resemble places like Kenya and Somalia 20, 30, 40 years from now. If greater attention isn’t given to finding an overarching solution to the hunger pains, rather than reaching for ways to only eat organically, then the list of nations that fall victim to a lack of food will grow until only the world’s richest have an ample food source (Scialabba, 2007).

References
Lee W., Shimizu,  J., and Wansink, B. (2011) Health halo effect: Don’t judge a food by its  organic label. Science Daily: News & Articles in Science, Health, Environment & Technology.

Letourneau, D. and Bothwell S.G. (2008) Comparison of organic and conventional farms:
Challenging ecologists to make biodiversity functional

Melik, J. (2012, April 1) Just what does organic mean? BBC News.

Miller, J (2010, June 4) The Organic Myth.

N.A. (2009, June 23) Global Poverty Rising: UN. Deccan Herald.

Scialabba, N.E. (2007, May 5) Organic Agriculture and Food Security.

AN ANALYSIS OF ROBERT FROST’S “THE ROAD NOT TAKEN”

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Robert Frost’s poem, “The Road Not Taken,” discusses a fork in the road, where a person must decide which path to take. The speaker is walking along a path in the woods, before they come to a fork where they have to choose which route to take. This fork represents a life decision that the speaker had already made, and now they fantasizing about reliving the moment. The poem discusses the choices we make, and alludes to the fact that people are unable to test one long road before trying the other. This essay will discuss the imagery contained in the poem to communicate the subject matter, while also discussing the structure, voice and tone, and diction. Frost’s poem is based on making life decisions, and he uses each word precisely to communicate the unfair fact that life is often a guessing game. The speaker goes back in time, to the point where they needed to make a decision, and instead of choosing the path less travelled, they regretfully walked down the more trodden path.

As the speaker approaches the fork, they can see that they need to choose one of the roads. This is a situation that many people face in their lives. Frost is alluding to the fact that once people decide to take one major route, there is no turning back to take the other. For example, someone might be faced with a decision about whether to leave a small town to move to the big city to attain an education. Once they make that decision, they will need to commit many years of study to attain their degree. The subsequent events that play out in their lives is a result of that one decision. Sometimes, people are unaware they are making a life-changing decision; not making a decision is choosing to not take another path when it approaches. For example, a person leading a sedentary lifestyle has many options (or paths) that approach them as they continue along their life’s trail. Deciding to ignore the paths that are presented to them, and staying on the current path, is making a decision, even if they are unaware. Frost’s poem puts into perspective these choices that people have.

Frost uses a visual poetry technique that provides the illusion that the poem itself is a path. Each line in the poem is nearly the same length, and when looking at the piece as a whole, it gives the illusion that the poem itself is a trail. This is due to the relatively straight lines on each side of the poem. This technique adds an effective component to the poem, because its builds an element of physical style that makes the poem appear to be in sync with the content that is being addressed in the poem: the trail.
The diction and connotation in the poem provide an additional element that helps communicate the feeling of optimism, and then regret in the poem. Through the form (ABAAB), Frost is able to combine the rhyming words to create a feeling in his poem that helps communicate his message. During the first stanza – in the “A”-rhyming scheme – Frost rhymes“wood,” “stood,” and “could.” These words all give a tough, decisive meaning. “Wood” is typically very strong, “stood” is a word that implies sturdiness, and “could” communicates something that can be attained. All of these words are tough, and this helps to communicate the “tough” decision that the speaker needs to make about which path to take. Frost goes on, in the second stanza, to rhyme “fair,” “wear,” and “there.” These words are much weaker than the ones chosen in the first stanza. “Fair,” is neither strong nor assertive, “wear” is associated with a long length of time (due to the fact that it takes a while to wear something out), and this makes it less decisive. “There,” is meant to be used to question which path the person should take:  “should I go there, or there?,” for example. Each of these words represents the speaker questioning the path they should take. While both paths are strong and decisive, as seen in the first stanza, the speaker is now questioning which to take. The message in the rhyming sequence continues in the third stanza, with the use of “lay,” “day,” and “way.” “Lay” denotes the path that the speaker will lay their foot on, “day,” represents the fact that the decision is being made now, and “way” represents the way that the speaker will be taking their life. Each of these words represents the decision that is being made. In the final stanza, the meaning behind the rhyming scheme continues. “Sigh,” “I,” and “by,” all represent a regret in the decision that was made. “Sigh,” can be an expression of distraught. In this case, the speaker is distraught because of the decision that they made; “I” represents the fact that they are talking about the fact that the speaker is the one that made the decision; and the representation in “by” is unclear to me. It could be a final closing statement, used as a pun – as in “bye,” to the possibility of choosing the incorrect path, and saying “bye” to the better opportunity.

In the first stanza – during the “B”-rhyming scheme – frost similarly uses his rhyming words to communicate his optimistic, then regretful message. He uses “both,” and “growth,” which allude to the possibility of progress in each of the decisions. These words carry a similar meaning to the “A”-rhyming scheme in the same paragraph, which are generally positive. They allude to strength. Furthermore, the use of “wood,” and “growth,” in the first stanza could represent the strength of the decision to majorly impact the growth the speaker’s life, while also intertwining the forest setting. The woods provide a powerful backdrop, and represent the longevity of the decision. After all, forests are typically centuries old. In the second stanza, he rhymes, “claim,” and “same,” and this alludes to the fact that both the decisions claim the same possibilities. These mould well with the delicate words in the “A”-rhyming scheme of the second stanza: “fair,” “wear,” and “there.” All of the second-stanza words are indecisive, and communicate a sense of doubt. In the third stanza, the use of “black,” and “back” denote negative connotations. This communicates a sense realization that the other path should have been chosen. The “A”-rhyming scheme in the same stanza includes “lay,” “day,” and “way.” This stanza represents the doubt, because the “A”-rhyming scheme denotes the path that was chosen, and the “B”-rhyming scheme represents the doubt. This third stanza, in itself, shows the fork that is presented by the two decisions. In the final stanza, the speaker uses “hence,” and “difference.” These represent regret, as it notes the results hence choosing of the path, and the difference in the speaker’s life that may have presented itself if the other path were chosen. The “B”-sequence combines well with the “A”-sequence, which is “sigh,” “I,” and “by.” Again, these represent a regret in choosing the path that was taken, much like the words in the “B”-rhyming sequence.

While the ABAAB rhyming sequence can communicate the symbolism of optimism and regret in the poem, it is also important to take a look at several other elements contained in “The Road Not Taken,” such as the literal aspects that provide hints that the piece is a reflection of speaker’s decided path. In analysing the poem, the words carry a significant literal meaning. The title in itself provides the first, and perhaps the most significant, clue that the speaker is reflecting on a past decision: “The Road Not Taken.” The speaker is reliving the moment as if they had decided to take the road less travelled. Furthermore, the use of the word “could” in the second line, shows that the speaker is reflecting on a previous decision. “And sorry I could not travel both,” (2). This not only captures the reflectivity of the speaker, it is also central to the theme of the poem, as it depicts the challenge of making a decision. While at the fork of roads, people are challenged to choose the path that will bring them most happiness in their lives. And with some of the most important decisions in life, both paths cannot be taken. As a person takes one path, the other disappears in many cases. While people can try to predict what will happen in each of the paths, “And looked down one as far as I could,” (3) the path cannot be truly experienced until it is walked down. Also, note the use of the word “could,” once again. Furthermore “looked” provides further proof that the speaker is using past tense to describe a decision that had already been made, and these are just a couple examples of the past tense that is used to describe the major event that already happened.

The speaker also combines the reflectivity with reliving the moment, and taking the route less travelled. “Then I took the other / Two roads diverged in a wood and I –  / I took the one less traveled by” (6, 16, 17). The 16th and 17th lines provides particularly interesting evidence of the reliving of the moment, by the use of hesitation as expressed in the M-dash. The speaker hesitates when they are describing the road that was taken, as if they were going to say they took the road more travelled (which in reality they did), but they catch themselves, and decide to say they took the road less travelled.

Through the speaker’s reflection, they provide a message: while people typically take the road that is more commonly walked upon, journeying down the road less travelled could be the better decision, “I took the one less traveled by, / And that has made all the difference,” (19, 20). While he is positive in these final two lines of the poem, it is only because he is imagining taking the path less trodden. But while the speaker is saying to the reader that they would have likely been better off by taking the path less travelled, they still have their doubts, because they have not actually taken that path and can only see “To where it bent in the undergrowth,” (5). Frost subtly communicates his doubt about taking the new path: “And having perhaps the better claims,” (7). Using the word “perhaps,” communicates a sense of doubt that the path less travelled would be better. After all, he can’t see beyond the bend “in the undergrowth,” (5). The doubt is also communicated when he says, “I doubted if I should ever come back,” (15).

Frost’s poem represents a core component of everyone’s life, and he creates this allegory not from the perspective of a person who approaches a decision, but from the perspective of someone who has made a decision, and they wish they had chosen otherwise. An easy but inaccurate interpretation of the poem would describe the point where the speaker has come face to face with a major decision, but does not know which path to choose. However, by looking at the various symbolic and literal nuances, the reader can begin to understand the deeper meaning behind the carefully chosen words. Ultimately, the speaker wants to be able to travel both paths, to see which is better, but this is not possible with many life decisions. All a person can do, is look as far down the path as possible, to see where that road goes. However, while this essay has interpreted the poem to indicate regret – due to the fact that the speaker wants to travel the opposite road – could it not represent greed? After all, perhaps the speaker wants to travel both trails for the joy that each of them brings.

Works Cited
Frost. R. (1920). The Road Not Taken.

GENDER ROLES IN ‘BOYS AND GIRLS’ SAMPLE ESSAY

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In Alice Munro’s “Boys and Girls,” she discusses how a girl can have a society’s unwritten rules decide her life. The story is about the role women are given in the world. In the story, society does not think that men and women are equal. This essay will discuss that dynamic. Throughout the story, various details come out about the inferior role that women were given over men.

One example of the role that is given to women in the story is the act of being essentially tied to the kitchen. Throughout the story, the women are consistently tied to the house and are expected to perform the roles that are stereotypically given to women. Along with this role, the males were perceived as being the dominant figures in the household. They would perform the tasks that were more typically labelled as being masculine. “My father removed the pelt inside-out from the body of the fox, which looked surprisingly small, mean, and rat-like, deprived of its arrogant weight of fur” (1). This role that is given to men is stereotypical of the times, and Munroe establishes the time period by simply relaying the details of the actions of each gender. She does not need to specifically state the date, because the time period is indicated by the actions of the men and women in the story. The dynamic between the men and women in the story is also expressed when the narrator says: “I shot two rabid wolves who were menacing the schoolyard (the teachers cowered terrified at my back)” (2). This shows the roles of the men and women, and the attitudes they portrayed. The teachers were all very likely women, and they were being portrayed by the narrator as being scared about him killing the wolves. He is portrayed here as the strong man who is looking out for the school by killing the wolves, and the teachers are portrayed as being weak, and of needing the man to take care of the tough tasks.

The women were not only portrayed as being weak, but they were also portrayed as not coming out of the house very often. Thus, this story puts not only the stereotypical emotional qualities onto women, but also the tasks that they were executing in this story. “She did not often come out of the house unless it was to do something – hang out the wash or dig potatoes in the garden” (4). The text goes on to describe what this condition had done to the narrator’s mother. She looked as though she was out of place when she was outside, the text explains. She had bare lumpy legs, and they did not appear as though they had seen the sun in a considerable amount of time. Her apron was still on her body, and this is likely an addition to the story so that there is the representation of what the position of women was meant to be at the time. They were responsible for doing the household chores, and those often involved wearing an apron. These tasks were not performed because his mother wanted to do them; instead, they were important because he father wanted her to do the chores. “It seemed to me that work in the house was endless, dreary, and peculiarly depressing; work done out of doors, and in my father’s service, was ritualistically important” (4).

“Boys and Girls” provides a clear look at the traditional dynamics between men and women. It shows that there were not many options for women at the time because their husbands provided for them. This typically meant that they felt they had to do what was expected of them, and this often meant that they were destined to perform menial tasks, such as working in the home, and not participating in any of what was considered to be “manly” activities. Many of these roles are still apparent today, but the main difference between then and now is that the women did not have much of an option about what they were doing. As the narrator put it, his mother was essentially performing her tasks due to the fact that it was expected of her from the father. The story brings up many important points about where we have come as a society, but the dynamic between men and women in the story and the way that men and women interact in contemporary times is still a reality for many women. This is likely particularly true for women living in rural areas, where there the number of tasks is often higher than what they are in the city. For example, some families still need to hunt or fish, and this is a task typically reserved for men. In these households the stereotypical role of women is very much like it is in the novel; however, mainstream society has managed to change these dynamics.

References
Munro, A. (n.d.). Boys and GirlsRockyview. 

WID, WAD AND GAD: AN ANALYSIS SAMPLE ESSAY

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Gender stereotypes have been a major part of the lives of many people. Gradually, many of these stereotypes, and gender barriers, have broken down, but there are still assumptions in most communities about the personal tendencies of people in gender groups. To understand some of the situations in which people find themselves, we will be looking in this essay at three general categories of thought. These include WID, which is integration of women in the worldwide growth of politics, economics and society. Two of the more recent focuses are also useful in this discussion: WAD, which is women and development; and, GAD, gender and development. In this paper, I will examine with a critical eye these concepts and action plans that are presumed within each of them. I will then determine which category is the most effective.

WAD is a useful framework to develop an understanding of the relationship women have had with society as a whole, and how that interaction has played out since the early 1970s when the term came into prominence. The term likely became used because the 1970s was a great time for progress among women and breaking down the gender barriers that prevented them from assuming jobs that were typically designated for men. During this period, governments were writing legislation that protected women from employers discriminating against them for their gender. WAD was needed to take a close look at the roles that were typically assigned to women and the ways they affected the needs of the capitalist system, which was experiencing an agricultural revelation during the period and required the help of women, as “The Journal of Developing Areas” points out, (Rathgeber, 1990). Frameworks such as these are often needed to keep an objective view about the material that is being analyzed, and the WAD provided a name for the transformation that was taking place in the workforce. The data that was compiled helped modernize the employment strategies and it helped create a focus on the sexual division of labor.

But it should be argued that the term, Women in Development, doesn’t provide a very insightful take on what exactly it is, even though the body of research on which it was focused is a worthwhile study. However, the term should be recognized for its simplicity. It could very easily be used as an acronym and it wasn’t long before the Women’s Committee of the Washington, DC, chapter of the Society for International Development was using the term. WID provided the beginning of the study of the gender-specific division of labor. This beginning work was effective at bringing to surface action plans that helped address an unfair division of labor. This is an important time because there was a growing need in the workforce for people who could help fill the many jobs in the agriculture sector, which was becoming much more needed due to increased production and demand from farms during the period.

The modernization exemplified in WID, also helped lead to including more women in field of the education system where a trained workforce was needed. These new frameworks helped to include women more in the modernization. Prior to this time, women were not always included in analysis. For example, women were now given specific attention because of the principles created by WID. Prior to these principles, there was an overarching attitude towards favoring men during analysis.
The overarching benefit that the WID had, was it put women’s issues and how they relate to the working economy into focus. This was much needed to get the wheels of modernization moving. And the research that WID resulted in showed that there were inconsistencies between equal rights and the ways women were treated in the workforce.

WAD takes WID one step further, but it also fails in some departments. For example, it doesn’t look at the oppression of women like WID does. In short, the term comes up short in the analysis of the subordination of women. However, it also takes a more critical view of the position of women. There is a key assumption that it is too complacent, and that is the perception that the roles of women will improve when the structures shared internationally become equal. In order for there to be changes to the development of the rights of women, the theory states, there needs to be more representation among women in political office, and in other arenas that affect their social status. The theory behind the term fails to set out actionable responses to the oppression of women in development. Rather, it implies that certain areas will be improved if there is greater participation and acceptance of women in areas where decisions that affect the gender can be created and applied at a societal level. The WAD doesn’t do a good enough job at addressing the oppressive nature of society against the interests of women. It takes a more general look at the issues in society, such as class division among both genders. WAD sees both men and women as being disadvantaged, which is correct, but an emphasis on women is needed in WAD because the term uses the word “women” in its title.

It has been argued that both WID and WAD only research the economic effects of women in development without giving any value to the social aspects of women in their role in society: “The labor invested in family maintenance, including childbearing and rearing, housework, care of the ill and elderly, and the like, has been considered to belong to the ‘private’ domain and outside the purview of development projects aimed at enhancing income-generating activities,” (Rathgeber, 1990).  However, this criticism is unfounded because WID and WAD never intended to put such a value on the social contributions made by women. Perhaps an even more important point is that women shouldn’t automatically be associated with the social aspects named.

In the final approach to be discussed in this paper, GAD, the term became popular in the 1980s and is essentially a newer version of WID. In this framework, women and gender were combined as one with no regard for the various exploitations that were obvious in women. This was the crux of the issue, because in order to modernize women’s relation with the world in which they work, there needed to be progress made in mitigating, and eliminating, the oppression of women. There was only a basic set of tools designed to analyze the interaction of women and the world around them, and it didn’t get personal enough to make any progressive steps in the way women were treated in society. This is a disappointment because there were many progressions in the field of social sciences and the position of women during the WID era of the 1970s.

The main reason GAD neglected to look at the detailed aspects of women and how they relate to society, is because GAD was focused on a holistic approach that didn’t look at just one gender, but both. The focus was more on the general construction of gender and the various roles that are given to each gender. It was a stereotypical analysis, as it looked at the roles that both sexes were expected to undertake. However, the research was also based on what the most common roles are among women and men. GAD was also strong in the sense that it welcomed all perspectives, and didn’t just focus on the views of women in its development. This gave it a more general focus, but it was perhaps stronger because it was more objective. Without the subjectivity of only having the perspective of one gender, GAD was better able to become something that could fit into a society, which is obviously made up of both men and women. It should be noted that the concerns factored into GAD were from men and women who were interested in social justice. GAD uses these perspectives to attempt to provide a framework on which society can develop with both genders being considered.

GAD is largely different from WID and WAD in that it looks at the value of the work done by women in the household, and it factors in the family unit as being an integral role to a well-functioning society. It also looked at the role of both genders in the household indiscriminately, while recognizing there is a need from the state to help preserve the family unit, such as funding in situations where adequate care for children can’t be given. This differs from the two other focuses, which don’t recognize the need for public assistance in the family unit. GAD recognizes that women are prone to oppression in families, and they are the source of much of the assistance that should be given because of their higher tendency to be in situations such as single parenthood.

GAD is essentially a more evolved version of WID and WAD, and this makes it the most effective focus. When social programs are factored into the functioning in societal development, such as they are with GAD, there is greater distribution of wealth, which builds the circulation of money. This circulation helps businesses prosper and, in effect, the owners are able to hire more employees. GAD also takes the benefits of WID and WAD by factoring women’s issues and the need to improve gender equality, though WAD doesn’t do a good enough job of that point. GAD is largely what has led to the equal treatment of women and higher quality social programs that society enjoys today.

Works Cited
Gilfedder, D. (N.D.). Testimonial and the Stories from the ‘Stolen Generation’ in Australia.

Rathgeber, E.M. (1990, July). WID, WAD, GAD: Trends in Research and Practice. The Journal of 
Developing Areas 24. 

A CHANGING GREEK PERSPECTIVE ON IMMORTALS

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During both the archaic and imperial times, Greek culture was filled with iconic stories of immortals. However, the culture’s perspectives about these prominent figures changed over time. This essay will describe the changes and continuities in Greek literary treatments of mortals and immortals from archaic to imperial times. The immortals vary from mortal-born heroines and heroes who were promoted to become gods from a process called apotheosis. Many of these gods received their prominent statuses because of their services to mankind; these heroes include Heracles, Aristaeus and Asclepius; others were promoted because they were married to the gods, such as Ariadne, Psyche and Tithonus; a small number were promoted out of sheer luck, such as Glaucus – but the means of promotion and the detailed stories behind these gods was not always consistent. Ultimately, the way that Greek literature treated mortals and immortals from the Archaic to Imperial times changed immensely as the culture gradually saw the stories more as myths.

During the Archaic times, the stories about gods were considered to be the cornerstone of the Greek society. These gods were admired throughout history. One of the first pieces to realize such prominence was Homer’s Lliad, and the accompanying piece, Odyssey, (Nagy, 1). Admired for its high prestige, Iliad is a prime example of the definition of the Greeks’ epic: which is a massive poem with major scope. The poem is constructed with elevated language that explains the various deeds of heroes. “That these deeds were meant to arouse a sense of wonder or marvel is difficult for the modern mind to comprehend, especially in a time when even such words as wonderful or marvelous have lost much of their evocative power” (Nagy, 3). It is also difficult to understand the ancient Greeks’ meaning behind hero. These heroes depicted were typically human, descended from immortal gods. One of the major examples of this is Akhilleus, who is typically known now as Achilles (Nagy, 3). He is the most major hero in lIiad, and he was the son of Thetis, who is a sea-goddess that is recognized for her “far-reaching cosmic powers” (Nagy, 3).

In lliad, widely considered the first of the Greek epics, the father of Achilles is a mortal, and this means Achilles, one of the greatest heroes, is also a mortal. This reveals the ancient Greeks’ attitudes during the Archaic times about the perception of mortal. They believed that being heroic was not reserved for the immortals. In fact, all ancient Greek stories that involve heroes depict the mortal as being the heroine, (Albersmeier, 49). Whenever a mortal gene is in the family, according to the Greek myths, the descendent will be mortal, because mortality is the dominant gene (Albersmeier, 24). However, some stories restore the life of mortal heroes during the Archaic times. By definition, they are not immortals if they die and then are brought back to life, but they can live forever in this reorientation of mortal heroes from the Archaic times. “In short, the hero can be immortalized, but the fundamental painful fact remains: the hero is not by nature immortal” (Albersmeier, 32). During the story of Herakles, he had been sired by Zeus, who is the chief of all the gods. This is one of the most prominent representations of a hero dying and then being brought back to life, but the hero must still die. “It is only after the most excruciating pains, culminating in his death at the funeral pyre on the peak of Mount Oeta, that Herakles is at long last admitted to the company of immortals” (Nagy, 5).

In Odyssey, another of the archaic Greek texts, immortalization is discussed at length. The story states that Odysseus will never die, though it is told in a prophecy. The gods were able to live on forever, and never had to die and then be reborn like the heroes who were revived. The gods could not be killed. One of the gods, Ares, went through the motions of death after a time when he was caught off-guard and he was wounded by Diomedes, a mortal. This takes place in Scroll 5 of lliad, (Callimachus, 23). However, there is some humour in the way that Homeric treats the scene, as he shows that this death was in fact a mock death. In the Greek epics of this time, death could only be treated as serious when it happens to a mortal, because it is known that the immortals cannot die, (Callimachus, 44).

Immortality and mortality is a common these in Greek literature during both the archaic and imperial times, but the archaic times was more limited in its use of gods. Iliad and Odysseycertainly represent this aspect during the archaic times. Achilles and Odysseus are particular examples of the representation of mortals during this time. This is a major theme because it provides commentary to the concept of the human condition of mortality. During both the archaic and imperial times, mortality was used to define heroism because those who died were almost always heroes (Cooper, 24). “The certainty that one day you will die makes you human, distinct from animals who are unaware of their future death and from the immortal gods” (Nagy, n.d.).

Often during the archaic times, the death of the hero was extremely violent. The reason for this is likely because the ancient Greek society almost always considered war to be necessary, and it was even considered to be an important component in life (Cooper, 28). However, others have said there is typically a sense of being the victim of forces that are out of the heroes’ control. The concept of force is typically perceived as being and eerie esthetic component (Cooper, 54). However, others, still, have said that this violent depiction is due to religious forces of ancient Greece that condoned animal-sacrifice and hero-worship, which were more embedded in the archaic times, prior to the uprising of Christianity during imperialism (Cooper, 18). During the stories, heroes were often worshipped by killing a sacrificial animal (Cooper, 12). This sacrifice was believed in the ancient times to be for reassembling the hero’s body in the myths of immortalization (Cooper, 32). However, Homer avoided describing the details related to dismemberment of animals, and therefore it avoided the information about the sacrificial practices. The immortalization was also avoided during Homer’s poems. This made the immortalization process too localized in the way that it was described in epics. However, the hero dying in battle was accepted by all at the time. While the texts did avoid the issue Iliad made up for it by discussing the details about the martial deaths of the heroes (Cooper, 63). The extreme details of the heroes’ deaths made up for the lack of information about the about the sacrifice. Homer also found a way in his poetry to immortalize the mortals, in a sense. For example, Achilles chose to die violently so that he could be immortalized by being remembered in the epic poetry (Halford, 21). Being remembered in this sense was a primary goal of Achilles, and so the archaic Greek literature shows that even the mortals were trying to find a way of becoming immortal.

While the archaic times traditionally focused on the use of mortals, there was also a considerable amount of focus put on the immortals, and while they were stoic, they could also be susceptible to emotions. Also, the gods were very connected to each other during each of the texts. For example, Poseidon was the son of Kronos, and Rheia, and the brother of Zeus, Hestia, Hades, Hera and Demeter. He is one of the original six Olympians, who were given much attention during the imperial times. He brings voice to the Earth (Halford, 13). In fact, Poseidon was considered to be the Earth-Encircler and the Earth-Shaker, these were his traditional roles in Homer’s Odyssey and lliad. He is depicted as having incredible power, and this massive power that the gods possess is something that does not change from the archaic to imperial times. Poseidon is depicted as pounding and shaking the Earth and the sea out of sheer enjoyment. He has a broad wrath and does not answer to anyone except for Zeus (Halford, 23). Poseidon has the sea, and represents a vast kingdom for him. It is populated with creatures that he designed and he rides the ocean waves in a dolphin-drawn chariot (Halford, 12). Despite this, the creation that he is most honoured for is the horse, and this shows the respect that the Greeks had for horses during these archaic times. Furthermore, it shows that despite the wrath and punishment that the gods can have on people, they are the ultimate creators, and deserve a tremendous amount of respect. Incidentally, the power of the ocean was strongly linked to the gods throughout the literature, and this is particularly expressed throughout the Greek myths. “Wind-swept and stern is she set in the sea, and, wave-beaten as she is, is fitter haunt for gulls than course for horses” (Callimachus, 2011).

The imperial times discusses cases of mortals who are very clever, and this is a commonality with the archaic and imperial times, as is the respect that is given to many of the mortals. For example, the cleverness of the mortals was expressed in the story of Poseidon and Athene, who were both immortals. The treatment of the mortals in the story represented in the imperial times showed that the imperials were more willing to give some power to the mortals. In archaic times, while the mortals were often depicted as heroes, they were not looked at as being anywhere near the status of gods. While the imperial times did not consider mortals and immortals equal, it did give more respect to the abilities of the mortals than did the previous era (Halford, 22). In the story of Poseidon and Athene, immortals in the story were tasked with developing cunning gifts for the mortals. The mortals, in turn, said they would be eternally grateful to the immortals. Poseidon created a horse, while Athene created the olive tree. Athens was named after the winner of the contest. Athens was named, and Poseidon lost the contest, even though he created the horse, which changed the future of Greece. This was done to show favour for Athene (Halford, 23).

Furthermore, mortals were given more credibility during the imperial times, when the Siege of Troy took place. At the same time, the susceptibility of the immortals to emotions is revealed during this archaic era. During the Trojan War, Poseidon disobeyed Zeus by entering the bloodiest part of the war (Hunt, 3). He entered the ranks and encouraged the army to lust towards victory over the Trojan army forces. At this time, the Trojans appeared to be winning the war. Zeus was seduced by Hera and was hanging about after making love on Mount Ida. This is similar to the susceptibility that the gods feel towards Aphrodite. “Muse, tell me the deeds of golden Aphrodite the Cyprian, who stirs up sweet passion in the gods and subdues the tribes of mortal men… “ (Homeric, 2011).

When Zeus was done making love, he heard that Poseidon was screaming on the battlefield below Zeus in the valley. However Zeus said all the Immortals needed to keep away from Troy and now Zeus saw that Hera tricked him and that Poseidon disobeyed him. (This interesting use of the emotions of the immortals is common throughout the ancient and imperial times, and shows how similar both eras’ treatment of the immortals was.) The Greek writers believed this was a weakness of the gods. “Every false judgement, and especially concerning these matters, is a mischievous thing; but where emotion also enters, it is most mischievous” (Plutarch, 1874). However, in this case, Zeus managed to contain his anger, and he did not reprimand his brother. Instead, he sent the storm-footed messenger, Iris, who warned Poseidon. He quickly withdrew from his participation, but he was very defiant about the ordeal. Poseidon said that he was leaving out of respect for his brother, not because he feared him (Stickland, 12). This, again, shows the emotions that are strongly embedded into the immortals, and draws on the resemblance they have to humans: Poseidon was a proud person, who did not want to say that he was fearful of his brother, Zeus.

The punishments and rewards that Poseidon and various other Olympians in the Greek myths bestowed upon the mortals were limited to what Zeus would allow. For example, when Odysseus blinded Poseidon’s son, he received a major punishment. In fact, if Odysseus had only blinded Polyphemos he could have been forgive, but he went too far. Odysseus added insult to injury and he and his family needed to pay for his transgression. Polyphemos was one of the Cyclops, who was called a “wheel-eyed” giant and he assisted Hephaistos. Poseidon was Polyphemos’s father, and the Sea nymph Thoosa was he mother. Odysseus had come to Polyphemos’s cave, and discovered, along with his ship mates, that Polyphemos ate men. Polypohemos was thinking that the small sailors were trapped, and so he let down his guard. During this time, Odysseus made Polyphemos relax with some strong wine, and he talked to him very cleverly. When he was not expecting it, Odysseus jumped at Polyphemos with a burning spear. He was blinded with the spear that boiled his eye in its socket. Odysseus escaped but due to his pride, he turned to taunt Polyphemos with some major insults. Poseidon could not forgive the indignity shown by Odyssey. Also, Zeus was not able to save Odysseus from Poseidon. While Poseidon caused a considerable amount of misery to Odysseus and his family, he did not kill him. Instead, he continued to drive him away from his home, robbing him of his happiness. One time, (during Odyssey, book 5), Poseidon discovered Odysseus, who was being resourceful on a raft that was in sight of land. At this time, the wind and the sea rose at Poseidon’s orders and in doing this, he staggered the sea and let the storm loose, blasting against Odysseus and destroying his small raft. Just prior to the raft being smashed to bits, Leukothea, the sea goddess, saw Odysseus and handed him her veil to make sure he did not drown. However, Odysseus thought that the offering from the sea goddess was a trick by Poseidon. Odysseus waited until his raft sank underneath the crashing waves, and then he accepted the help from the goddess, and this began is three-day swim to shore. However, he arose in a foreign land (Stickland, 54). Poseidon intended to harm the cursed hero, but not to kill him. This shows the complications of the immortals as depicted more in the imperial times. While Poseidon wanted to cause hardships to Odysseus, but not to kill him. Also, this shows the similarities between people and immortals, and that is that they are extremely complicated.

During the ancient times, the immortals were divided into approximately eight categories. In the first category, the Protegenoi were considered to be the First Born gods who were the primeval being and they emerged during the creation of the universe and formed the fabric of everything, including the sea, sky, Earth, day and night. While these gods were divine, they were still only in elemental form. For example, Gaia was the literal Earth, Pontos was the sea, and Ouranos was the dome of heaven. In same instances, they assumed anthroporphic shapes, though they could not be divided from their element. The second category of gods were the Daimones, who were the spirits. They nurtured life in the four elements, such as the forest of Dryades, the fresh aster of Naiades, the marine Tritones and the beast-loving Satyroi. The third category was the body and the mind, which affected the Daimones. For example there was sleep, love, joy, hate, fear, death and old age. In the fourth category, the gods controlled the various forces of nature and created civilized arts for mankind. The fifth category consisted of the Olympian gods, and these are frequently depicted as characters in various Greek myths. The Olympians commanded the legions of spirits and lesser gods, while also commanding the universe. In the sixth category, the immortals were considered spirits of the constellations, circling the heavenly skies. In the seventh category, there were beasts, giants, and monsters, and they were considered semi-divine, as they were closely related to the gods. In the eighth category, the semi-divine heroes were designated, and they were worshipped after they died as being minor divinities. Achilles was considered to be a part of this category (Strickland, 23).

The depiction of the immortals through the archaic and imperial times as being extremely emotional beings, is a key indication that they did not change much from each time period. However, the stories of the immortals grow more flexible in the way that they are depicted during the imperial times. The dynamics between the mortals and the immortals change in the imperial times to the point where the gods are not viewed as being all-controlling. This could be due to a departure in beliefs about the gods during the imperial times.

Works Cited
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Callimachus, Hymns 4-6.” Theoi Greek Mythology. (2011). Web. 13. Nov. 2013.

Cooper, G.C., and Saunders, N.J. (2009). Greek Myths and Legends. New York: Ticktock    Books. Print.

Halford, R.W. (1964). The Greek Myths. Canada: Academic Press. Print.

Homeric Hymns.” Theoi Greek Mythology. (2011). Web. 15. Nov. 2013

Hunt, J.M. The Creation of Man by PrometheusSouth Dakota State University. (n.d.).      Web. 8 Nov. 2013.

Nagy, G. Greek and Roman Myths of HeroesUniversity of Houston. (n.d.). Web. 11 Nov.             2013.

Plutarch, De superstitione.” Tufts University. (n.d.). Web. 13 Nov. 2013.

Strickland, G. “The Thin Line Between Greek god and Mortals” Academia.(2013). Web.   11. Nov. 2013.