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“The sociological theory that the loss of the support of objectivity established religion, the dissolution of the last remnants of pre-capitalism, together with technological and social differentiation or specialisation, have led to a cultural chaos is disproved every day; for culture now impresses the same stamp on everything.”

This line best represents the text because it discusses the fact that people are becoming subservient to Capitalism’s power. It discusses the fact that we are no longer is a position to live without having to be a part of the Capitalist system. It discusses the mechanical reproduction aspect of the living in a world that is run by Capitalism. Most of the power that Capitalism has is due to technology, the author discusses. It dominates the way that the world functions. The cultural industry has facilitated the emergence of production and now people are at the mercy of machines. While this text was written some time ago, it has already seen that there was a shift in the way that people are living, and this is largely because of the control of technology.

In the transition from periods, beginning with romanticism and moving to expressionism, there was the gradual movement to a protest against the organization. The awareness of this form was ignored through a harmonic effect. When someone painted, a color was used often and this was at the price of the entire image. Novels gradually began to change as well, going from a work where structure was considered the most important, to something where the psychology of the work was deemed to be most important. The idea is that the culture industry ruins the fun of life, rather that providing amusement for people. This is a result of lost objectivity and the dissolution of the final remnants of pre-capitalism.


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In the response to the two girls, I’d like to tell them why I won’t be able to accept them as tenants in my house.


The students want a place to stay when they are attending school. They have a pet with them, a bird. They say it won’t cause problems, and that it isn’t really even a pet, but I know of many birds that are pets, and they are messy and noisy. I need to let them know that is one of the reasons why they can’t move in. They are also going to have many church people coming to the home, it sounds like. I won’t tell them that is a reason not to let them move in.


In the message, I want to tell them that they will not be able to stay in the suite. I will try to be as polite as possible, while referencing their bird, and car that leaks. While the church friends may not seem like they will cause a disturbance, I am concerned that they will. The students seem to have several issues, to which they are very honest, but they are issues nonetheless. I’ll let them know that. Despite whether the students believe they are nuisances or not, they are. Bird are noisy and messy, cars that leak are messy and stinky, and church friends can be just as loud as atheist friends. They need to know this, but I’ll be gentle.


The audience is two students that seem desperate for a place to live. I want to be as open and honest as possible because they need to know why they can’t live in my house. However, I want to make sure that I am not too harsh about my reasoning why I won’t let them stay here. The students are new to the city and would benefit in knowing what types of pets are acceptable (none), and what kinds of vehicles are acceptable (air cared). Also, the city hasn’t give special privilege to people of faith since the 1800s, perhaps.


After I send them the message, I would like Martha and Whitney not to contact me again. I likely have several people wanting to view the apartment, and I don’t want to procrastinate on Martha and Whitney. I’m afraid that if they respond, I’ll just become annoyed with them, as they will likely try to plead their case about that bird and car. In the effort to be time-efficient, I’d like them just to say “Thanks,” or not respond at all.


I will deliver the message in an email. That is the most time-efficient way to do things. A text would be OK if the message was short, but I want to inform them about my reasoning for not allowing them to stay, and the best way to do that is through an email. A letter doesn’t make sense, as it takes too long to mail, and other messages, such as a Facebook message, doesn’t work because I likely don’t have them on Facebook.



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The traditional gender roles associated with the Christian marriage have long been established, but are now withering along with a closed-minded mentality that has plagued society since the uprising of Christianity after the fall of the Roman Empire. Christianity has had and would continue to confine women to the home. These wives are supposed to take care of the husband, children and household, while men bring home the financial means necessary to sustain or improve the family’s well-being. But much of that has changed since the development of gender equality and respect for alternative lifestyles lived by gay, lesbian and transgendered people. In this essay, I will outline some of the traditional Christian views about gender roles in marriage, and present the Christian-right contemporary view. I will then discuss the ways in which society can move past the irrational views expressed by Christianity and that have unfortunately helped shape our society – though the age of rationality has improved the outlook and there are more equal rights now. It is also important in this essay to establish the ideas surrounding new forms of marriage, such as gay marriage, which is becoming more mainstream and accepted on the state level. The Christian definition of marriage has long been associated with an old-fashioned, washed-out form of partnership that is making way to new gender roles that are inclusive and fair.

According to Carrie A. Miles in her book “The Redemption of Love: Rescuing Marriage and Sexuality from the Economics of a Fallen World,” she analyzes traditional Christian marriage from the standpoint of a socioeconomics. She uses this standpoint to investigate what she believes to be a problem today with marriage and gender norms as they move past the traditional concept of the wife tending her husband, children and the home while the husband earns a living for the family. “The age of wealth in the industrialized world turns the value of the marriage relationship and children into that of consumption rather than production, since the necessities of life – food, clothing, shelter, education – can be purchased more economically than produced at home,” (Havens, n.d.). She is saying that contemporary means have withered away at traditional marriage, and women are now driven to also earn a living. However, as Rebecca A. Havens of Point Lorna Nazarene University, who reviewed the book, says, Miles makes “wide sweeping” statements that touch on several societal problems, but never really get to the heart of the changing gender roles in marriage. The traditional views presented by Miles, and eventually debunked by the more rational views of Havens, are deteriorating. “ideas about roles and responsibilities of the husband and wife now vary considerably on a continuum between the long-held male-dominant/female-submission view and a growing shift toward equality (without sameness) of the woman and the man,” (Christian, n.d.).

Moving Away from Blind Confines
As women begin to enjoy more equal opportunity as men in the marriage, there is another storm brewing in the eyes of Christian conformists: Society is gradually accepting people who believe in views outside of Biblical confines. Gay marriage is one of the most widespread debates on the political agenda today, and it is something that many consider to deteriorate the traditional roles of men and women in marriage.

Whether or not to sanction gay marriage has become an intense political debate, especially over the last decade. In his essay “Gay Marriages: Make Them Legal,” Thomas B. Stoddard argues in favor of gay marriages – saying it is a fundamental personal freedom, not one that should be controlled by the government. In Lisa Schiffren’s “Gay Marriage, an Oxymoron,” she argues that same-sex marriage can’t be understood by society. She says marriage needs to keep with the tradition of being between a man and women. I believe this way if thinking is backwards and simpleminded. Generally, the public is becoming more accepting of people’s sexual orientation. As the blind dominance of Christianity has waned over the years, there has become a greater culture of accepting those with differences. Christianity, as the reader likely knows, has been in steady opposition of homosexuals since the religion really took a stranglehold on society around the fall of the Roman Empire around 500AD. But, gradually, Realism has taken hold as the dominant way of thinking, and society has become more practical in its way of contemplating the acceptance of whether homosexuals should not only be welcomed in society, but be allowed to marry each other. Instead of condemning homosexuals to burn for eternity in the “hot oils of hell,” as Christianity would condone, they should be given the same freedoms as heterosexuals because it is in line with evolutionary logical thinking, it preserves an evolutionary trend towards acceptance and it doesn’t go against any fundamental reasoning from which marriage was designed.

As Stoddard points out, all 50 states outlaw gay marriages; however, it should be noted that since his writing, six states have legalized gay marriage. These include, New York, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Iowa and two Native American tribal jurisdictions. California briefly allowed same-sex marriage in 2008. The steady progress is a sign that areas of the United States is evolving. Just as laws that condemned people to torture for blasphemy have been ruled out, so too will laws distaining the practice of gay marriage. Furthermore, “If tradition were the only measure, most states would still limit matrimony to partners of the same race,” (Stoddard, 2009).

On the irrational side of the equation, Schiffren argues that “’Same-sex marriage” is inherently incompatible with our culture’s understanding of the institution,” (Schiffren, 2007). I believe that this “culture” to which Schiffren refers is made up of racist, prejudice, unintelligent, irrational, discriminatory people who are likely Christians, as Schiffren likely is. The culture I come from consists of loving, accepting, rational, intelligent people who use logical thinking as their guiding force.

Schiffren claims that marriage is “a lifelong compact between a man and woman committed to sexual exclusivity and the creation and nurture of offspring,” (Shiffren, 2007). However, as our friend Stoddard points out, “states would forbid marriage between those who, by reason of age or infertility, cannot have children, as well as those who elect not to,” (Stoddard, 2009). In pointing out that marriage is not designed for the purpose of procreation, Stoddard completely refutes Schiffren’s claim that marriage is designed to nurture offspring.

It is important, for the overall well-being of each member of society, to embrace differences as long as they don’t hinder the happiness of a logical person. I say “logical” because some people are harmed by gay marriage – but these people believe, for illogical reasons that may or may not be controlled by the inaccurate garbage that is spewed by the Bible, that same-sex marriage is somehow harmful to society. I have yet to see why the love between two people shouldn’t supersede the grief a person causes themselves because of their blind hatred. Discrimination against gay marriage is only the remnants of the dwindling Christian belief system that is falling to the wayside of rational acceptance.
In the New York Times article “Gender roles getting blurred or reversed,” Tara Parker-Pope discusses the same material that is mentioned in Veronica Tichenor’s “Maintaining Men’s Dominance: Negotiating Identity and Power When She Earns More.” Both texts discuss, thoroughly, the role that money plays in the dynamics of marriage and how that is related to gender roles.

Traditionally, of course, men were the bacon-carrying breadwinners of the household, and women tended to the home duties such as talking care of the kids, cooking dinner and doing laundry. But all that has changed since Better Friedan encouraged women to step outside their homes and search for careers. Recent research shows that in one-third of households, the woman is more educated than her husband, and in 22 per cent of marriages, it is the wife who brings home the cash. That is an increase of about 15 percentage points from 1970, (Parker-Pope, 2013).

Interestingly, the same research found that the shift in money-making dynamics has had a positive result in marriages. Men taking on more work in the house has a positive effect on marriag (Parker-Pope, 2013). According to Stephanie Coontz, the reason marriages have been more successful is because instead of women looking to marry up into a more educated or economically stable household, they are now choosing to marry men who are interested in an egalitarian relationship. This is an interesting fact, because it implies that the role traditionally associated with men, which is dominance in the household, was causing the problems with the marriages. These views are also reflected in Tichenor’s piece, which says that when men earned the money, they had the right to control it, and this control echoed into other areas of the household.

Gay Marriage
In LZ Granderson’s “The Myth of the Gay Agenda,” he talks about the “gay agenda.” The gay agenda that Granderson describes is meant to be facetious, because gay people don’t have an agenda. They are just like everyone else. When they get up in the morning, they usually drink coffee, get stuck in traffic, get stuck in lines at airports, cleanup and they cook, for example. According to Granderson, the gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgendered (GLBT) community is seeking to be treated equal to everyone else in society. Currently, there are many states where gay people don’t have the same rights as heterosexual people. For example, they can be fired from a job because they are gay, even if they are doing a good job and have been at that job for a long time. Landlords are also allowed to kick people out of apartments because they are gay.

Granderson is responding to hate such as this: Homosexuals steal children and destry Christian marriage (The Homosexual Agenda, 2011). The presentation raises the issue about how minority groups have been treated due to institutions inspired by Christianity and its traditional views about the roles of men and women in marriage. Black people were once oppressed, and so were people of other races. Women were also oppressed at a certain point. But, eventually, they were given equal rights to everyone else. Even though there has been throughout history the repeated process of amending rules that oppressed people who belonged to certain demographics, the ignorance of GLBT people’s rights is another installment of the discrimination. All the GLBT community is seeking from society is the same rights that everyone else has. And obeying these rights would be adhering to what is required by the U.S. Constitution. The Constitution is supposed to establish the equal treatment of every American resident.

I think the traditional constraints on marriage, which were introduced by the Catholic Church, are narrow-minded and elitist. Christianity has long been a nemesis of mine, and for various reasons. As an individual who would conform to the Christian definition of an allowable marriage, I provide an objective view on the situation that is faced by women and those with alternative lifestyles, and I still see a tremendous problem with how unfair the traditional gender roles of marriage are as it relates to Christianity. Fortunately, the old-fashioned principles associated with marriage and the roles of each gender in those unions are withering away. That gives me hope that the collective intelligence of people on this Earth is improving, and it makes me grateful that I didn’t live in a time when Christianity had the final word.

Works Cited
Christian views of marriage.” (n.d.). Princeton University.

Evolving Gender Roles Explored at Anne Roe Lecture.” (2008, Nov. 24). Harvard Graduate
School of Education.

Gender Roles in Family Life.” (n.d.). Campbell University.

Granderson, LZ. (2012). The Myth of the Gay Agenda. TED.

Havens, R. (n.d.). The Redemption of Love: Rescuing Marriage and Sexuality from the 
Economics of the. Fallen WorldPoint Lorna Nazarene University.

Heterosexism.” (1997). James Madison University.

Parker-Pope, T. (2013). Gender roles getting blurred or reversedThe New York Times.

The Homosexual Agenda.” (1999). Betty Bowers. Retrieved from

Stoddard, T (2007). Gay Marriage: Make them Legal. New York. Southern Illinois University
Press. Print.

Schiffren, L. (2009). Gay Marriage, an Oxymoron. New York. Process, Inc. Print.


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What activities is the direct competition involved in that influence your brand, such as offering new brand extensions, promotions, co-operative advertising, sponsorship, etc.?

Amazon.com’s subscription video-on-demand (SVOD) feature is causing Netflix to lose much of the market share. “Amazon Prime’s SVOD offering could eventually be carved out as a standalone product that would compete more directly with Netflix for subscribers,” (Szalai, 2012). This brand extension sets Amazon.com up as a direct competitor for subscribers for video streaming. The company is expanding overseas and this is an area that Netflix hasn’t quite mastered yet. If Amazon.com gets a stranglehold on the market outside of the United States, they could choke the market share before Netflix really gets a chance. Amazon.com also has much more capital from which to spend than does Netflix, which puts the company at an even larger disadvantage. Amazon is clearly being aggressive, as it was only recently in France that Canal Plus wasn’t allowed to have exclusive rights to the SVOD and VOD network. This tells me that Amazon is aggressively seeking complete market share, on a global scale. “Canal Plus deputy chief Maxime Saada added that Netflix was getting ready for an entry into the French market early 2013, although its arrival has been unofficially announced more than once,” (Godet, 2012). Amazon isn’t only ahead of the game in France: in 2008, the company purchased LoveFilm, a British SVOD company. Along with the purchase, Amazon gained two million subscribers from five European territories, including the U.K., Germany, Norway, Sweden and Denmark.

4. Provide information on the following points in the brand audit:

1. Brand’s positioning
Netflix has consistently positioned itself as a leader in the distribution of entertainment. It was the first company in 1990 to offer DVDs to people homes through the mail. Ten years later, the company started offering its product to people through online streaming, and was once again a leader in that field. All this was accomplished by being a leader in the dot-com era. In fact, it was once known as one of the most successful dot-com start-ups ever. The company is continuing its pursuit of being a leader by purchasing DVD.com. Netflix is so used to being a leader, that is attempting to gobble up the competition. This is the position it has had, and it is the position that it wants to continue.

2. Brand’s differentiation points
Netflix differentiates itself from the competition by offering a hybrid of services. It offers both home delivery and streaming. When the company first came out, it was differentiated by the fact that it was the only video company that was delivering to people’s homes. The company is still the world’s largest online movie rental service. It also provides these videos extremely fast, as they have 42 shipping centres in the United States. Approximately 1.575 DVDs are shipped each day.

3. Brand’s relevance
Netflix is meeting the demand of millions of people, not only among those who want DVDs delivered to their homes, but also those who seek online video streaming. There are very few complaints about the service that Netflix provides, which means that it is largely able to complete the requests. While the company is the top source in the United States to deliver videos directly to people’s homes, there is much competition surrounding Netflix for streaming video online, particularly overseas.


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Module 4: Industrial
Question 4.1: Moving from a coastal society to an internal one, discuss these new inventions that industrial designers had to work with.

Industrial designers had many new inventions with which to work. For example, electricity was a major change to the number of creations that these designers could make. The light bulb seemed like something that was not possible, but it would turn out to change the world, and the world of design. The light bulb means there can be new functionalities in the objects that are being designed. It also did away with many former designs that would accommodate non-electrical forms of light. There was no longer the need for as many lanterns, for example. And the invention of the light bulb created a market for light fixtures, for example. But the light bulb itself would not have been possible if not for electricity, which created a massive number of possibilities of designs that are still being invented today. Electricity has facilitated the design of everything from refrigerators to iPhones, and the list is only getting longer.

Question 4.2: Compare the Beecher sisters to Martha Stewart.

I would argue that at least one of the Beecher sisters is much more intelligent than Martha Stewart. Stewart does not come across to me as being very intelligent, though I do not know here myself. However, she is probably a millionaire, yet she went to prison for fraudulent dealings on the stock market. On the other hand Harriet Beecher wrote the book Uncle Tom’s Cabinwhich many credit as being the trigger that started the American Civil War. Beecher’s book is one of the most famous of all time, and is certainly ahead of its time. Uncle Tom’s Cabin denounced slavery by calling it inhumane. This book was a great service to society, and I would argue that it is much more significant that any contribution Stewart has made, or the contributions of nearly anyone else, for that matter.


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Module 4
Part A: Short Critical Reflection

Section 2 Summary

Gabriel Garcia Marquez’s Nobel Lecture “The Solitude of Latin America,” upon winning the Nobel Peace Prize, is a credible tool to gain a primary source perspective on the issues that were surrounding Latin America (1).

Often, the complicated situations that are happening in a country can cause many people to speak out. While most of these people provide a valuable source of information, they may have their facts wrong, or they may not consider all sides of the situation, for example. However, in taking a look at Marquez’s speech, it is clear this is a very intelligent man who provides valuable insight into the political situation in Latin America. For example, he provides a solid perspective on the accounts of Argentina’s independence from Spain (2).

Marquez is successful at showing his perspective on the history of Spanish conquest in Argentina, and the struggles for independence that persisted thereafter. While he does not offer a first-person account of the first settlement of his nation, he does provide an interesting perspective for many years after the country gained independence.

Section 3 Summary

Mike Gonzalez, in “The Resurrections of Che Guevara,” discusses the life of Che Guevara, who was prevalent in Cuba during the 1960s. He describes how Che is still prevalent in Cuba, and is often what travellers bring home with them from souvenir shops where they might buy a mug with his face on it. Che is a major figure in the Cuban revolution, and is a prime reason why the nation is what it is today (2).

I found the depiction of this man to be extremely heart-felt. I could tell that Gonzalez feels very attached to the man, and as he describes, so do all Cubans. The story of his importance is certainly inspiring, and Gonzalez does a good job at communicating how important the man was in the lives of everyone in Cuba. I also found the explanation of the political situation to be extremely informing, particularly when Gonzalez goes on to describe the efforts of Castro during his amnesty (6).

Ultimately, Gonzalez’s article is about the revolutionary spirit, and he captures this well, and does justice to the man that Cubans still consider to be their hero. Che was a figure for freedom in the 1960s, and his efforts were so important that he remains a hero today.

Works Cited

Gonzalez, Mike. “The Resurrections of Che Guevara.” Socialist Workers Party. Dec. 1997. Web. 15. Nov.                2013

Marquez, Gabriel Garcia. “The Solitude of Latin America.” Nobelprice.org. 8 Dec. 1982. Web. 14. Nov. 2013


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1.     Explain why the slope of the production function falls as more workers are hired while the slope of the total cost curve rises as more output is produced.

The slope of the production function falls as more workers are hired because the production function is the relationship between the quantity of inputs that are used in order to produce a good and the quantity of the output of the good that is produced. This creates a situation where there is a diminishing marginal product, causing the production function to flatten as more people are working. The slope of the total cost curve rises as more output is produced because of the same diminishing marginal product. Essentially, there is more output produced by the workers, but the workers cost money so the production function falls as more workers are hired, reducing the overall marginal product.

2.     Why is the long-run ATC also U-shaped?

In determining why the ATC is U-shaped, it is important to remember that the average total cost is the total of the average variable cost and the average fixed costs. The average fixed cost will consistently fall as the output increases, due to the fact that the fixed cost is being spread over a larger number of units. The average variable cost almost always rises as the output rises due to the fact that there is a diminishing marginal product. The ATC is a reflection of the shapes of both of the averages, and this creates the U-shape. The ATC is high when there is a low output, due to the fact that there is a fixed cost that is only being distributed over a few units. The ATC then declines when the output increases. When there is a considerable amount being produced, the ATC rises again because the average variable cost is rising substantially.

3.     Why are firms in perfect competition called “price takers”? Why is P=AR=MR?

Each firm that is in perfect competition is much smaller than the size of the market. And in these cases the consumers don’t distinguish between the firms. In these cases the consumers purchase at the lowest possible price, or if there is a market price, it is at the market price. When there is perfect competition there are no inefficient firms because they have not succeeded in the market. The companies that cover their costs are able to survive. The individual firm can’t lower its price in this situation to attract more customers, because then the company wouldn’t be able to cover its costs. The company can’t raise the price because it would lose customers. There is no customer loyalty because all the firms are selling identical products, so the company simply takes the price that everyone else is charging, thus making it a price taker.

P=AR=MR because in the situation where there is perfect competition, each component is realized in both competitors, and this includes the total revenue, average revenue, and marginal revenue. There is no wiggle room in any of these categories when there is perfect competition.

4.     Explain fully why the perfectly competitive firm chooses the output where P=MC.

The perfectly competitive firm chooses an output where P=MC because this allows it to realize the maximum potential revenue. If P=MC, the firm is producing the quantity at which marginal cost equals marginal revenue, and this maximizes profit. This is the most efficient use of resources.

5.     Why does the short-run supply curve of the perfectly competitive firm have a positive slope?

The short-run supply curve of the perfectly competitive firm has a positive slope because the supply curve is the part of the marginal cost curve above the minimum average variable cost curve, and a perfectly competitive firm is able to maximize profit by generating the amount of output that is equal to the price and marginal cost. Due to this fact, the firm progresses along a positively sloped marginal cost curve, as a response to changing prices.


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Module 4: Career Text
Discussion 4.1
How do hiring parties in your chosen industry prefer to review portfolio work?

In my chosen industry (interior design), hiring parties prefer that I have a website with a portfolio of my work. However, if I do not have a website, I may also submit, in an email, attachments of work that I have completed, either through school or at a professional capacity.

Will you elect to create a portfolio website?

Yes, I will create a portfolio website. This is the easiest way for a potential employer to get a strong concept of the type of work that I can do.

What do you see as the potential advantages and disadvantages of presenting your work in an online format?

By presenting my work on an online format, the employer has easy access to the work that I have completed. Furthermore, it shows how serious I am about interior designing. The employer can also see some of the work that I have completed in a much more user-friendly environment.

Discussion 4.2: Conventions, Contests, and Festivals
Use Internet or other resources to share with your classmates and instructor the name of at least one upcoming meeting, convention, contest or festival related to your major.

Interior Design Show West holds a convention in September for people who are interested in interior design. This is a major industry event that showcases some of the best concepts in interior design. It is held at the Vancouver Convention Centre.

Comment on the professional benefits of participating in the selected activity.

Attending this event will allow me to network with some of the individuals who are at the top of their game. I can let them know some of my design concepts and give them my business card. This could allow me to generate business.

What other professionals are likely to participate?

Designers who are at the top of their game are likely to participate. They will be the ones showcasing what they can do. Meanwhile, there will be many people who are new to the industry looking at the designs, while trying to network with those who have been in the business for a while.

What recognition might be gained by winning a selected contest or competitive festival, for example, or through participation in panel discussions or seminars?

The biggest thing that could be gained is credibility. If you win a contest, people will automatically assume that you know what you are doing. This could lead to a ton of potential new clients. The discussions and seminars also give designers credibility to those who are listening.

Assignment 4.1: Professional Bio and Press Release
Write a one-paragraph professional bio.

XXXXXXXX’s education over the past two years has helped him develop into the type of person who is ready to take on a career as an interior designer. The courses that he has taken have taught him many of the old and new design methods that make him a designers who is not confined to design methods of the past, while not being ignorant to those either. Through his success in recent education in the field, he has become am a top candidate for any design project. While his professional experience is limited to volunteer work, he is still completing his studies and will be a top candidate for any project when he has finished his education.

1B. Write a short press release on yourself or announcing something you or another person are working on.

New Interior Designer Wins National Award for Innovation

New interior designer XXXXXXXX on Wednesday secured the top prize in the Canadian New Interior Design Innovation category. Recent graduates who win this award typically go on to design some of the most high-profile interiors around.

“This win is a major success for me, and sets me up for an incredible future,” XXXXXXXX said. “I will cherish this honour, and hope it will allow me to work on the types of projects that can give me significant professional, and personal, satisfaction.”

The award credits XXXXXXXX as having the most innovative design in 2013 in Canada. The concept for which the award was granted will be developed in an addition to the Parliament building in Ottawa.

“XXXXXXXX is one of those special designers that only come along once a decade,” said XXXXXXXX’s professor, Charles Xavier. “I expect great things from this recent graduate in the years ahead, and this could change the face of interior design as we know it.”

Not long after the award, XXXXXXXX secured a position with YYYYYYYY.
For more information, contact: XXXXXXXX (1111-8222-854, Fax: abc-736-y8n7, Email:  XXXXXXXX @gmail.com, Website: XXXXXXXX Designs.com)

Assignment 4.2: Reference List

Create a professional reference list. Include the names and contact information for three professionals who have agreed to provide information about you and your work.

Client 1@gmail.com

Reference #1

Ms. Reference 1, Junior Consulting Specialist

Interior Consulting

Reference 1@reference.com

Reference #2

Mr. Reference 2, Manager of Operations

Mr. Reference 2’s company

Reference 2@reference.com

Reference #3

Mr. Reference 3, General Manager

Mr. Reference 3’s company

Reference 3@reference.com


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Question 1
How do you see the similarities between the abilities of 21st century man and Neolithic man? Where are the differences? Are there any?

I see us as both being designers of the tools that are used to increase our quality of living. In the Neolithic times, people used items such as stones to carve off skin from their prey. That improved their quality of life because it allowed them to make the most of the food that they had. That simple stone tool is an example of the Neolithic man facing a challenge, and then overcoming it by using resources. Today, we are faced with a challenge of overpopulation and a resulting food shortage. The 21st century man is attempting to overcome this challenge by using genetically modified food. This new type of food helps us harvest crops faster, and with a higher yield. So, just as the Neolithic man faced a challenge with creating food for himself, so too does the 21st century man face a challenge of finding food for himself, and both periods of man have found, and are finding, ways to ensure the efficiency of their food cultivation efforts.

Question 2
Is there a contemporary American ornamental system that you can identify?
The contemporary ornamental system in America is difficult to identify because the theme is so intertwined with various components of society (economic and social). However, it could be said with relative certainty that our ornaments are the people, particularly our celebrities. Our ornamental system is based on a lifestyle that is often depicted by our celebrities. These celebrities represent our desires. In essence, our contemporary ornamental style that is focused largely on celebrities is simply an expression of the want of material possessions. This is an ornamental style that relates closely to society, and it is spurred on by a capitalist economic system that has created a culture of consumerism. Celebrities are the personification of this material desire (our ornamental system), which is cultivated by capitalism.


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This memo covers an important component in the modern international business community that I think our classmates could improve upon to maximize their performance in global negotiation. The global market is demanding many companies take their business international. As they do, there becomes an increased requirement to interact with businesspeople of different cultures. Because effective communication is so vital in doing business, a clear understanding of the culture with which business is being conducted is important. That’s why more international negotiations training is a common component to solving this communication problem.

Attitudes are the demonstration of behaviours in international negotiations that emphasises the attempt to come to agreements, and proper attitudes require savvy negotiation. This becomes more challenging when the business with which one is negotiation speaks a different language and has different customs due to the fact that the firm is located in a different country. But in effective negotiation, understanding the other culture helps promote attitudes of:
·         neutrality,
·         objectivity,
·         honesty
·         respect.

Under conditions where each party better understands the other, negotiations could likely be better managed; however, the challenging part is getting people to behave in these ways. These basic negotiation rules of principles of practice and ethics aren’t easily attained by those who have issues with the ways in which they are conducting themselves due to cultural barriers, (Farmer, 2011).

Breaking Down Barriers of Understanding
While understanding the culture with which one is negotiating, it is also important to understand and be trained in the basics of negotiation. This is important in executing business. For example, negotiations are important in deciding contracts at work. The ability of parties to negotiate efficiently can have ripple effects that last many years. Some contracts might last 10 years or more. This makes effective negotiating skills at the time of the agreements to be a major priority. Various strategies are obvious when it comes to negotiations. Different strategies are effective in different situations, and this is why it is important to know which strategy to use in the given situation. This becomes more complicated when various cultures are taken into consideration. Developing a better understanding of each negotiation strategy could help those who are negotiating to put the best strategy into practice. While many might believe that people are either proficient negotiators or not, by practicing negotiation techniques, a person can refine and develop their negotiating skills to a point where they could be much better at getting what they want, (Wu, 2006).

Managing Globalization
Globalization is going to have a massive role on the way in which negotiations are carried out and the degree of usefulness of traditional negotiation styles. Because globalization is obviously such a massive influence on the corporate culture, there won’t be a single business, big or small, that won’t be affected by the dominance of the world market. “The ever expanding scope of global competition is forcing a continuous re-examination of how human resources can best support the rapid pace of business globalization,” (Pucik, 1996). As part of the influence of Globalization is technology. Innovations such as the iPhone and iPad have made it possible to communicate with people throughout the world extremely easily. Now, more than ever, paperwork can be completed timely and effectively, and digitally. With the increase in the amount of technology comes a change in the way that negotiations are carried out, as it offers more options, (Pucik, 1996). This could lead to an increase in the number of employees who are able to negotiate, due to advancements in translation devices and quick global response, for example.

·         Develop workplace training in cross-cultural negotiations
·         Recruit a diverse staff
·         Recruit staff that has training in cross-cultural negotiations.

Works Cited
Farmer, C. (2011, March 25) Communication skills training: voice tone. Corporate Coach

Pucik, V. (1996, July 15). Human Resources in the Future: An Obstacle or a Champion of 
Globalization? Cornell University ILR School. 

Wu, M.Y. (2006). Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions 30 Years Later: A Study of Taiwan and the 
United States. Western Illinois University.