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PRODUCT MIX PRICING ESSAY SAMPLE

Sample by My Essay Writer

By completing a product mix pricing strategy, the company is able to earn more money off of other products that it is selling. This will prevent the firm from having to increase the price on the product that it is currently selling, and focus instead on ensuring that it can make up for the extra costs by introducing items that carry a higher price to the public.

In order to achieve this, external factors need to play out. Mainly, there needs to be enough people who are able to afford the more expensive items. This will be determined by several factors. The neighbourhood in which the business operates is very important because the bakery needs to ensure there are enough people to afford the items that are at the higher price target. Furthermore, the new products that are being sold need to be desirable by enough people. This means there would need to be a considerable amount of research into finding new gluten-free foods that people would want to buy.

One of the strategies that can be used to create a demand for the highest-priced items is to give out free samples. Small test samples could be used to create a desire for the new products. If the new product is good, this could decrease the demand for the products that carry a lower profit margin, and increase the demand for the products that carry a higher profit margin.

2. New-product Pricing Strategy
The company should also consider a new-product pricing strategy. This will help to introduce new products to the customer base. The new-product pricing can begin very low to promote the product, but then the company could raise the price as people start coming to the bakery for their goods. By using this strategy, this could attract a larger clientele, and they will be after this new product. Once a large number of people have come to the bakery to try to new product under this cheap pricing strategy, they will become familiar with the bakery and be more likely to return. After the initial pricing strategy, after possibly a month, the price of that product can increase.

This strategy will depend on the amount of unpenetrated market segment. For example, if there are a lot of people who drive by the bakery but do not shop there, then there are many people who are potential new customers for the company to sell the new product to.

3. Cost-based Pricing
A third option is to use cost-based pricing. With this strategy, the company can focus on attracting a higher number of clients and selling a higher volume. This could decrease the price of the ingredients because more will be purchased. The company may need to incur additional expenses due to advertising costs. Other options to increase the customer base is to add catering to the company. If the company begins to cater its baked goods, that could increase the number of customers and the amount that the company is baking. This increase would demand additional ingredients, which could be purchased for less money due to the firm’s ability to buy in bulk.
This plan would depend on the bakery’s cash flow with which it could fund an advertising campaign for the catering. Also, it would depend on whether the wholesaler would lower the price if there is an increase to the amount of ingredients. It would also depend on whether there is a market for catered baked goods in the area.

LEADERSHIP IN ‘LORD OF THE FLIES’

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In William Golding’s “Lord of the Flies” two of the strongest characters are Ralph and Jack. These characters both have many of the traits that makes them leaders. The group needed a leader, and as it turned out, it was the civilized ways of Ralph against the brutal savage ways of Jack. By the end of the story, Jack stands out as being more of a leader than Ralph because savageness is more valuable than diplomacy in the case of surviving the elements.

Ralph is the novel’s protagonist. He is elected as the leader of a group of boys who are stuck on the island. As a 12-year-old, Ralph has to deal with many of the difficulties of being young and inexperienced, as he attempts to lead the group. “We’ve got to have rules and obey them. After all, we’re not savages. We’re English, and the English are best at everything,” (Ch. 2). He tries to coordinate the efforts of the boys to build a small civilization on the island. The group needs to have the necessities of living, as they try to buy time before they are rescued. While Ralph is more symbolic of civilized people, Jack is more of a savage, which represents that dark side of humanity. Jack is definitely the antagonist in the novel. He is one of the older boys in the group and eventually becomes in charge of the hunters among those who are stranded. But he isn’t satisfied with just leading the boys to try to find food. Instead, he wants to be in control of the entire group, as he longs for complete power. This longing drives him to become barbaric and wild. “He began to dance and his laughter became a bloodthirsty snarling,” (Ch. 4). He is cruel to the others, and this cruelty progresses along with the novel. Jack becomes very manipulative, and this represents the instinct that people have in them – one that shows mankind as savages. This is in direct contrast to the civilized nature of Ralph.

The dynamic between these two characters is interesting. While Ralph is chosen by the groups as being the leader, it is he who then decides to appoint another one of the boys, Jack, and designates him as the leader of the hunters for the group. From the start, it was Ralph who had most of the power of the leader, but many of the character traits that Jack showed throughout the novel made him more of a leader than any of the other characters. That is because he was able to keep the group alive. It was the savage nature that he possessed that, when it came down to it, was more valuable than the diplomacy of Ralph.
When Ralph and Jack set out to explore the island, the leadership skills of these two boys really come to the forefront. Gradually, it becomes obvious that Jack’s brutal nature makes him a savvy leader. After the boys have explored the island, they return to light a fire after Ralph insists that it is a necessity in order to attract ships that could be moving past. The most important feature of these two boys in assessing their leadership skills is what they are focused on in the attempts to survive on the island. It is clear that Ralph and Jack are the leaders in the group because unlike the other boys, who are playing and not paying much attention to the necessities for survival, they are both focused on ensuring the survival of the group. For example, Ralph says that the group should be focused on maintaining a single fire throughout, and building huts for them to have shelter. Meanwhile, Jack is continually attempting to catch a pig, even though the group of hunters have failed.

Ralph assigned the hunters to keep watch on the fire in order for it to burn out, and when he notices that a ship was passing and the fire hadn’t been maintained, he became furious at Jack. But Jack and his crew had just returned from catching a boar, and he doesn’t give much notice. When Piggy becomes mad at him, he strikes her. This is where Ralph shows some of his leadership savvy, as he makes a speech that was an attempt to restore order. This leadership skill that Ralph displays sets him as possessing the gift of leadership speech. But many of the leadership skills that are possessed by Jack become utilized when the group begins to think that there is a monster lurking about the island. As it turns out, the leadership of brute force was much more valuable in this situation. “They were glad to touch the brown backs of the fence that hemmed in the terror and made it governable,” (Ch. 9). When a couple of the boys think they had been attacked – due to the fact that they heard strange noises – Jack leads the group of hunters to find the monster. At this point, Ralph and Jack are increasingly becoming at odds with each other, and Jack’s declaration as the leader of a new tribe of hunters. “Which is better – to have laws and agree, or to hunt and kill?” (Ch. 11). This tribe would eventually be in opposition to Ralph and his people, who have lost their minds and have killed Simon with their teeth and hands. In the end, it is the Jack who ends up being the leader, as he has managed to have a more loyal following, and he is better capable of ensuring the survival of his group than Ralph did. In this situation, it was muscle over brains that determined who would truly survive, and I think the point of the book was to make people think about the fact that when it comes down to it, survival capabilities are the true factor in ensuring survival.

LOVE LETTER SAMPLE

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Dear Laura,
I feel so happy this time of the year – but while I am glad that the heat of the sun has waned, I am cautious of the cool temperature the winter could bring. I guess nearly everything in life comes in pairs, and maybe it’s these magnets that pull everything together, even the seasons. Fall is such a beautiful season and the perfection of the changing leaves and cool breeze bring me so much joy.
Do you ever stop and think about your life when a new season arrives? I do. I think back to the previous year and remember where I was and what I felt like. Everything was so much different then and I feel so fortunate to have you in my life now. I couldn’t imagine living without being able to picture your perfection. And that’s really what the changing seasons are to me: perfection.

You see, it isn’t just the uncanny ability of the Earth to transform itself like clockwork through the year; it is the never-ending beauty that it possesses. Sure, there are times when the lightning strikes and the wind topples over trees, but a brighter day is always ahead. If it is too cold in the winter, we can dream of the summer; if the summer is too hot, we can dream of cooler days.

It’s this type of balance that creates the perfect relationship, and it is almost as if beauty relies on periods of change. While there is something fierce about a blistering cold day, I still see its beauty. Looking for what the world is as a whole makes me feel the rawness of life. I sometimes want to grab the soil and feel its texture between my fingers.

I have to admit that whenever I feel so strongly about something, I think of you. You are the Earth to me. You are the perfection that it possesses. I walk to a river and hear the ripples over soft rocks and I think of you. When I see fluffy clouds dispersed over the canvass of a blue sky, I think of you. Whenever a bird sings, a fish jumps, a loon calls out, an eagle soars, I think of you.
So as I sit here in tall green grass and look out to a pond bustling with earthly activities, I am thinking of you… and only you.

This time last year I noticed the same beauty, but it felt empty, like a songbird with no voice. It longed to call out, but every time it opened its mouth, the song was silent. The tune was there the whole time, searching for its missing piece – only one piece could finish the puzzle, and it was the only piece in the whole world. That piece is you, and now the songbird has his voice.

After remembering where I was and how I felt in the previous year, I usually picture what my life will be like next time the fall breeze moves in. I picture myself with you. In the perfect world we will have been together for a long time prior, and instead of a songbird singing to himself, he will be one of two lovebirds.

I want to know where you see yourself in a year. This world has so much to offer, and there are countless possibilities. One decision can change the entire course of a person’s life. The winds blow in change, and that change is the beauty that makes this world complete.

It scares me to think of where I’d be if I didn’t make the decision to get to know you. The emptiness I would feel now without knowing your smile. I owe you so much, and if there is anything that I can do to make you happier, I want you to tell me, because your happiness is my happiness.

I can hear the wind blowing through the leaves now, and there is anticipation in the air. The trees are almost sad that their fruit has fallen and their leaves will soon shed, but they know that the beauty will renew itself, and live on for hundreds of years. Some trees are over a thousand years old. Can you imagine what has happened around them? If only they could write it down, they could tell people the secrets of the world. They could tell us that time shouldn’t be wasted, that true happiness is so close and all we have to do is recognize that it’s there.

The sun is fading and tomorrow will bring a new day, a chance to start all over, to get done what wasn’t accomplished the day before and to ponder new dreams. I already know what mine always will be, and as I sit here thinking of you, I want you to hear the same wind blowing through the trees. It sounds beautiful.

When looking at and listening to nature, I find it kinda funny how connected everything is. I start to look for patterns to try and figure out what life is all about – well, I at least want to find some clues. What do you think the significance of four distinct seasons is? Life also seems to be divided into four: there is the period when you are a child, then when you are a teenager, then when you are an adult, and then finally the period when you are elderly. But then there are pairings of two: the sun and moon, good and bad, hot and cold, night and day – you and me.

I believe the perfection of the world can be found in pairs. The four seasons that the Earth offers us encompass the night and day that is also offered. I wish I found you when I was a child, so that we could live the four periods of life together. But we’ve found each other now, and we have what it takes to travel the four seasons together, both day and night.

Your friend,
XXXXXX

LITERATURE REVIEW SAMPLE

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The gender gap within the gaming community has narrowed significantly in the past ten years (Sveningsson, 2012). Thirty eight percent of all women are now gamers. However, a lot of women gravitate to games that are solitaire or other casual games that are not seen as real games by the male dominated gaming community (Sveningsoon, 2012). This gap itself is evidence of how gender identity influences choices in the virtual world just as much in the real world. The virtual world often provides a place where anonymity can give rise to gender bending or taking on genders that are not the same as the real world. However, in the final analysis, gender norms and cultural constructs that are part of wider society are largely upheld in the gaming world (Todd, 2012; Sveningsson, 2012 Royse, P et al., 2007).

Women not only play different games than men, games that uphold gender identity constructs found in wider society. Cassell and Jenkins (2000) found that women characters in computer games are often that of damsels in distress who need to be rescued. Feminine Feminist social constructivism is the theoretical framework within which gender identity and gaming is most often viewed (Royse, P. et al, 2007). Feminist social constructivism is the theoretical framework that Judith Butler also uses to describe the inherent, male dominated social structure that dominates and oppresses women (Butler, 2004). Butler subscribes to Foucault’s view that regulation is imposed via laws and that laws come from social norms. However, she diverts from Foucault in her insistence that to the framework of regulation and imposition is itself gender specific i.e. male. This constructed gender, formed by interaction or by ‘gender as doing’ (Wajcman, 2009, p. 8) provides a theoretical framework for how gender is constructed in its interaction with technology. In other words, both gender and technology are part of relationship that is intertwined within the various interfaces it provides, and ongoing process of gender imposition that is an extension of society (Wajcman, 2009).

Within social feminist constructivism there is general agreement that gender is a result of interaction. It is an identity that is formulated by society and imposed upon individuals. In particular, a male centric superstructure that informs all facets of society is imposed upon women (Butler, 2004). There is, however, disagreement about how these “performances” as Hansbury (2011) are transformed in the relative obscurity and disembodiment of cyberspace. Hansbury believes that cyberspace provides a transitional space that allows a “queer embodiment” (p. 315). Todd (2012) acknowledges that “gender bending” that occurs in cyberspace, citing the example of men who take on the female avatars and interact with other women. However, he also notes that these very same men enjoy the fact that the anonymity that this gender subversion provides enables them to act upon their sexual attraction of women. Thus, in the words of Todd, the “female avatars effectively works to reaf?rm their identities as heterosexual men” (2012, p. 104). Research by Todd seems to contradict Hansbury (2011) and points to the fact that the social gender constructs that are such an integral part of our identity in the real world extend into and take hold of our virtual gaming identities as well.

Female game players play less video games, are less involved and report more of their past time in non-gaming activities. Females also report feeling more guilty if they play. This aligns with the fact that they report having less time to play because they are engaged in activities such as household chores. Thus, the feminist social constructivist theory on male dominated cultural and social norms contributing to female guilt for gaming while unburdened males play as much as they want is supported by research (Phan, Jardina, Hoyle, & Chaparro, 2012).

Royse, P.et al. (2007) found that the convergence of social constructs such as gender and cyberspace are not as cut and dry as to be applicable to all women. Women tend to perform their gender identities and deviate from non-virtual gender constructs based on their levels of comfort with the medium they are interacting in. The common thread that binds them all is anonymity and disembodiment that allows them a gender malleable experience. How this virtual environment is performed within depends on how comfortable the women are with their virtual space. The interactions of women in gaming environments was based on their level of user experience and computer expertise. They divided the subjects into three categories: power users, moderate users and non-users. Non-users did not play any games, moderate gamers spent about one to three hours a week playing while power users ranged from three to 10 hours per week. Power gamers were obviously most comfortable in their environment and had no trouble navigating the gender pitfalls that they came across, pitfalls that are similar to the real world but more robustly expressed due to the anonymity that male players enjoyed. They prided themselves on their competitiveness and asserted their femininity by earning the respect of their male colleagues by virtue of their skills. When they did come across abusive language, they often looked upon it as a challenge, something that could be answered back by asserting their femininity via their skills as gamers. As one power gamer put it: “Sometimes, if I blew a guy up he would type ‘Bitch’…Well, that just makes me smile and go after him more” (Royse, et al, 2007, p. 563). Non-users, on the other hand, used their gender and the femininity associated with as a reason for avoiding games. They resorted to traditional female stereotypes to explain why they held the gaming community in such contempt.

It is hard, however, to find the line that delineates women’s attitudes towards and in gaming environments since the approach to the very medium being studied is based on gender norms that are part of the social constructions that are embedded in their minds. In other words, women who become expert gamers in male dominated and competitive environments such as Call of Duty or Halo are a minority. This minority status is itself a function of gender identity based on interactions and performances within the greater social and cultural paradigm (Hartmann & Klimmt, 2006). Hartmann and Klimt (2006) found that women had the greatest preference for games that provided social interactions instead of competition. Women were also averse to games that sexualized their characters. Interestingly, women were not put off by games that sexualized women within a story rich environment with character development and the chance for social interaction. This seems to be a reflection of women’s compromise with social gender stereotypes in society in general so long as they serve the desire to be entertained. The fact that women in Hartmann and Klimmt’s study preferred gender specific games that were more geared towards socialization and less aggression strengthens the argument that gender bending in gaming environments is limited to the surface and does not affect the deeply embedded social constructs that form gender identity.

Kapidzic and Herring (2011) explored the possibility of time and its impact on social interactions and gender in virtual space. The question they asked is a valid one. Have gender preferences and stereotypes changed with the millennial generation? Could it be possible that the interactive nature of gender and technology along with the more liberal political and social leanings of this generation have contributed to a true bending of gender that is different from prior and more traditional generations? Their answer seems to be no. Kapidzic and Herring (2011) found no discernible change in gender based attitudes and interactive habits from studies conducted in 1990s that probed the same question. They found that as in 1990s, “young females in 2010 still tended to present themselves as emotional, friendly, good listeners (reactive), sexually available, and eager to please males while young males appear more assertive, manipulative, initiating, and visually dominant…(p. 52). A study by Kuznekoff ad Rose (2012) found that female voice communication in a gaming environment was three times more likely to receive negative or aggressive comments. The language directed at female voices in online gaming communication was often misogynistic and hateful. For example, in one specific game almost every verbalization by the female participant was met with negative and derogatory responses. When the female voice said “hi everybody,” she was met with “shut you whore.” A few seconds later she made a comment which was met with “fuck you, you stupid slut” (551).

Thus it appears from the available research that the social constructs that feminism has identified as being imposed upon women through a gender based and male centric cultural and social framework persist in the gaming and virtual world as well. There are a minority of women in gaming who, as women do in other spheres of society, venture bravely into male dominated structures and achieve remarkable things without compromising their identity (Royse et al., 2007). The majority of women are trapped in all pervasive male centric social net that technology does nothing to compromise.

References
Butler, J. (2004). Undoing gender. New York, NY: Routledge.

Cassell, J. and Jenkins, H. (2000) Chess for girls: feminisms and computer games. In J. Cassell and H. Jenkins (Eds.). From Barbie to Mortal Combat: Gender and Computer Games (pp. 2–45). London: MIT Press.

Hansbury G (2011). Trans/virtual: the anxieties of transsexual and electronic embodiments. Journal of Gay and Lesbian Mental Health 15, 308–17

Hartmann, T. & Klimmt, C. (2006). Gender and computer games: Exploring female’s dislikes. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 11(4), 910-931.

Kapidzic, S. & Herring, S.C. (2011). Gender, communication, and self-presentation in teen chat rooms revisited: Have patterns changedJournal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 17, 39-59. doi: 10.1111/j.1083-6101.2011.01561.x

Kuznekoff, J.H. & Rose, L.M. (2012). Communication in multiplayer gaming: Examining player responses to gender cues. New Media and Society, 15(4), 541-556. doi: 10.1177/1461444812458271

Phan, M.H., Jardina, R., Hoyle, S. & Chaparro, B.S. (2012). Examining the role of gender in video game usage, preference and behaviorProceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, 55(1), 1496-1500. doi: 10.1177/1071181312561297

Royse, P.et al. (2007). Women and games: Technologies of the gendered selfNew Media and Society, 9, 555-576. doi: 10.1177/1461444807080322

Sveningsson, M. (2012). ‘Pity there’s so few girls!’ Attitudes to female participation in a Swedish gaming context. In J. Fromme & A. Unger (Eds.), Computer games and new media cultures. (pp. 425-441). doi: 10.1007/978-94-007-2777-9_27

Todd, C. (2012). ‘Troubling’ gender in virtual gaming spacesNew Zealand Geographer, 68, 101-110. doi:  10.1111/j.1745-7939.2012.01227.x

Wajcjman, J. (2009). Feminist theories of technology. Cambridge Journal of Economics, 1, 8-10. doi: 10.1093/cje/ben057

HOW TO ADDRESS LOW MORALE

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At Lakeland Regional Medical Center, the company is facing a major HR crisis with low morale that has even fueled an alleged age discrimination that has resulted in a lawsuit. Before giving an analysis of a human resources response that could deal effectively with this issue, I will discuss the extent of the problem. This accusation about age discrimination has caused the reputation of the company to diminish. In fact, according to an official with the company – who only wanted to be referred to as Dean for fear of facing consequences at work for talking to a member of the public – the company was in fact ranked as the top place to be employed for five consecutive years. The age discrimination has led to several other factors, such low morale, which has resulted in high absenteeism and low

employee retention. This absenteeism is resulting in poor quality of care for the medical center’s patients. A Gallup Survey that is used by the human resources department noted that the majority of people say the working conditions are hostile, particularly among manager/employee relationships, a low opportunity for growth within the company and no incentive programs. The specifics of this study weren’t released, and Dean said he couldn’t divulge details about the extent of the problem. However, he did say patients have been complaining about the quality of care because of a lack of staff. The problem isn’t confined to one department. In fact several departments are experiencing what they deem to be poor working conditions.

Even though management is aware of the issues the complaints have been ignored, Dean says. Management isn’t taking the concerns seriously. For example, the Gallup Survey wasn’t looked at closely because it wasn’t taken seriously. The company has even left a group of employees out of staff critiques. Among the hostile relationships was an abundance of gossip and a lack of communication. Because this company deals so closely with the public, there isn’t really anyone in the area who is immune from the confrontation between management and the rest of staff. Those who rely on the medical center are also feeling the impact in service delivery.

In order to address this issue, the company needs to focus on who is affected, why they are affected, when this problem started, how it started, where it started and what will be done to bring this company back to its former glory. Members of the HR team have said they need upper management to fully cooperate in order for the tension between them and the employees to be resolved. If the company is to prosper again, they need to address the low morale before even more patients find themselves without proper care. Dean was tight-lipped about the strategies that are currently being undertaken; however, negotiations are ongoing, which is a prime opportunity to deal with the issues and the lawsuit.

The situation at LRMC is clearly getting out of hand and needs to be addressed immediately. The alleged age discrimination lawsuit is just part of the larger problem of low morale. Many techniques are available to address low morale. Once this is addressed employees will be happier and situations such as the lawsuit about the age discrimination will likely stop. LRMC could be suffering from a lack of leadership, expertise in each department and focusing each person on their core capabilities, (Fulmer, 2006). The HR team is responsible for setting the tone for a strategy that will improve the morale. It is important to note that this transformation process can’t occur overnight, but will take sustained application of HR policies.

A similar situation was experienced at a workplace. In this case, the Midwestern hospital had the same situation where morale was at an all-time low. The staff there was reported to have lowered physician satisfaction and there was worry among the staff about leadership and whether it was effective enough in the hospital’s largest operating units. “Despite increased capacity, patient volumes were flat or falling. Physicians were complaining, and employee-management relations were strained,” (Sekowski, 2008). The HR team knew it had to take action, and so after a critical assessment of the situation, it was determined that the HR teams would have to work closely with the hospital leadership. Together the stakeholders came up with several solutions. In doing so, they determined that customized surveys of the employee and physician satisfaction were needed. But instead of not paying attention to these surveys, as what was suggested by staff at LRMC, management needs to carefully consider each response in making their determination about the actions that are needed going forward. This will help the HR department know exactly what the concerns are. At this point, plans that can help shape the leadership strategy and address the low morale will become more obvious. HR should work towards coming to a full understanding of the level of employee dissatisfaction and how they relate to the organization’s issues. Without a complete understanding, an effective plan can’t be developed. This is why it is important to implement a plan on the specific circumstances surrounding low morale at the medical centre.

Whatever the issue is relating to low morale, leadership generally needs to be modified if the current model isn’t working. Typically, when morale is low, there isn’t an adequate reward system for good work. This should be modified in order to address the concerns about a lack of opportunity for advancements. Bonuses, raises or promotions should be considered as ways to reward workers. This, in turn, will result in greater job satisfaction, as employees will feel like they are being appreciated for the work that they do. This reward system will also likely encourage employees to excel. That would include showing up to work, which has been a major issue at LRMC. The reward system could be aligned in a way that places the company in a competitive position to other companies. However, a “best practice” policy says there should be a bundle of policies that should benefit the employees, (Maloney, 2001).

For employees who are facing conflict, one-on-one coaching can be an effective method to dealing with these situations. Often, employees might not have an issue with the leadership under which they are working. However, there could be a problem with their peers. Recognizing and addressing these issues will increase morale. Employees will feel more of a desire to come into work if conflicts are either addressed or the workers who are at odds are separated. An executive coaching method could help address these concerns. The strategy is becoming more and more popular throughout the United States to deal with employee conflicts. It involves dealing with the employees one-on-one to get to the bottom of issues. “Problems occur when executives who may be having difficulty with change or its related organisational impacts such as the need for enhanced skills, performance and development,” (Paige, 2002).

Also, by seeing how LRMC lines up against other hospitals in terms of service, employee recognition and pay, the medical center more accurately positions itself into a competitive position. Employees aware of conditions in other hospital where there are more rewards, are more likely to be negative about their job. By matching what LRMC has to offer, such as pay and rewards, with other hospitals, there is a more likely chance that the employees are being given what they deserve. As for the services offered at other medical centers, employee wait times that are industry standard should be used as a benchmark for the staff at LRMC to strive for. Once that is accomplished, then the medical center can aim to be the best in the business by beating those times. Comparing companies to each other, or benchmarking, is a common practice in HR and it allows companies to see how they line up with potential employers of their current staff. “We assume that to use HR practices as a competitive advantage and to manage the paradoxes of HR, HR professionals need to be business players,” (Brockbank, 2002). The aforementioned strategies were also implemented by an example of a hospital that was given by HR Strategic Partners Inc. “In just over six months, these intense efforts resulted in gains to both patient volume and unit efficiency,” (Sekowski, 2008).

The idea to learn from other companies is echoed in Gerry Czarnecki’s “Morale and Making it Work for You: Case Study.” In the piece, Czarnecki says a lot can be learned from companies that treat their workers like owners. “Inside the surprising performance culture of steelmaker Nucor, describes the high level of commitment exhibited by the steelmakers’ workers to get a troubled plant up and running, claiming that the company had ‘the most dynamic and engaged workforces around,’” (Czarnecki, 2010). By giving the employees a stake in the company, Nucor was able to develop its employees into being productive. A similar approach should be considered at LRMC.

In a different approach, at another medical center, the CEO, matron and HR manager decided to implement a one-day workshop for all of those who are internal management at the hospital. This workshop was designed to create a focused course of action about the ways in which they could develop a united team over the next 18 months, (Changed, 2008). This approach provides an organized way for the management to handle the problem. It also makes the team more aware of the issue. In a medical center, there are many people in charge of a variety of department, which means that management needs to be on the same page to work towards better implementing a cohesive plan.

In an industry quite different from health care, but in an area suffering from a similar situation with employee morale, an international scrap metal processor was bought out. The buyout resulted in a change in management at a 50-year-old firm. This company employed approximately 200 people. A survey was handed out to all the employees and 85 per cent filled it out and returned it. The survey allowed management to look at the issues that the employees identified. After management reviewed them, they were prioritized and then an action plan was formulated. Senior management met with employees to let them know about the actions that would be taken. After this initiative, the management noticed an improvement in morale, (International, 2011). The firm also noticed improvements in communication between the employees and management. The unit leadership showed improved functions and capabilities. The availability of the resources and equipment improved. The general morale and satisfaction among the staff experienced an obvious increase. There was also an improvement in the employees’ comprehension of the unit goals and business objectives. This method is similar to what was identified in the first case study, which also called for the implementation of a survey and then the development of a course of action.

LRMC can also consider taking additional measures that can boost morale in the company. Little things can make a difference, such as making coffee and tea to get employees raring to go in the morning. This strategy not only wakes the employees up, it also says to them that management cares about their well-being. When there is no interaction, or only bad interaction between management and the regular staff, morale can suffer significantly. Little things like making tea, recognizing birthdays, generally treating employees with respect, treating employees to lunch, checking in to see how members of staff are doing, and standing up for employees: “Though customer satisfaction is important to every business, supervisors must support their employees if they encounter problems despite having followed company protocol,” (Hartog, 2008). Another effective way to improve the morale of the staff is to improve the working environment. “Being uncomfortable and isolated from the world is bad and it makes employees feel like they’re lost in the machine of business. Adding comfortable office chairs or desks is a great way to make them feel a bit better, and doing away with harsh lighting helps brighten their day,” (Tips, 2011).

In order to address the urgent need at LRMC, a combination of these efforts should be implemented. The Midwestern hospital example, where the hospital was suffering from the same type of morale loss should be examined carefully at LRMC. If a combination of the practices is implemented, and enough time is given for the results to show, then there will be improved outcomes at the medical center. Careful consideration of the employees’ concerns should be compiled before a specific course of action is undertaken. After surveying the staff, management needs to come together to prioritize the items that need to be addressed. Management should then meet with employees to communicate a course of action that will improve morale. These actions should be measured periodically for meeting management’s goals.

As has been seen in this essay, there have been several other firms that have relayed the issues at their workplace, and they have come up with strategies to address their problems. It has become evident that the HR team at LRMC needs to work closely with the leadership to come to a solution about the problems that are plaguing the hospital, (Fulmer, 2006).

Works Cited
Brockbank, W., and Ulrich, D. (2002). “Interpretation of Company Feedback Report.” Human
Resource Competency Study.

Czarnecki, G. (2008, Oct. 5). “Morale and Making it Work for You.” Toolbox.

Fulmer, R, and Genson, S. (2006). “HR’s Strategic Partnership with Line Management.”
Graziadio Business Review. Retrieved from

Hartog, L. (2008, April 28). “15 Ways to Boost Employee Morale.” HR World

International Scrap Metal Processor.” (2011, Feb. 8). Your Part-Time HR Manager.

Maloney, M. (2001, January). “Strategic Reward Systems: Understanding the Difference 
between ‘Best Fit’ and ‘Best Practice.’”

OD Interventions. (2008, Sept. 5). Change Designs.

Paige, H. (2002). “Examining the Effectiveness of Executive Coaching on Executives.” Flinders
University School of Education.

Sekowski, G. (2008, July 8). “HRSP Case Study: Increasing Employee Morale and Satisfaction.”
HR Strategic Partners Inc.

“Tips to Help with Employee Morale – Boosting Morale and Productivity.” (2011, March 30).
CheckPoint HR.

LUCID DREAMS ESSAY

Sample by My Essay Writer

Lucid dreams happen when a person is dreaming, and they are aware that they are dreaming. Many people when they are experiencing a lucid dream are fully aware of the lives they have when they are awake, and they are able to control their dreams with their thoughts. At the same time, they are unaware of their bodies while they are participating in the dream world. The strict definition of “lucid”

means the person is in complete control of what is happening around them; however, those who are participating in a lucid dream are only partially able to control the course of their dream. In this essay, I will investigate several readings to discuss the meaning of lucid dreams and what exactly they are. Lucid dreams are interpreted differently by various sources but, in the end, they can tell people various things about their subconscious. In order to get to this point where a person is regularly having the dreams and are able to control them, they must frequently practice.

The four stages of sleep include a stage where the brainwaves are going through the theta waves process. Then the brain goes into the sleep spindles, which 12-14 rhythms that last for about half a second. Sometimes people will mumble in this stage. In the next stage, there are delta waves that are produced. This is when the blood pressure, heart rate and arousal starts to decline. The delta waves continue and this is where most dreams and nightmares happen. In the next stage, the breathing becomes more rapid and less regular. People’s heart rate often rises and eyes dart around. This is called the REM stage, (Holt, 2008).

The rapid eye movement (REM) stage of sleep is often associated with dreaming. When waking from the REM stage of sleep, dreams are recalled 74-80% of the time. When waking up from stages of sleep that aren’t REM, the dreams are only recalled about 7-9% of the time. That could mean that when a person wakes up from a non-REM (NREM) stage of sleep, and they recall a dream, they might not be recalling a dream from the NREM stage, but actually from the REM stage of sleep. While many researchers held the view that people always dreamed when they were in the REM stage of sleep, that view has since been challenged. It was showed that when a person reports a dream that they were having, there was a much higher recall rate when a person was awoken from the NREM stage of sleep, in comparison to the former research which said the recall rate from the NREM was only 7-9%. Some researchers say that the wakefulness, REM sleep and NREM sleep are indicative of specific mental states that have various levels of the cortical activation, aminergic-cholinergic neuromodulation and input source. “A different view is proposed by Solms, who on the evidence from brain lesions suggest that REM sleep and dreaming are controlled by different brain mechanisms and while there is a substantial correlation between the two, in fact they are dissociable states” (Stubrys, 2013).

While lucid dreaming was long considered to happen only in REM sleep, others say that is incorrect. During a sleep laboratory study, there were 35 reported lucid dreams that happened in the REM sleep, two happened in the NREM Stage 1, and one happened during the NREM Stage 2. But in 24 lucid dreams that people said they had while having the volitional eye movement, all of them happened during the REM stage of sleep. When looking at a larger sample, in 88 lucid dreams that were collected during a sleep laboratory, 83 of them were during the REM stage of sleep. Four were during the NREM Stage 1, and one case was reported to be in the NREM Stage 2. About 76 of the dreams were confirmed to be happening with the eye-signalling. When taking a look at that sample, there were 70 cases of the unequivocal REM, and the remaining six were confirmed to be with the eye-signalling. As these reports indicate, the large percentage of lucid dreams occur during the REM stage of sleep (Statsny, 2010).

In “Lucid Dreaming: A State of Consciousness with Features of Both Waking and Non-Lucid Dreaming,” Ursula Voss and other researchers attempt to study whether the physical qualities of the brain change when the state of the mind changes in lucid dreams. The authors define lucid dreaming as being a very rare, but people can train to become effective lucid dreamers when they are in their pre-sleep phase. To do this, the sleeper must tell themselves to recognize bizarre events that are about to take place in their dreams. They are able to show the researchers that they are lucid, by making intentional eye movements that tip off scientists.

There were several ways that researchers conducted the experiment. This included data analysis of continuous sleep segments of at least 70 seconds. In the researchers’ power analysis, they investigated the activity in the sleeper when they were given specific “frequency band of the EEG” electrodes. In the researchers’ coherence analysis, they investigates the neuronal synchronization patterns. This looked at the frequency bands, as there could be differences that were related to conscious processing. This allowed them to tell if the person was dreaming lucidly and whether it was affecting the brain. Finally, the researchers looked at the power and coherences of the current source densities, (Holt, 2008).

The results of the research were based on testing six people. Of those tested, three were able to dream lucidly in the laboratory. In all of the participants, they were sensitive to light and sound. They were given a higher sensitivity that was a part of their personality, but it was determined that it wasn’t related to the lucid dreaming. Among them, the researchers weren’t able to induce a lucid state with the devices used. The light and sound that was used to induce lucid dreaming actually woke up the test subjects, rather than allowing them to have a lucid dream.

It is sometimes amazing at how much we are awake when we are still sleeping during lucid dreams. There is a clear understanding many times during these lucid dreams. It is also possible to remember the dream with relative vividness. Sometimes we can even change the plot of the dream if we want, but that takes training to do it effectively. Usually we don’t question whether the dream is real or not until we have woken up. However, we can sometimes question whether they are real or not when we are in the lucid dreams state. Lucid dreams have been identified since Aristotle’s time. When in a lucid dream, there could be a conflict, and the dreamer is able to take matters into their hands by changing some of the events so that a conclusion that is desirable is reached.

Researcher Stephen LaBerge, from San Mateo County Community College District, conducted an experiment on himself, where he discovered that he could increase the ability to have lucid dreams. He practice for three years and recorded all of the lucid dreams that he recalled. He had a total of 389 lucid dreams. He was experimenting with various autosuggestion techniques, and by doing this he was able to increase the frequency of his lucid dreams almost by four times. At the peak of it, he recalled nearly 26 lucid dreams in one month. However, the techniques to get to the point where he was having lucid dreams were relatively inefficient and vague. It took him about two years to come out with a method that was effective to initiate lucid dreams. But when it came to near the end of the experiment, in the third year, he could essentially have a lucid dream whenever he wanted to, (LaBerge, n.d.).
This shows that it is possible to train oneself to have a lucid dream and it could be so lucid that they are able to let those working at a lab know that they are having a lucid dream. LaBarge’s colleagues showed that they could use prearranged signals to tip off when a lucid dream is being experienced. By using the prearranged signals, the researchers were able to confirm how frequently a lucid dream was being experienced. This was done during the REM stage of sleep. These signals included various dream actions that were observable and were executed according to the agreements that were made during the pre-sleep phase. The researchers believed that through their research they could provide a new model that could be used for dream research.

Many people have occasional lucid dreams, but they don’t document them or their frequency. Also, there are some people who have a lucid dream, and they can remember that they had one, but they can’t recall the events that happened in that dream. But with practice people can trigger their own lucid dreams. Garfield’s technique works, but there is another technique that a researcher says is more effective. There are actually two psychological factors in the pre sleep stage that are associated with being able to have a lucid dream or not. These include motivation. For example, if someone is writing a paper about lucid dreams, they might have the motivation to actually have a lucid dream themselves. Also, self-observation can help a person have more lucid dreams, (Strumbrys, n.d.). When someone is remembering the lucid dreams that they are having them, and writing them down, they will be more focused on lucid dreaming and this could trigger them to have more, because it is on their minds more. Just clarifying what you intend to do by studying the lucid dreams will help increase the number of lucid dreams that you are having.

Practicing the lucid dream each time you have one will also help. Many people have a difficult time keeping hold of a lucid dream when they are having one, and they will often lose control of the dream, or fall into a pattern of not remembering that they are actually dreaming. Many other people will realize that they are dreaming and they will wake up. But as people have more and more lucid dreams, they will become better at keeping hold of the dream and shaping the course of that dream. They will also learn not to wake themselves up. People can also form mental associations with what a person wants to do in the future when they have a dream. Often the lucid dreams repeat themselves, and people can make a note in their minds about what they want to do when they have that same dream. This can increase the lucidity, because the subconscious can learn to recognize that the events that are going on in their minds are in fact dreams. Continuing these strategies on a regular basis can lead to a much higher number of lucid dreams. The key is consistency. Training the brain to remember the dreams is like training a muscle to get bigger. The more a person works at it, the better able they are to reach their goals, (LaBerge, n.d.).

Furthermore, by training to be a more efficient lucid dreaming, and increasing the frequency of the lucid dreams, one will begin to remember more. Because it is also possible that many people have regular lucid dreams already, but they are unable to remember those dreams. Remembering each dream will also increase our chances of performing further actions in those dreams, and that triggers the ability to remember more. The more that we are able to remember, the better the understanding of the lucid dreams we will have. Also when one remembers the dreams regularly, the cues to look for will be more engrained in their minds, so they will be able to remember future lucid dreams, (Brenner, n.d.).
Furthermore, a person can actually decide the actions that will happen in their lucid dream. By thinking about the various courses of action one hopes to carry out in their dream during the pre-sleep phase, they will be more likely to dream about what they are thinking about. Also, when a person verbalizes what they intend to do in their dream, they will be more likely to do it. For example, if someone says during the pre-sleep phase that they want to fly up into the clouds, then they will be much more likely to fly into those clouds. This can also be effective if someone wakes up in the middle of the night from a dream. Often, people will wake from dreams, and then when they fall back to sleep, they will continue the same dream. Those dreams are often much more lucid that other dreams, because the person remembers from before that they were having the dream, and so when the same events start happening again, that person clues in and realizes that the events are just a dream. So when a person wakes from a dream in the middle of the night, the chances of them having that same dream are a lot greater than if they were to plan actions in a lucid dream prior to going to sleep. After waking, the person can detail in their mind what they are going to do when a specific event happens again in their mind. When they come to that point in their dream again, they will often be able to direct where the dream goes, (Brenner, 2010).

Learning how to have lucid dreams can be tricky, but like with most things, the more practice a person commits to it, the more likely they are to be successful in the future at having lucid dreams. The more a person can control the dreams, the more they can enjoy them. For example, if a person is being threatened by a large spider that is coming to eat them, and they are paralyzed with fear, they can recognize that what they are having is a dream. Once they have that realization, they can make steps towards ensuring that they are no longer in that situation. They could, for instance, remove themselves from the situation where they are about to be eaten by an enormous spider, and place themselves on a fluffy cloud with cotton candy, and their favourite celebrity, during a barbecue with one of the chefs from the Food Network as the cook. This is a much better situation than waking up from a dream that causes a person to lose sleep or become anxious. The study into lucid dreaming can be a very powerful tool to improve people’s lives, and as we have seen in this essay, there are several ways that people can become more efficient at having lucid dreams. Many people have reported that lucid dreaming occurred regularly when they were children, and they were able to live out their fantasies when they were having these dreams. Often, with children, the dreams are so vivid that the only response to a negative dream is to realize that it is, in fact, a dream that they are having. From this point, they can transform that dream into something positive and they are then able to get through the night much more effectively. One of the most remarkable features of lucid dreams is that we are able to indicate to a third party when one is experience such a dream. While the body is paralyzed during this sleeping stage, people are able to move their eyes in a specific pattern to tip off researchers, and this has led to major discoveries in the study of lucid dreams.

Works Cited
Brenner, D. (n.d.). Non-REM SleepPrince George Community College.

Holt, D. (2008). Lucid Dreaming. Bryn Mawr College.

LaBerge, S.P. (n.d.). Lucid Dreaming; Directing the Action as it HappensSan Mateo County 
Community College District. 

Stastny, M.T. (2010). Can you learn to lucid dream? University of Iowa.

Stumbrys, T., and Erlacher, D. (n.d.). Lucid dreaming during NREM sleep: Two case reports.
Heidelberg University, University of Bern.

WHAT IS M2 VELOCITY?

Sample by My Essay Writer

M2 velocity related to a category in the money supply that includes the M1 and all of the time-related savings deposits, deposits and non-institutional money market funds. The M2 is a much wider classification of money than the M1 is. Many economists use the M2 velocity when they are looking to quantify how much money is in circulation to explain the various economic conditions related to money.

The M2 Velocity isn’t stable and it is correlated with the employment-population ratio, which is an indicator of the nations’ economic vitality. The M2 velocity as well as the employment-population ratio declines during recessions.

a.      Explain why M2 velocity should be more predictable than M1 velocity.

M2 velocity is more predictable than M1 velocity, because M2 is hinged on the employment-population ratio, which is usually relatively stable. It never really experiences significant fluctuations, but can gradually increase or decrease over time. However, M1 also does not include the time-related savings deposits, deposits and non-institutional money market funds, which means there is less grounding for the M1 velocity and it makes it more open to massive fluctuations.

b.      What is the problem referred to at the very end of the first sentence, and exactly how does M2 solve this problem?

The sentence is referring to the fact that there is an issue with accurate readings of the monetary situation because there is a lot of instability. However, M2 solves that  instability by having many factors that are taken into consideration when making an estimate on the current monetary situation. It is a more macro approach that factors in components that are necessary for an accurate monetary assessment.

BUSINESS OWNERSHIP ESSAY

Sample by My Essay Writer

1. Describe the pros and cons of each of the following forms of business ownership in relation to your business idea:
Sole proprietorship

This business model is relatively easy and inexpensive to start. The profits belong to only  the owners, which is another advantage. However, the owners take on all the losses, risks and liabilities. Taxes would also be higher, because the company would be taxed as if it was paying personal taxes. This model would make it difficult to raise capital, though the capital is already raised for ICM. This option is too risky because there is no legal difference between the owners and the business and that is taking on too much risk.

Partnership
Like the sole proprietorship, a partnership is relatively easy and inexpensive to start. The profits also belong only to the owners in this model. Like the sole proprietorship, this form is also prone to designating all the losses, risks and liabilities to the owners. This is the model that ICM would choose if the owners were willing to stake their personal belongings as collateral in starting the business. The model is attractive to ICM in a way, because it is looking to pool the financial resources of several stakeholders who have an even interest in the company. The start-up costs at ICM would be held evenly with the company.

Incorporation
The incorporation ownership model places some of the risk on the people who owns shares of the company. This is a shield from some of the liabilities. In this model, the company is considered a separate legal entity from the owners. A major advantage to this model is that if the business owes another company money, the assets of the company can’t be seized to pay the debt. However, there is a lot of paperwork needed in this model, which can require more expenses, as there could be a greater need for staff to handle the extra work. There are also many fees that are involved in establishing and maintaining the firm and the rules are very complex when it comes to filing income tax. This is a structure that the company may choose further down the road. However, at this time, there is no need to attract additional capital from other investors because there is currently enough investment to start the business. As the company grows, more capital could be needed, and this form would also provide a way to spread out liability in case of default on a loan or other payment.

Specialized forms – co-ops and joint ventures
The co-op can be a good structure to follow because it has limited liability among people who have similar interests in the firm. However, all of the owners in the company share in the profits. This wouldn’t be attractive for ICM, because we want to keep our Chinese business connections to ourselves. The joint venture form has a specified time period, which doesn’t make it attractive for ICM because it requires too much limitation. ICM will need more flexibility in the amount of time that it needs to conduct its business because there are too many unknowns at this point. The structure would also not be very attractive because it would require sharing profits will another company. However, the expertise of other companies could be useful in this joint venture structure.\

Franchising
The franchising model doesn’t look very attractive to ICM at this point. There isn’t really the need to franchise a company such as this, because everything we do is essentially done remotely and it only really involves co-ordinating efforts among logging companies, lumber mills and transport companies. However, ICM is interested in owning its own transport vehicles at some point, at which time an office would need to be established. If the company were to expand to different areas, there would be the need to set up different options, and this is where franchising could be an attractive option.

Mergers and acquisitions
Mergers and acquisitions could come into play after a while of being in business. In fact, there may be transportation companies that could prove useful if acquired. This would cut costs substantially, but the current budget doesn’t allows for any takeovers. There may be opportunity for merger with a Chinese company so that goods are also being transported from China to Canada, possible with the same freight system.

2. Describe the preferred form of business ownership for your business idea. 
The incorporation is the preferred form of ownership at the company. Being incorporated will include the sale of stock in the corporation, which is a separate legal entity from the owners.

Explain the advantages and disadvantages of this form of business ownership and discuss how you will maximize the advantages and minimize the disadvantages. Give rationale for your decision.
My business idea would best be suited to an incorporation because it is too risky to have my personal possessions as collateral for loans that the company has secured. This system will allow ICM to secure additional capital for its projects by using money that is invested by other stakeholders. Having others invested in the project is also a detriment because shares of the company will also go to those stakeholders who have invested. These people will also have a say in the direction that the company takes, which means there could be bad decisions made because the shareholders need to be included in the conversation. There is also many fees and paperwork with this method, but the advantage of not having personal possessions at steak far outweigh the disadvantages that are posed by taking the incorporated route.

While there is more complication in formation, the incorporation method is the best way to open a business because this is a legal entity on its own. Separating personal ownership from that of the corporation protects the owners from having to put their personal possessions on the line. This method is also more attractive than the partnership method. The is because the partnership allows the partner to make a decision without the other partner`s notification. This means that one of the people in the partnership want to make a decision, and the decision is a bad one, it could result in either of the partners being sued, (Should, 2005).

Another reason the incorporation method is the most attractive for ICM, is because there is lot of expansion that the company would like to pursue in the future. Having the extra capital from shareholders allows the company to do that. While the current amount of capital available to the company is only enough to pay for the start-ups, having additional money will ensure the ability to develop in a way that will allow for the expansion into the future. This extra capital also provides a greater cushion in case the company needs a longer time to earn profits.

While becoming a corporation is more complicated than having a sole proprietorship or a partnership, the process is still relatively easy. There are essentially only five steps that need to be pursued in order to have a corporation:

1. The company name needs to be selected. This would include searching the current company names that are in existence and ensuring this company name isn’t already taken.
2. There are articles that need to be filled out and filed with a government office.
3. The required fees and taxes need to be paid.
4. An organizational meeting needs to be held.
5. The company needs to adopt bylaws, pass the first operating resolution and elect directors, (Althouse, 2008).

This process is relatively easy, which makes it an attractive fit for ICM. However, this list of items isn’t all inclusive, as it is only a representation of the main steps that need to be taken by the company. But some of the steps will help bring into focus the goals of the company. They will also provide an opportunity for the company owners to develop the firm’s image and to get to know each other. The corporate charter is an important component that is a necessity when becoming incorporated. Items such as the bylaws and operating resolutions can be more focused when there is the requirement to have this information in order to become incorporated. This combined effort in developing the specifics of the company also shows that not just one person in the company is able to make the decisions. The disadvantage is that it could take a long time for anything to gain approval, but it also provides the opportunity for full thought on each matter.

Part B: Canadian Business Laws and Regulations
1. Detail the Canadian business laws and regulations that govern your industry and your business. Include both Canadian and provincial laws and regulations.
Wood packaging that is used needs to be taken into account when transporting wood from Canada to China. The International Plant Protection Convention is the governing body that mandates the wood packaging that is used in international trade. This wood must be treated in a way that guards it against the distribution of pests that aren’t wanted. This means that shipping products to any country, other than the United States, needs to go through this regulatory body. The wood must be heat treated to reach a core temperature of 56 C for at least 30 minutes. This could be either before or after manufacturing.

Several repercussions ensue if the wood isn’t packaged at an ISPM 15 certification. There is the requirement for a quarantine and the wood is returned to the shipper on the next available transporting ship. The company could instead be charged a cost for dock space rental. The company is also charged for treatment of the non-certified wood packaging, at the estimated cost of $5,000, and this fee includes the charge for the task of opening the container and storing the wood. There is also the option of cross-docking the product from a non-certified to a certified wood packaging, and this cost isn’t known, but it is considerable, (Yu, 2005).

Once the wood is treated, ICM will be given a license number that comes in the form of a stamp that is located on two sides of the packaging. In order for it to receive the stamp, there are only several places that can treat the wood. This includes a company that is licensed to manufacture the wood packaging. The wood is usually treated in a heat treatment chamber or kiln. The material used to support the package, also called the dunnage, needs to have a separate stamp that is located on each of the two sides of each dunnage piece. Anything that is repaired or recycled from a different country and has the stamp on it can be deemed to be heat treated and approved for reuse if it isn’t repaired. Heat treatment would be applied to it if it is repaired.

While these regulations are in place when transporting wood from Canada many other markets, it isn’t required when transporting it to the United States. This is because there is a bilateral agreement that was come to between the U.S. and Canada. This agreement allows the packaging to be exempt from the requirement, (Yu, 2005).

Wood packaging is considered by the Canadian government to be essential for trade and the movement of any cargo and container goods. The wood packaging is designated as to include the following types of cargo: pallets, boxes, dunnage, crating, drums, packaging blocks, load boards, cases, pallet collars and skids. These wood products are traditionally produced from wood that isn’t processed, and it doesn’t possess a sufficient amount of manufacturing or treatment needed to remove the pests that are present in the wood. The national pest interception records indicate there is a large number of pests that could be transported with the wood, and these pests are often able to survive. This is why there has been put into place a pest risk assessment through the Canadian government. The packaging materials are a major pathway where quarantine insects and also diseases are moved along with the plants and trees. Even though there has been the development of an assortment of import requirements for the wood packaging materials, the pests are still on the move throughout the world. For example, some pests, such as the Asian Long-horned beetle, the Emerald Ash Borer , the Brown Spruce Longhorn Beetle and the Pine Shoot Beetle  have been transported into North America because of wood transport from throughout the world. As the trend for trading globally continues to rise, the risks associated with these pests also rises, which makes strict enforcement a top priority, and it makes regulations for companies such as ICM much more stringent, (Canadian Wood, 2011).

A wood packaging standard was set out in 2002 by the International Plant Protection Convention. At the time, the IPPC adopted a packaging standard for wood. This standard set out that the regulation of Wood Packaging Material in International Trade, International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures was in place. This acknowledges that the plant’s health risks that are linked to wood packaging takes a look at the phytosanitary measures. This is to target the plant health risk that is linked to the wood packaging, which is the standard recommendation that the wood packaging should be treated before it is distributed. This will approve it for trade, but this treated wood must also be marked so that it can be identified in the approved treatment and to give a traceable element to the country of origin and the facility that it was produced in. Each registered facility has its own number, which allows it to be stamped, (Canadian Wood, 2011). The certificate system lets the Canadian wood packaging facilities as well as the treatment facilities to manufacture wood that is consistent with the provisions set out in the regulations. The program is not only used by exporters such as ICM,  but also by packaging facilities, freight forwarders, custom brokers, inspection staff and service providers. The regulation sets out the registration and the phytosanitary requirements that are needed for the production of the ISPM.

There are also fees involved with the process. For example, when there is wood packaging facility that wants to participate in the CWPCP, that location has to pay money to the Service Provider for it to be included in a registry. The service provider is considered to be an organization, firm or a person who is in a Service Contract with the Canadian Food Inspection Agency, which governs the export of wood. There is a registration payment for $400 that has to go to the Receiver General of Canada.

The regulated commodities that are included are the loose wood dunnage that is created from the softwood and hardwood, as well non-processed wood packaging. A combination of softwood and hardwood are also regulated. The county to which ICM would want access (China), can result in enforcement being taken. That would be from the foreign country to the non-compliant shipper. This could result in delays at the location of the port of entry. A refusal of entry is also an option. The products that are not allowed to enter the country because they don’t meet the regulation may also be subject to enforcement by the CFIA, because it is in violation of a Canadian Law. This is specifically in violation of the Plant Protection Act and Regulations. The vaneer peeler cores are also subject to these restrictions.
But there are commodities that are exempt from this regulation. For example, wood packaging materials or wood that is designated as loose wood dunnage that comes from the processed wood aren’t part of the requirements for the initiative. Plywood, oriented strand board, vaneer and particle board that was made with glue, pressure or heat (or a combination), aren’t required to be part of the regulation, (Canadian Wood, 2011).

2. Discuss any legal and regulatory restraints affecting this industry and your business idea.
Anyone who is importing or exporting to China needs to register with the country’s Customs authorities in order for there to be an exporter or importer registration code. Another opportunity exists if the company that is importing goods is engaged with an agent who is registered with the Customs Registration code. This wouldn’t be the case for ICM, however, as this company would register with the country itself, rather than going through a middle person for registration. The code needs to be included on a customs declaration form for all of the shipments to China. The urgency of these codes should be relayed to the trading partners who are located in China. Without these, the items being imported could be put on hold by the Customs authority until all the information is available.

There are also Harmonized System Codes that need to be taken into consideration. This is usually indicated on the customs declaration form. This HS code, when taken together with the goods description in the other documentation that needs to be included, helps make the HS classification quicker and it leads to the clearance of all the goods.

Also included in the regulations in China is the Duty Exemption Withdrawal for Smaples and Advertising Materials. This is a new regulation that became necessary on Jan. 1, 2011. It could impact the Customs clearance that is used for the shipments that are coming in and out of China. There could be potential delays in the delivery of goods with this transition to the new method of importing goods to China, (Guide, 2012).

Part C: Your Role as an Entrepreneur or Small-Business Owner
1. What are your strengths and weaknesses as a business owner?
As the company’s CEO, I am a key visionary in the industry. I was key in bringing the organization overseas from national distribution. As the key visionary, I am vital in the logistics of delivering ICM products to China via ports, rail and truck.

I have managed to organize the rest of the company’s staff has been structured to meet the needs of each aspect of product delivery. For example, the two directors of trade with China (Mr. Dong Zhongshu and Mr. Wang Fu) have already worked as directors of trade with the two primary companies with which ICM is in distribution discussions. My skills to bring these people together is a key component to this business and operations would have been possible without that skill.

My experience is also a major asset to this business. I have worked closely with two directors of international relations with China, Mr. Dong Zhongshu and Mr. Wang Fu. These men comprise the company’s management and they are key in meeting with Chinese managers and coming to terms over trade agreements. They must also ensure legal practices are met and governments on both sides of the ocean are satisfied. I was able to identify their importance, which has led to the company coming together in this capacity.

My skill to identify the talents of people will be vital to organizing relationships with others. There are many stakeholders involved in the company, from the mills that process the wood to the port authorities in China. It is important that I know how to work with these people and identify the best among them in order to bring the team together.

Weaknesses that I possess include a lack of patience. There is a lot of paperwork that will need to be done in order to ensure that the shipment is made in a coordinated fashion. From the time the wood is processed at a mill, to the time it arrives in China, there are many locations where it need to be transported and this makes it very challenging to do without some patience, as lag times will be inevitable when transporting this wood. Instead of paying close attention to where all shipments are all the time, it is important to realize that there will be delays and I should get stressed about the fact that there could be problems along the way.

In this business, there is a lot that is out of the owners’ control. The best that we will be able to do is to stay patient and to learn which companies are the best fit to do business with. While the shipments may take some time, the process will become smoother as operations continue to become more refined.

2. What will you do to maximize your strengths and minimize your weaknesses?
In maximizing my strengths, it is important to continue to build business relationships and to recognize those who aren’t contributing as much as they could be to the process. This means that while I am good at building relationships, I need to focus on building relationships with those who will be a positive influence to the company. The relationships that I may build with others are not a factor in the discovery of the business.

When the best team players and the most efficient people to do business with are on the team, that should help with my main weakness, which is a lack of patience. The transition to a company that is running smoothly with all of its affiliates will take some time, but it will be the ability to create an environment where all stakeholders in the company, and all the affiliates, are operating at a level that is conducive to the quick delivery of goods.

The experience factor is something that can also be cultivated. I will gradually gain more experience in the market of international export over the years. While I have a considerable amount of business experience, it won’t necessarily translate into being valuable in the industry of shipping wood internationally. However, there are several aspects to the process that will be valuable and the others will come as time goes by.

Works Cited
Canadian Wood Packaging Certification Program. (2011, March 28). Canadian Food Inspection 
Agency. 

“Guide for DHL Express Dutiable Shipments to China.” (2012). DHL.

Should I incorporate my business?” (2005, Apr. 28). YouTube.

Yu, T. (2005, November). Certified Wood Packaging For Export. International Plant Protection
Convention. R

LITERATURE REVIEW EXAMPLE

Sample by My Essay Writer

In a study entitled “Retail Merchandising and Marketing,” which was conducted by The Parker Avery Group, (a retail consulting company), the researchers aimed to determine the best merchandising strategy for a private-label product. A focus of the study is to have promotions or if they are a waste of money. The research also concentrated on the need for there to be a best practices in the promotion and pricing investment strategy. Both these focuses relate closely to what USL is trying to achieve with McDowell’s No. 1 Platinum Whisky, as they can provide guidance for the marketing plan.
The researchers state that there is a growing gap between the strong retail performers and the ones that aren’t strong. There is changing rules in the ways that retailers should invest in their companies. There needs to be a change in the way strategies are developed, and this mostly involves pricing, assortment and interaction with the customers.

The literature was very thorough. It explained the benefits of each component of promotions, and noted that there is a huge benefit in connecting with the customers through personal interaction with the product. The way that the information was broken up was effective at communicating the ideas clearly. Furthermore, the study reflected contemporary ways of marketing, and in which ways companies can relate to each demographic. With promotions of the private label whisky the main priority of the new marketing plan at USL, this literature provides a valuable component from which to develop a strategy.
The researchers were able to survey customers to capture the important information on buying behavior. The researchers also collected data by surveying the retailers and finding out what their merchandise strategy, and seeing if they even have one.

The researchers found that there is about 57 per cent of retailers who have a specific merchandising strategy. There are also 37 per cent that have a process which is not specific and 6 per cent that don’t have a process. Those that have a merchandising process have at least a 3 per cent comparable store sales growth when looked at on a year-over-year timeframe.

The researchers concluded that there is the appearance in the industry that over-invests on promotions. That is not sustainable because it doesn’t set the groundwork for thriving in the long term. For this reason, retailers should be careful that they don’t invest too much of their money into promotions. If retailers invest in promotions, they should ensure they are making their investment while having a pricing and localization strategy framework.

This research implies that while there is a lot of money dedicated by companies to advertising, this isn’t always effective and could actually cost companies more than it is worth. The research implies that companies should take a close look before dedicating any of their funds to promotion.
I thought the study did a good job at showing many companies that have dedicated a significant amount of their budgets to promotions, but haven’t been successful. However, there should have been more information about companies that have been successful after dedicating much of their funds to promotions.

It would be useful if there was more comparisons of companies in various sectors. I haven’t seen information about the differences in marketing strategies in an apparel company and a food retailer, for example.
References

Creswell, J. W. 2003. Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches (2nd ed.), Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

DelVecchio, D. (2005). Deal-prone consumers’ response to promotion: The effects of relative And absolute promotions value. Psychology & Marketing, 22, 373–391.

Dwyer, F. R., & Tanner, F. J., (2006), Business marketing, connecting strategy, relationships, and learning, (3rd ed.), New York: McGraw-Hill Companies.

Hellman Karel (2005), Strategy-driven B2B Promotion, Journal of Business &Industrial Marketing, Volume: 20, 4-11

Hoch, S. et al. (n.d.). Long-Term Growth Trends in Private Label Market Shares. Marketing
Department Working Paper

Jobber, D., & Lancaster, G. (2006), Selling and sales management, (7th ed.), Harlow: Pearson Education.

Kwok, S., & Uncles, M. (2005), Sales promotion effectiveness: the impact of consumer differences at an ethnic-group level, Journal of Product & Brand Management, Vol. 14 No. 3 pp. 170-186

Philip Kotler, Kevin Lane Keller, Abraham Koshy, Mithileshwar Jha (2008), Marketing Management, 13th edition, Pearson education, New Delhi

Mingers, J. 2003. “The Paucity of Multi-method Research: A Review of the Information Systems Literature,” Information Systems Journal (13:3), 233-249.

Promo Magazine. (2010). 5 Trends to watch in 2011. Retrieved December 21, 2010, from
http://enews.penton.com/enews/promo/pmo_xtra_new/current#5_trends_watch_in_2011.

Raghubir, P., Inman, J. J., & Grande, H. (2004). The three faces of consumer promotions.California Management Review, 46, 23–41.

Retail Merchandising and Marketing Alignment Study.” (n.d.). The Parker Avery Group. The
University of Arizona.

Tashakkori, A., and Teddlie, C. 2003a. “Issues and Dilemmas in Teaching Research Methods Courses in Social and Behavioral Sciences: A US Perspective,” International Journal of SocialResearch Methodology (6:1), pp. 61-77.

Tashakkori, A., and Teddlie, C. 2003b. “The Past and the Future of Mixed Methods Research: From ‘Methodological Triangulation’ to ‘Mixed Methods Designs’,” in Handbook of Mixed Methods in Social and Behavioral Research, A. Tashakkori and C. Teddlie (eds.), Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, pp. 671-701.

THE WORK OF ART IN THE AGE OF MECHANICAL REPRODUCTION

Sample by My Essay Writer

“… one could expect [art] not only to exploit the proletariat with increasing intensity, but ultimately to create conditions which would make it possible to abolish capitalism itself.”

This sentence reflects the work most clearly because it is discussing the fact that the art created in the past is much different from that which is created in the present. In order to understand the new art forms, we need to develop our understanding and treatment of it so that we can see it in a modern context and develop new ways of doing things. Marx is discussing the relationship between society and art while placing it in to the context of Capitalism. The conditions about what to expect from capitalism in the future is set out and this provides a framework by which Capitalism could be abolished altogether.

In studying a master’s work, the text says that the development of visual and mechanical reproduction can be determined. This could include the study of stamping, etching, woodcutting, lithographs, engraving and photography. The modern forms of this work are done through greater capabilities from mass production.

In reproducing something, it is taken from an original work and placed into a different time and space, and this takes away from its authenticity. There is also the concept of aura that a work has when it is from the original craftsman, rather than being reproduced. This mass reproduction also lends itself to the idea of showing the work to a much larger audience than what was possible before modern technology. This is representative of society’s changing values, Marx says. The changing in the style throughout the history of art contributed to this changing value system.