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MAYAN COLLAPSE

Sample by My Essay Writer

Executive Summary

History is filled with numerous incidents of the rise and decline of ancient civilizations. However, none has seen so much conflict as the Maya civilization of 19th century. Historians have often locked horns on this subject. Some believe that it was the climatic change, which Mayan’s failed to adapt. Others are of the view that it was due to natural calamities like earthquake, or volcanic eruption that the empire lost its existence. The study will try and find the reason for the collapse.

Introduction

The classic collapse of Maya civilization has sent warnings to modern civilization. The collapse occurred in 900 A.D, when the cities existing near the lowlands of south were deserted. There have been varied explanations on the causes of this collapse. There are two models in which this debate can be segregated. One group emphasizes on the role of the environmental factors, climatic changes, and deathly diseases like yellow fever to be the major cause. Another group treats decentralization as the reason of the collapse.

Enlightenment of the fall down: How it would have occurred? ……….

The Maya civilization flourished in the classic period (250-900 A.D.). This was the period when the monuments and palaces were constructed, and cities flourished, then came the Terminal Classic period (850-950 A.D.) The studies from (Marcus 2003: 102) suggest that there used to be smaller cities that encircled the major cities. During the Terminal Classic Period, changes started occurring. The cities stopped flourishing, production declined, even the development of monuments and temples stopped. Research of (Iannone 2005: 26)[1] noted that the Northern lowlands remained flourishing till 1000 A.D.

Climatic changes caused draughts…..

Scientists like (Peterson and Haug 2005: 322)[2] have found that atmospheric changes caused four draughts in the region. These draughts had a fatal impact on the population on the southern lowlands. The Maya civilization had the water reservoirs, excavation techniques, and irrigated their land; however they did not have access to the natural groundwater. (Haug et al. 2003: 1733f)[3]

Yellow fever could be a factor for decline in population…..

Studies from (Wilkinson 1995: 270f)[5] suggest that yellow fever could have been the important factor of the decline in the southern lowland population. This virus is found in Monkeys, and would have been spread with the mosquitoes.

Decentralization led to political collapse

The second category of theories takes decentralization as the most important factor for the decline of the Maya civilization. The civilization was not able to integrate itself till the very end. There were problems of divided cities, human sacrifices, and combat. The absence of PAN Maya state slowly led to the downfall of the entire empire.

No single factor

Researchers have remained divided on the causes of the collapse. Nevertheless, Maya civilization collapse was a result of various causes coming together and not a single cause. (Iannone 2005: 26)[6].

Bibliography

1. Haug, Gerald H., Detlef Gunther, Larry C. Peterson, Daniel M. Sigman, Konrad A. Hughen, and Beat Aeschlimann.
2003.   Climate and the Collapse of Maya Civilization. Science 299(5613): 1731-35.

2. Iannone, Gyles.
2005.       The Rise and Fall of an Ancient Maya Petty Royal Court. Latin American Antiquity6(1):26-44.

3. Peterson, Larry C., and Gerald H. Haug.
2005.    Climate and the Collapse of Maya Civilization. American Scientist 94(4):322- 29.

4. Wilkinson, Robert L.
1995.    Yellow Fever: Ecology, Epidemiology, and Role in the Collapse of the Classic Lowland Maya Civilization. Medical Anthropology 16(3):269-94.

May
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posted by: MyEssay Writer on: May 30, 2017

Sample by My Essay Writer

Symbolic interactionism theory is a major component to interacting with people of different cultures because when cross-culturally communicating, it is important to understand the subjective nature of the social gestures.

Understanding the cultural norms allows people to better communicate with people in different cultures. This theory fits in nicely with demonstrative communication, which is a way of sending and receiving messages that are neither verbal nor written. This way of communicating – which uses signs and symbols – has both its positives and negatives, depending on the situation and what is being communicated. Examples of demonstrative communication include tone of voice, behaviour and facial expressions. Each of these aspects of communication have different meanings to people of different cultures, and that is where symbolic interactionism is so important. The more people understand a culture, the better they can comprehend the subjective aspects of that culture. Of course, the easiest way to get a message across is via the optimal form of communication, which is usually speech, but this is not always possible when there is a language or cultural barrier, or just a different communication style. Symbolic interactionism can help people understand each other better by knowing what the signs and symbols mean to each culture, and this is often facilitated by using physical cues.

Perhaps the exchange between people who speak different languages is where symbolic interaction theory is most evident. Clear communication is particularly important in the globalized economy, where regular cross-culture communication is vital to business. “Activities such as exchanging information and ideas, decision making, negotiating, motivating, and leading are all based on the ability of managers from one culture to communicate successfully with managers and employees from other cultures,” (Radford, N.D.).

Those working with people from different cultures should assume there will be miscommunications, and because of this, they should seek out other ways to communicate, to ensure there is full understanding. This difference can be assumed until there is evidence of similarity. To communicate with a different culture clearly, and eliminate the constant uncertainty, it may be necessary to immerse oneself in that culture and get to know the ways it operates (Adler, N.D.). Even the way a person dresses could be considered demonstrative communication. Depending on the culture, certain clothes may be offensive or misleading to a person when communicating cross-culturally. For example, it is normal for women in some cultures to wear miniskirts, while in other cultures, it is only appropriate for a woman to wear a veil (Utah, N.D.). Even within the same culture, certain clothing is appropriate during certain occasions, such as in North America, where it might not be appropriate to wear a miniskirt to a business meeting, for example. Not understanding this cultural norm by wearing a miniskirt to a business meeting might be seen as being unsociable because the person is not making an effort to acknowledge this social norm in the particular culture.
People within the same culture also have personal limits about touch. For example, many feel that touching another’s arm is a sign of attentiveness and caring, while others might consider it an invasion of privacy. This contrast is even more pronounced when communicating with those of other cultures. In the United Kingdom, for example, the average person touches another person zero times each hour, while those in Puerto Rico touch 180 times per hour (Utah, N.D.). But other options exist to help limit misunderstandings if demonstrative devices are used to paint a clear picture. Other ways of communicating are often neglected, but they can be the most vital in being social by communicating as clearly as possible. People often only focus on a verbal message, but more than just the words are being interpreted by the receiver of that information. For example, head position, posture, facial expressions, eye contact, and arm and hand gestures all contribute to the way a message is communicated. If someone is at a job interview and they have a slouched posture, that might indicate they are unengaged. However, the person may be very interested, but they are just unaware of the way they are physically communicating, and this is seen as being unsociable. It is important that the subjective understanding of these signs and symbols are understood for effective cross-cultural communication (Speech, 2012).

Voice tone, which is a demonstrative part of verbal communication, is an important part of conveying a message in the intended way. For example, a person with a low voice is interpreted to have more authority than a person with a high voice, according to research from the Department of Psychology at the University of Pittsburgh. When hearing a deep voice, people have an instinctive judgment of the person who is speaking. The Corporate Coach Group states it is more effective to vary tone (Farmer, 2011). Varied tone can emphasize key words and phrases, and this can make what is being said more interesting because it can stimulate emotions. When certain words are emphasized, the listener might become more enthusiastic, humoured and excited.

But the listener is also communicating, though they are not saying anything. Eye contact is a major factor in demonstrative communication that many North Americans consider to be paramount to communication. When the listener does not make eye contact, the speaker might think they are uninterested or snobby. People who are listening might also nod their head to indicate they understand what the speaker is saying. Facial expressions are also important, because the person listening might want to smile to indicate they are accepting of what the person is saying, or that they understand the humour in what is being said. Conversely, if someone is making eye contact, nodding and smiling, for example, the person who is speaking might think they are not genuine, and this is perceived as being unsociable. This is a common difficulty when communicating and it is what causes certain people with compatible communication styles to get along, while those with different communication styles do not get along (Farmer, 2011).
It is important to know that the basis for many people’s beliefs are developed through their cultural upbringing. “Human beings learn about and come to understand their environment through interactions with others” ([The Meaning of the Symbol] 57). When interacting cross-culturally, it can be imperative to be perceived as being social in business situations, for example. The global community is making it necessary for many business people to be effective at understanding symbolic interactionism theory as it is applied to the culture with which the person is conducting business. The exchange between people who speak different languages is where symbolic interactionism theory is perhaps expressed the most. For example, leadership plays one of the most important roles in determining values of people in different cultures. People are the same, despite where they are from (Hofstede, 2012), but sociologist Geert Hofstede concludes that there are profound differences due to the cultural upbringing. The research offered in Hofstede’s studies helps to determine whether the culture in which a person is raised affects the way they communicate, and this provides an interesting aspect to understanding symbolic interactionism theory because it recognizes the cultural interpretations of the same qualities, such as leadership. This proves the need to develop effective symbolic ways to communicate in each culture, due to the differences in customs and beliefs (Hofstede, 2012). Hofstede points out that because many companies do not have the type of expertise to handle the changing work environment that is being spurred on by globalization, there will be a need for people who are trained to handle this area, and that will in many case be those trained in proper negotiations with international companies. There are many new demands on the people in the organization and this will require proper guidance from HR managers. There needs to be flexibility and speed within the company in order to adapt to the global market. The climate in the new type of workplace demands that companies have an “open and empowered organizational climate, but also a tightly focused global competitive culture,” (Hofstede, 2010). This type of adjustment will not be based on the strategic planning of the top corporate executives, as it will be more in the behavior of the company’s employees in the various areas in which the company operates around the world. These specially trained employees will need to take special note of the cultural nuances in communication that are revealed through the symbolic interactionism theory.

Having the right people to communicate globally might be difficult, due to the challenging nature in finding a person who has extensive knowledge of negotiations. Companies will face many challenges in this changing global communication environment. The person who is currently negotiating for the company might not want to be reassigned to a different task with the firm. While certain incentives can be provided to the person who currently negotiates for the company, they may not be enough to convince that person to take on different tasks. Furthermore, there may not be other tasks that the person can take on, so there would be redundant employment. Thirdly, it would cost the company more money to hire someone with training that is as detailed as being able to speak a specific language or be familiar with international negotiation strategies.

While it might be difficult finding a person skilled familiar enough with symbolic interactionism theory, it is becoming a more relevant field due to globalization. On a long enough timeline, the right person would likely come along who knows the signs and symbols needed to be considered sociable with the other culture, which can be vital for business dealings.

Reference List

Adler, N.J., (N.D.) Communicating across cultural barriers. Retrieved from
http://www.radford.edu/~kvharring/docs/HRMDocs/5comm.pdf

Farmer, C. (2011, March 25) Communication skills training: voice tone. Corporate Coach
Group. Retrieved from http://www.corporatecoachgroup.co.uk/blogDetail.asp?blogid=169

Hofstede, G., et al. (2012). Cultural Differentiation of Negotiating Agents. Springer          Science Business Media. Retrieved from https://mail-                  attachment.googleusercontent.com/attachment/u/0/?ui=2&ik=fa602a0a7c&view=att&t                  h=13e86dca75b67803&attid=0.6&disp=inline&safe=1&zw&saduie=AG9B_P8ld2B8uB3FK            wSDOA-xLEXv&sadet=1369803882306&sads=pk-g0qKWApO_7Tw_owzD3622PoU

Speech Improvement Resources. (2012). Nonverbal communication says a lot. Retrieved             from http://speakingspecialist.com/articles/28-nonverbal-communication-says-        a-lot

University of Utah (N.D.) Engaging in nonverbal communication. Retrieved from
http://www.hum.utah.edu/communication/classes/fa02/1010-8/ch5.pdf

SUMMER SADNESS

Sample by My Essay Writer
“Are you ready, Bunny?,” Dimitri asked as he pulled into the warehouse parking lot and began driving to the far end where Ed and Marco were waiting.

“Yeah, I’m a little worried. Ed is not a careless man.”

As soon as Dimitri came to a stop, he opened the car door and rolled out onto the ground. He rose with a single movement and was shooting by the time he planted his feet. Dimitri took them both by surprise. Even though they had planned to kill both Bunny and Dimitri, they had counted on surprising them and had left their guns in their holsters. Dimitri’s first shot took Marco in the shoulder and the second hit him in the neck. He followed this up with a third round to the chest. By this time, Ed had his Sig Sauer out and was returning Dimitri’s gunfire. Bunny raised her hands to her ears as if the muffling of the sound would minimize the effects of the bullets that were striking her lover. Ed was also wounded now and, remembering the gun Dimitri gave her, she extended her arm and fired three shots in rapid succession. Each struck Ed in the middle of his chest and, despite his size and the small caliber of the gun she used, Ed groaned and dropped to his knees. A final shot from Dimitri forced Ed onto his back where he lay still. His breath rattled in his chest for a few seconds and then stopped. He was dead.

Her relationship with Ed began six years prior. Ed was a junior partner of her father and it was he who pushed her into marrying the man. It was beautiful, she had to admit. The haute couture gown, the five layered cake with gold flakes, the secluded location, and the swans in the lake; her choice of beautifully modern floral blends of white flowers: freesia, white lily and muguet, combined with narcissus, reflected her personality. Everything was perfect except, as it turned out, the groom. No one would guess he had killed men with his bare hands. Under his perfectly tailored, double-breasted Dolce & Gabbana tuxedo, Ed bore scars left by bullets and another from a knife. He gave the appearance of being an accomplished entrepreneur, but on the mean streets of the city he was a gangster who was renowned for his cruelty. Bunny had initially resisted marrying Ed, but her father told her that she would come to love Ed in time and that such a marriage would lead to peace between his faction of the mob and Ed’s. “You could be saving my life,” her father said. Initially, Ed was an attentive lover. He showered her with gifts and took her on vacations to exotic places. Life was good and if she did not see stars or fall in love the way she had always imagined she would, she did at least become very fond of Ed. This all ended after Bunny’s father was killed in a car accident. His Bugatti failed to make the turn on a winding mountain road and he was killed. There were rumours that his death had been engineered, but no evidence to support this claim was ever discovered. Bunny needed no evidence, however. Once her father was in the ground, Ed began abusing her. He did not strike her or anything like that, but everything she did became the subject of arguments that she could never win.  He stopped touching her. In fact, she spent most of her nights alone while Ed would spend his out on the town. Bunny became extremely lonely.

This went on for several cold and loveless years. Ed was always away on business trips. Bunny was not left alone, however. Whenever Ed left the house, he arranged for someone to spend the night on the grounds of their mansion. He would patrol the grounds during the day and spend his nights in the gatehouse at the entrance to their property. The guards were regularly rotated. Most were hulking brutes that could do little more than grunt. That’s the way it was until Dimitri came to work for Ed. He was different. He was tall and had an athletic build, rather than that of a weightlifter. He also smiled a lot and made an effort to speak to her whenever she came outside to use the pool.

He was charismatic, magnetic, and electric, even though his exterior was hard as nails. A compassionate glimmer in his eyes revealed a softness that existed just below the surface. Bunny was instantly smitten, and from that moment on, she made sure to look her best whenever he was around. She justified her behavior by reasoning that she did not have much of a husband.  He is always out with ladies and hookers. What’s the point of having wealth if I’m not happy with my life? Why can’t I have a friend, too?
She was a beautiful woman, and despite the danger of engaging in illicit affairs, Dimitri eventually succumbed and nature took its course. On a late spring night, Bunny was at her sister’s house for dinner. Her sister insisted that Dimitri join them at dinner instead of waiting for her in the car. It began with a bit of harmless flirting when they found themselves alone in the room. Emboldened by the wine she had drank, Bunny took things further and further until they got into the car. Once he had driven her back home she smiled and asked him in for a drink. One drink led to several, and in her bedroom her fantasies came true.

They knew they were taking an enormous risk and did their best to minimize the chances of getting caught. They only made love when Dimitri was assigned to guard the property. They never exchanged gifts because even the smallest thing could give them away. Bunny did not know if what she was feeling was love, but she was sure that whatever it was, it was better than the cold, dead sensation that had been her life since her father died.

They loved to go out to their favorite little place, called the Corner Suite. It was a French restaurant with elaborate Baroque architecture, black and white checkered marble floors, little round tables and an efficient and discreet staff. The Corner Suit was perched on a hill overlooking the ocean. The only thing in between the sparkling blue water and this café was a perfectly manicured golf course, which made for an exquisite view that many secret lovers enjoyed. It had a terrace big enough to fit two Olympic sized pools.  It was well decorated with lemon trees and white flowers. The cool breeze flowing through the terrace carried a fresh scent of citrus. Bunny, in fact, loved the Corner Suite because Ed refused to go there. “The place is too French and fruity for a real man,” he had proclaimed.

They say that the only way for two people to keep a secret is if one of them is dead, and affairs are invariably exposed. It happened innocently enough. During one of their relatively civilized conversations, Bunny called Ed Dimitri and then exacerbated her mistake by calling him sweetie in the next sentence. She did not notice her mistake until she looked up and saw the hatred in Ed’s eyes. Hoping to leave him with the impression that her use of Dimitri’s name meant nothing, she continued to sweet talk Ed, making certain to use his name in conjunction with the endearments. She could tell, however, that Ed was not fooled. After he left the house, she raced to a phone to warn Dimitri.

“My God,” she cried; “he knows, he knows.” She screamed as soon as Dimitri answered. “I am so sorry! I made an innocent mistake! My God, he will kill us both!”

“Calm down, Bunny. Tell me exactly what happened. Don’t leave anything out.”

Bunny related her conversation with Ed, and Dimitri agreed they needed to come up with a plan if they were going to survive.

“He is bound to call me. I will wait until he does and we’ll take it from there.”

Less than an hour later Dimitri phoned Bunny and told her Ed wanted him to pick Bunny up and meet him at the 6th Avenue warehouse. “It’s a perfect place for what he has in mind. It’s at the end of town in an industrial park. There will be no one around at this time of night. I have an idea, though. I’ll explain it when I pick you up,” he reassured her.

“Don’t come here!,” Bunny cried. “We need to run!”

“There is no place for us to go, Bunny. Even if we did get away, what would we do for money? Neither of us has any money and being a gangster is all I know how to do. Ed would find us in no time. No, it is better if we meet with him and pretend we do not realize that he knows about us. Trust me. Once this is over, we will get married and live like regular people.”

When Dimitri arrived at Bunny’s home, he took one look at the white Chanel dress and the string of pink pearls she was wearing, and then sent her upstairs to change. “Jeans would be best. Just make sure they have back pockets.” Once they were in the car, Dimitri handed Bunny a small automatic pistol. “It’s a double-action Beretta. All you have to do is pull the trigger and it will shoot,” he told her. “It holds five bullets. No one would expect you to have a gun, so you will be able to get close to Ed or whoever is with him and squeeze the trigger until they fall down.

“Do you really want to marry me?,” Bunny asked, stupidly.

“Jesus, Bunny! Focus on the present. We need to survive the next hour or so first. I will take care of everyone I can. You shoot whoever is left.  They know I am armed but they will expect me to get out of the car and talk to them. I am going to start shooting the minute I get out of the car. Everyone will be looking at me. You will be able to get close to whoever I don’t get, and end it. Do you think you can do it?,” Dimitri asked.

Bunny answered honestly. “I don’t know. I have fired guns before but never at a person.”

“Don’t think about that,” Dimitri told her. “Just think about what Ed will do to us if we don’t kill him.”

It took them almost an hour to reach the end of 6th Avenue and make the turn that would take them behind the warehouse.

“Are you ready, Bunny?,” Dimitri asked as he pulled into the warehouse parking lot and began driving to the far end where Ed and Marco were waiting.

“Yeah, I’m a little worried about your plan. Ed is not a careless man.”

As soon as Dimitri came to a stop, he opened the car door and rolled out onto the ground. He rose with a single movement and was shooting by the time he planted his feet. Dimitri took them both by surprise. Even though they had planned to kill both Bunny and Dimitri, they had counted on surprising them and had left their guns in their holsters. Dimitri’s first shot took Marco in the shoulder and the second hit him in the neck. He followed this up with a third round to the chest. By this time, Ed had his Sig Sauer out and was returning Dimitri’s gunfire. Bunny raised her hands to her ears as if the muffling of the sound would minimize the effects of the bullets that were striking her lover. Ed was also wounded now and, remembering the gun Dimitri gave her, she extended her arm and fired three shots in rapid succession. Each struck Ed in the middle of his chest and, despite his size and the small caliber of the gun she used, Ed groaned and dropped to his knees. A final shot from Dimitri forced Ed onto his back where he lay still. His breath rattled in his chest for a few seconds and then stopped. He was dead.

Bunny rushed to Dimitri. A large bloodstain was soaking the shoulder of his shirt and a second one covered his hip. He looked up and smiled. “We made it.” He gasped.

“I was thinking on the way here,” Bunny said quietly. “I read an article once. It claimed that a man may fool around on his wife but never on his mistress. If you marry me, I will be in the same boat that I was in with Ed. Eventually you will tire of me and get yourself a girlfriend. Meanwhile, I will still be a gangster’s wife. As things stand at the minute, I am a wealthy widow who is a free as a bird. All the men in my life betrayed me. I doubt if you would turn out to be any different.” Bunny raised the Beretta and fired the two remaining rounds into Dimitri’s head, dropped the gun beside Ed’s body and walked back to the car.

I think all the exercises are great tools in revisions. Stepping away helps out with macro-revisions. I used this first to change my story. It helped me to see the bigger picture. For this revision I re-wrote all of the verbs in my paragraph. I put them in the thesaurus and picked another good choice for the story. This was very helpful in developing your story because it gives your story dimension and really expands the vocab within the story. Sometimes I get caught using the same words and not really expanding the vocabulary.

Here is my reasoning for the changes:

After reading my story many times, I became aware of several holes in my plot.

Ed would not let Dimitri live if he had been having an affair with Bunny.

As crazy as I portrayed Ed to be, he would not shoot anyone in a restaurant. Too many witnesses. He would have to kill them all so it is better to move the ending to a secluded place.

I also thought I had complicated things too much with conversation between Bunny and Dimitri before they began their affair.

The murder of John in the restaurant was bizarre to add in. I did that to expand on Ed’s craziness. Besides that, I can’t see a guy as crazy as Ed getting to be the big boss. I also realized that Ed wasn’t a very good shot for a gangster, so I eliminated his shooting spree.

Finally, I wanted to let Bunny live. I wanted her to turn out to be the smart one who survives and goes on to have her own life. The idea pleases me greatly.

When I realized that I would be expected to read the story on tape I decided to remove the section that contained all the swearing. The idea of saying these words out loud made me uncomfortable and so I eliminated them.

MIXING TECHNOLOGY AND ETHICS: AN APPLICATION TO THE PILLARS OF SOCIETY

Sample by My Essay Writer

Technology is developing a series of new ethical dilemmas, whether that is with how business is executed or how law enforcement is carried out, for example.

The problem to be investigated is whether information technology demands a moral framework in relation to how it is used in modern society. While the societal repercussions of technology are far reaching, there are two major factors that could feel the most conflict between ethics and technology: law enforcement and the capitalist system. These two bodies are arguably the most important aspects of what we as a society hold dearest. They are the pillars that make the United States what it is. Without these anchors in our society, the U.S. could crumble, and the relation of technology and ethics would be the catalyst.

 Law Enforcement

In the case of policing, technology is changing the way law enforcement conducts its business. Information technology is not only creating more ways for the public to break the law – and therefore more work for police – it is also helping officers fight against criminal activity. “Increased computer power, advances in data transmission and attractive and user-friendly graphic interfaces present law enforcement agencies with unprecedented capacity to collect, store, analyze and share data with stakeholders inside and outside of government,” (Robinson, 2001). Computers have certainly played a role in changing the way law is enforced. “As a singularly information-dependent profession, the field of law could hardly escape the impact of the Information Age,” (Marcus, 2008).

But technology and its role in policing goes much further than just computers. Evidence is being compiled from crime scenes that are from many decades ago, and what were cold cases are now leading to prosecution. They are also leading to people who have been in prison for many years now being proven innocent and let go. DNA evidence and similar science-based tools for investigation are changing the landscape of policing. There is a shift in the paradigm between science and policing. “This paradigm demands that the police adopt and advance evidence-based policy and that universities become active participants in the everyday world of police practice,” (Weisburd, 2011).

The co-evolution between crime and crime fighting is causing one party to try to keep up with the other. As criminals find ways to commit crimes through the use of technology, police have to ensure they are one step ahead. “New, adaptive and ordinary crimes emerge over time to create technology crime waves, the magnitude of which can theoretically be measured, compared and predicted,” (McQuade, 1996). Who wins the battle is yet to be seen, but as technology continues to evolve, the fight to eliminate illicit activity will go on.

Ethics comes in when police are challenged with observing the activities of the population. There is a higher apprehension rate of criminals when the police are able to observe the activities of each individual on their computer. Surveillance technology of all sorts is being used to monitor the activities of potential criminals. But these people don’t always have illicit intent. That is why there needs to be an ethical framework built around reasonable grounds. Currently, police need to have a warrant to monitor the activities of someone they suspect is involved in crime. This has been around for decades with the advent of “bugs” that can either record audio or visuals of a party police suspect is committing illegal acts. But a framework governed by a judge, or something similar to it, isn’t developed in the case of businesses, which will be the next topic of discussion.

Capitalism

Enbridge Inc., is right now trying to determine whether or not a pipeline from Alberta to the pacific coast is in the best interest of ethical reasoning. In building an ethical framework, the company should balance what is needed though Creative Destruction – a term coined by economist Joseph Schumpeter to describe the act of a company needing to reinvent itself periodically in order to keep up with the threat of more technologically savvy companies taking market share – and set the path for the company into the future, (Guiltinan, 2008). In order to meet the demands of an increasingly technologically savvy business environment, it has been brought to Enbridge’s senior staff’s attention through the company’s Board of Directors that they must strengthen their relations with the Asian markets in order to survive as a corporation. The company is facing increasing pressure from other companies that are increasingly technologically savvy. In developing an ethical framework, it is important to combine the demands of Creative Destruction to pave the way for the company to grow and to prosper, because without a route to the pacific, the company might not survive the competition, which is using technology to its advantage.
First of all, a detailed description of Creative Destruction is necessary to show how it applied to the fight between ethics and technology. Creative Destruction says that a company needs to keep up with an ever-changing landscape which is often influenced by technological developments. Many companies find that they need to change what they are doing business so that they can stay ahead of the competition. Companies get stuck in bounded rationality, which causes them to lose sight of the big picture. The CEOs of these companies find that they are stuck with ideas of the past. And this attitude of complacency extends throughout the staff at the company. These techniques have worked for them before and so they feel like there isn’t a need for change. However, what these managers often don’t consider is that there are people who are starting up new companies, and these new companies have an objective view, and possibly new technologies. These companies could be specialists in some area of business that would reshape the current way things are being done. For example, Apple took over the cellphone industry virtually overnight when it basically made the telecommunications providers at their heels. Nearly everyone in North America switched to a smartphone. Nearly every other phone company suffered massive losses. But bounded rationality isn’t confined to just one industry. It affects every industry. Competition is always looming and looking to execute something better than the company that currently has all the business. Creative destruction is one way of dealing with the constraints of bounded rationality, (Guiltinan, 2008).
In order to win out over the companies that are ready to take over, businesses like Enbridge need to reinvent themselves, with new ideas. This could include a new line of product, or it could include finding new customers, which is the case in this essay. In order to stay ahead of the competition, Enbridge needs to expand to the B.C. coast. But the question is whether Creative Destruction and ethics can be used in combination in the case of oil drilling. As companies fight an ever-increasing number of technologically savvy companies looking to take over, they are often blindly aiming to increase profits through Creative Destruction, which could be at the expense of ethics.

The pressures in the current economic environment require companies to be constantly looking at reinventing themselves, and the principles of Creative Destruction are perhaps needed the most. Enbridge has reached near its limit of providing oil to its current North American market. It is no longer an option – if the company wants to continue to increase profits – to remain only in this continent. While the profits at the company are huge, there is a desire among the Board of Directors and top executives to expand. The company also has close friends in the government who tout the project for the tax revenue that would result and the jobs creation, (Oosterom, 2012).

While the environment plays an important role in building this ethical framework, it should also be considered that 7,000 full-time employees at the company. Enbridge has a market cap of over $31 billion, and the top executives are making over a million. These executives would obviously like to increase the income at the company, and increase their own pay, and this is perhaps a guiding factor in considering the ethical framework. Year-over-year from 2010 to 2011, the company increased revenue by about $4.3 billion, or around 27 per cent. This says the company is doing well, despite the new corporate environment that calls for Creative Destruction.

While expansion to the Asian market is important for the company’s prosperity, if there is a chance of a tragedy, such as the one that struck the Gulf of Mexico during the British Petroleum oil leak, then this plan should be scrapped. This is why there needs to be a considerable investment into the safety of the pipeline. Without a guarantee that a spill isn’t possible, it would not fit within any logical ethical framework to move forward with the plans. Enbridge is working very closely with the Province of Alberta and the Province of British Columbia on this project and we will also be doing our own environmental analysis. However, while the project has been approved by the Alberta government, it is still going through hearings with B.C. In the meantime, this framework will require the efforts of the company’s own engineers and environmental researchers to determine the environmental impact that this project would have.

In making the decision of whether or not to expand to the coast of B.C., it should be noted that now might be the best time to do such a thing. This is because the economy is recovering and it is unknown when it may crash again. Right now, profits have increased substantially year-over-year and the company wants to take advantage of that increase in revenue and put the capital into an expansion project for the coast of B.C. If the company waits too long, they may be faced with the prospect of having to make this type of investment when they don’t have as much capital.

In taking into consideration Creative Destruction and how it is applied to the Northern Gateway Pipeline, there is a problem with moving forward with the project. The only way for the company to survive, according to the Creative Destruction framework, is to be innovative. However, the company is already taking in billions of dollars. The top executives are making millions per year. There is no need to make this decision based on the fact that the company wants to survive. There is no indication that the company is suffering financially and needs to be innovative in order to squash the competition before they have a chance to start up. In taking this into consideration, it would be extremely unethical to move forward with the Northern Gateway Pipeline, despite what Creative Destruction might say about the need to stay ahead of technology.
Creative Destruction, while it might provide a framework for companies to stay prosperous into the future, doesn’t take into consideration moral duty. Furthermore, in modern times, a business plan that doesn’t consider the impact on the environment won’t gain the approval of the public. In the oil business, this isn’t much of a concern, because the company isn’t selling directly to individuals, but to other companies. And that is a scary proposition for the world, because if people don’t stop buying from these companies that are blindly following Creative Destruction, the only thing that will be destroyed is the environment. While Creative Destruction would be responsible, it is the need to blindly move forward, and away from the threat of technology that drives these companies.

Works Cited

McQuade, S. (1996). Technology-enabled Crime, Policing and Security. The journal of
Technology Studies. Retrieved from
http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/ejournals/JOTS/v32/v32n1/mcquade.html

Moore, D. (2012, Oct. 8). “Northern Gateway pipeline critics questioned on Rockefeller
foundation, Seattle philanthropist.” The Vancouver Sun. Retrieved from http://www.vancouversun.com/technology/Enbridge+Northern+Gateway+pipeline+critics/7358972/story.html

Robinson, L. (2001, Dec.). Promising Approaches to Addressing Crime. University of
Pennsylvania. Retrieved from http://www.sas.upenn.edu/jerrylee/programs/fjc/paper_dec01.pdf

Weisburd, D. and Neyroud, P. (2011, Jan.). Police Science: Toward a New Paradigm. Harvard
Kennedy School. Retrieved from http://www.hks.harvard.edu/var/ezp_site/storage/fckeditor/file/pdfs/centers-programs/programs/criminal-justice/NPIP-Police Science-TowardaNewParadigm.pdf

PUTTING FIRST THINGS FIRST IN THE NAVY

Sample by My Essay Writer

Assess Yourself and Topic

In my job as a computer technician for The Navy Marine Corps’s, I am responsible for completing a variety of tasks at a high volume.

It is important that I am on top of each situation as it arises, as there is little room for error. While on the job, a variety of challenges arise, often requiring my quick attention. Every day, there is a compilation of challenges that my employer faces, and I must figure out how to prioritize the tasks. In this essay, I will discuss the challenges of my job and how I am able to use a course theme to “Put First Things First,” to ensure that I complete my job in the most efficient way possible without overburdening operations. I need to be savvy at time management if I want to be able to perform my job and meet all of the daily problems that arise at work, and putting first things first is the way to accomplish that task.

Chosen Course Theme: “Put First Things First”

Fortunately for me, and my employer, I am the type of person who likes to make lists and follow through each item as quickly as possible. That is one side of my personality; the other side is that I love working with computers. Both computer and time-management skills are imperative to functioning at a high level on my job. Each day, I receive a list of tasks that need to be completed. For example, I may have to fix a computer that has a virus on it, reinstall hardware, or repair hardware. Each of these issues carries its own weight of importance, and it is my job to ensure that the most vital task is completed first.

Often, I can delegate my responsibilities to my assistants, but they are not always trained to handle many of the more difficult issues, and when they do not know how to complete a task, it takes more time to help them than it would have if I had done the task myself. This is where another key component of my job comes in: training. In addition to handling the computer tech problems that arise at work, I am responsible for ensuring that those who are on my team are knowledgeable enough to complete many of the tasks themselves. But it is not always easy to balance the pressing computer issues and training a staff that can deal with them effectively.

“Put First Things First” in Relation to Training

Many trainers, such as myself, face the challenges making changes to technology in the workplace, and this is often because of time management issues. It is important for me to put first things first, and train staff so that they have the knowledge base for the most important task first. This becomes a particular problem at my job because of constantly changing technology. This means I am consistently training staff about the changes that continually arise. Sometimes I have the assistance of team members to decide the best way to implement the change, but sometimes I am confronted with the task of making the switch on my own. This is often where I thrive, thanks to my “Put First Things First” attitude. While some changes can be as simple as using a new server to put information, others are extremely challenging and deal with an array of possibilities to which the outcome is difficult to know. These decisions often require action by the computer technician team. When technology is involved, this can become somewhat of a challenge in any type of office. For example, The Navy shouldn’t have much of a problem implementing technological change due to its high-quality training, particularly in time management. A real estate brokerage, on the other hand, might be confronted with confused employees.

According to “Strategic Planning Facilitator Guide,” several techniques – when only one person is responsible for making the decision – can often be ignored by employees. They may not want to commit the time or energy to tackling a problem. Attempting to make the change is also risky because it could lead to failure. For myself, not being able to fix the issue can damage my team’s reputation. Many trainers believe that ignoring the problem, and not bothering to train the staff, will cause it to go away, but this is rarely the case, (Muller, N.D.). Many trainers lack the time management skills to enforce the change, because they can become overwhelmed with the tasks they have to do, the text explains. This is an accurate outlay of the issue; however, I would go a step further by emphasising that change is not often easy to implement. Employees are sometimes unwilling to co-operate because of personal barriers, organizational barriers and lack of readiness. It is up to trainers like myself to overcome the resistance and guide employees to accept, and showing them how to put the first thing first is effective.

“Put First Things First” in Relation to Task Organization

In addition to ensuring that my team is up-to-speed on all of the needed changes, I must tackle all of the problems that arise during day-to-day operations. These issues can be quite complex, and it is often difficult to tell how long each task will take. Often what seems like a complicated problem surprises me by having an easy solution. And sometimes when a problem seems like it would have an easy solution, it does not. When organizing lists, I find it is difficult to tell how long each task will be. However, with experience, it has become much easier to make the estimate of the time that it will take for completion. Many challenges are not new, and as similar issues arise, I am more familiar with exactly how to solve them and that makes putting the first thing first easier. But, I have to also take into consideration the issue that needs to be addressed the most. Often that means prioritizing who needs the problem solved. For example, if it is my boss who is having problems with his computer hard drive, I will make sure that his issue is addressed before a lower level employee. It is not only in my best interest to make sure my boss is happy, but his daily work requirements are likely much more vital to the organization than a lower-level employee. This is a deduction that I make based on my putting the first thing first skill.

Provide Evaluation of Textbook, Readings and Lectures

I thought for the most part that the textbook dealt with the subject matter in a very efficient way. I felt like I could relate to the text because it gave real-life examples, rather than just providing a general overview of the theories. Often, theory and practice differ quite a bit, but I thought the text was effective at bringing out some of the issues that arise every day at the work place. It was relieving to see that it is not just I who faces a problem with handling the high volume of tasks. And it was striking to see some of the similarities in my ways of handling a high volume of tasks, and the ways that the textbook mentions dealing with the complications that can come up.

The readings were also an interesting look at the various components of the work hierarchy and the tasks that each level has to deal with. There is much more emphasis at the management level on ensuring that the staff are happy and working their hardest than I had imagined. In the Navy, we are constantly ensuring that we are performing our tasks in the best ways possible, and efficiency is key. It is rare that a person needs to be disciplined, or is called out for not working their hardest. The readings showed that other organizations aren’t as lucky with their employees, as there is a constant need to motivate them. This made me recognize that there is a sense of pride in the Navy, and each person who works there wants to perform their best. This could be due to the attractive pay and benefits, as well as other perks that management has put in place. They already conform to many of the standards set out in the readings.

The lectures were also helpful because they emphasized many of the key points that were made in the textbook and in the readings. The lectures helped put everything into perspective, and they added insights that I would not have been able to contemplate myself. Essentially, the lectures took the sometimes dry material of the textbook, and made it lively, to the point where I was enjoying what I was learning. I could see some of the material getting redundant if it was not presented in such a way as to provide unique insights into the textbook material.

Review of Authors

The authors did a good job at provided a theory that I believe is accurate of the real world. This is important to understand in participating in a workforce, because it provides an employee with a unique perspective. I found myself at work thinking more about the role of time management, and what managers would expect me to do. This increases my ability to act and not be acted on. This made me feel more a part of the unit, rather than just another ant in the ant hill. Thanks to the authors, I was able to fully understand the hierarchy in which I find myself, and I think this will be an extremely valuable tool in developing my tasks in a proactive way. While studying this course, I set goals that would limit stress and burnout. With a knowledge of what my superiors are looking for, I can more easily anticipate what they want of me. That will likely lead to increased performance, and potentially a promotion due to putting the first things first. Of course, if the authors are not accurate about their theories, I will not be able to make such a leap forward, but judging by the examples that they provided – such as those dealing with the role of time management – I believe that the authors are correct in their evaluation of organizational structures and their theories about innovation and time management particularly stood out to me because of my experience. Providing the real-life examples gave the authors a solid foundation from which to address the topic in an authoritative manner. The motivating employees section of the handouts was particularly valuable at helping me understand the views of management. For example, Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory showed me that it is not only important to pay attention to the lower-order needs, such as safety, but it is also important for employee morale to understand the higher-order needs, because this will create a more vibrant work environment where employees can more effectively put the first things first.

Works Cited

Muller, G. (N.D.).Strategic Planning. Open Space Institute Denmark. Retrieved from
http://www.ibrd.gov.nl.ca/regionaldev/StratPlanGuide.pdf

CHARLES TAYLOR’S ‘SHARED AND DIVERGENT VALUES’

Sample by My Essay Writer

In Charles Taylor’s “Shared and Divergent Values,” he discusses the role of Canadian identity and how views of individual cultures have slowly dissipated into an agreement over politics and culture.

He said the Canadian government plays a role in shaping the various cultures, particularly that of Quebec and then the rest of Canada, into one consciousness through declarations such as the Charter of Rights and Freedoms. Policies that are put in place throughout the country, with no consideration for how these policies affect individual groups, have caused cultural individuality to slowly erode. Liberal individualism that Taylor touts, allows for the roots of each person in society to come through. He believes in a middle way, where there is national identity, but also the preservation of an individual’s culture. His theory touches on the very essence of what it means to be Canadian, and that essence is the idea of preserving cultural roots while also following a national identity. In making this argument, Taylor shouldn’t have focused almost entirely on Quebecers, because Canada is multicultural and there are many other nationalities to consider in making this argument.

Taylor rightly argues that the Canadian government hasn’t done a good job at respecting the cultures of this country’s citizens. Instead, there seems to be an integration of the various cultures, whether that is political or cultural. These could be related to social provisions, violence, firearms and about democracy, (1994: 156). But as Thomas points out, this development is relatively recent. Approximately 50 years ago, there were widely divergent beliefs about fundamentals such as the aforementioned political and cultural factors of life. For example, at this time, Quebec and the rest of Canada had different views about things like the treatment of Communists and Jehovah’s Witnesses, (1994: 156).

In trying to explain how this erosion of cultures in Canada into an assimilated culture, Taylor asks about what is the point of a country. He says this is in contrast to asking what people cherish as being good, (1994: 157). In addressing what the point of a country is, he is trying to determine how a country can be internationally sovereign, yet preserve multiple cultures within its framework.

Taylor’s argument would be stronger if he gave more concrete examples of how cultures have been fragmented. For example, he could have talked about the devastation caused by European settlers in the First Nations land. This has eventually caused not only the slaughter of Aboriginals, but the attempted assimilation of First Nations through residential schools. In addition, the depletion of the caribou and other wildlife that the First Nations relied on for their way of life is largely responsible for causing the collapse of that culture.

But he is more subtle in identifying the different cultures. For example, he considers people of Western Canada to be a culture of their own, one that is neglected by the federal government because they are too far away. Instead of paying closer attention to the needs of people in Western Canada, initiatives such as block funding are carried out, (1994: 160).

Taylor does well in his comparison of the Canadian to that of the nation’s American counterpart in which government policy has turned that society into a cultural melting pot. Ex-Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau declared Canada as a multicultural nation, and I believe that statement has helped lead this country into acceptance of those who have different cultural backgrounds.

Taylor should have at least addressed First Nations in laying out his plan for an ideal Canada. Without specifying the cultural erosion that has taken place, it is difficult to build a framework around which an ideal Canada can begin to form. The Quebec issue is just part of the problem, and it can’t be solved by providing a hybrid, as Taylor points out, of preserving one’s culture while also abiding by a national identity. Quebec separatists have rebelled against an Anglophone federal government for over a century, and there is no reason why they would now decide to accept a culture where they wave the Canadian flag and then the next minute they find a way to preserve their French identity.

To provide a document of enough cultural significance to warrant is thorough study, Taylor needed to more fully encompass cultures other than that of the Quebecer. Because Canada isn’t dual-cultural, but instead multicultural, a more thorough analysis is needed for any relevance in this country.

Reference

Taylor, Charles. 1994. “Shared and Divergent Values.” Reconciling the Solitudes: Essays on Canadian Federalism and Nationalism. Ed. Laforest, Guy. McGill-Queen’s University Press.

IDENTIFYING THE SELF: A TEXTUAL ANALYSIS

Sample by My Essay Writer

Sherry Turkle sees the use of computers for communication as a new way of conceptualizing an individual as a combination of a number of distinct selves manifested through inner multiplicity or multiple subjectivity, rather than the how an individual is identifiable as a whole “self.”


She views computers as new avenues with which an individual acquires what she calls, “objects to think with.” They are also acting as people’s new companions. According to Turkle, the computer provides a platform through which the individual can have a perception of himself and that of others. Her argument in this essay is centered on recognizing the computer as what she calls, “objects to think with.” The argument arises from her study of the computer’s artificial intelligence, research on computer use and the work of “connectionist,” who are behavior psychologists.

Turkle is a sociology professor at MIT. She focuses much of her research on psychoanalysis and the interaction between people and technology. In the essay “The Ghost in the Machine,” Turkle analyses how people have interacted with computers, not just as a way of communicating or helping people to achieve complex tasks, but also as a psychological connection between people and machines – the computer, in this case. She achieves this through a multifaceted analysis of computers’ artificial intelligence, a study on how people use the computer and relate this to behavior psychologically. Turkle analyses how individuals interact with the computer and in essence how they create multiple version of “selves.” The essay is focused on tech savvy individuals who have integrated computers so well in their lives that the computer has become a companion. She even romanticizes the topic with an example of a person-to-computer interaction, and this helps to create vibrancy in the article so that the reader is drawn in. She says people have successfully integrated the multiuser domains available through computers to present themselves as different people. Turkle uses formal diction throughout her essay. There is, however, wide use of psychology and technology language throughout the essay. She uses vivid descriptions that evoke the audience thoughts throughout most part of the essay. For instance, in order to help the audience understand how she reaches her conclusion, Turkle uses illustration to arouse the audience’s thoughts. She, for instance, provides an illustration about how an individual who played a virtual game inspired by the TV series Star Trek felt like the game was more real than real life. She builds up her argument on these illustrations very successfully to produce a logically structured argument.

This essay is extremely technical and the target audience is academics. It marries behavior psychology with technology and as such forms a critical reference for studies in these fields. The formal diction of this essay and the way Turkle analyzes the main points makes it useful for the intended audience. In my opinion, this essay would make very little impact on people with knowledge in either of the fields, behavior psychology and technology. Furthermore, it would also require the audience to have a considerable amount knowledge about both of the subjects in the essay to make a perfect impact. After all would not some of the people who are widely used in the essay to illustrate technology aspects find it hard to understand how their behavior with computers is used to understand their interactions with computers?

References

Turkle, S. (1995). Ghosts in the MachineThe Sciences.

THE WORD “TERRORISM’S’’ EFFECTS ON SOCIETY

Sample by My Essay Writer

After the terrorist attack on the World Trade Centre happened, the word “terrorism” has taken on a different kind of meaning.

Before the attacks it was taken seriously, but now the 2001 attack serves as a link between the word “terrorism” and that scary day. The word is used to mark the change of a society, marking the beginning of increased security and a changed, more fearful, attitude among the general American public, and for those in other countries; basically with the people of specifically westernized countries, as they are the subjects of the typical terrorist anger. But terrorism isn’t just Muslim extremists, the word describes violence in the pursuit of political aims. The way the word “terrorism” has influenced everyday culture can’t be misunderstood. In this essay, I will examine the various ways in which terrorism has taken hold in the United States, and how the word has been used in a way that has changed our society.

Gun Control

Undeniably, the most obvious use of terrorism since the 9/11 attacks has been on national security. And this has played a role in shaping everything from more rules at airports, to the call for more gun-control laws. There is a challenge on several fronts in the gun-control debate because the right to bear arms is being challenged by the fact that the United Nations is looking to fight terrorism and, to them, that involves the prohibition of gun ownership. The basis for such reform – which has been an American right since the signing of the Constitution – is that the risk of terrorism is too high. And I’m not supporting or rejecting the idea that more gun-control laws are needed; what’s more important here is the desire to make changes to long-established practices in the name of terrorism. It is such a powerful word in determining the actions of society.

It is more important now than ever to define whether the Second Amendment is as valid today as it was when the Constitution was written. Without reaffirming the commitment to protecting the right to bear arms, the United States isn’t making clear to the United Nations and everyone else what the U.S. stance is on gun ownership, and this has been fueled by the fear of terrorism. The concerns about terrorism are providing an argument to change Americans’ relationships with their firearms. While anti-terrorism laws are extremely important, and they are broadening and becoming more refined each year, they need to be carried out with a clear vision about how far politicians are willing to go when changing American culture for the sake of one word, “terrorism.”

World Response to Terrorism

The United Nations is currently looking to restrict the rights with the Arms Trade Treaty. This treaty is causing major anxiety. The U.N. Secretary-General Ban Ki-Moon has said that the treaty will be robust and legally binding and it will have an impact on millions of people who are involved in not only armed conflict and repression, but also on the transfer of arms. This is in an attempt to prevent these arms from becoming owned by terrorists. It should be noted that the U.N. is playing a major role in this decision, despite the fact that they have recently been found guilty of providing bombs and guns to the Bashar Assad regime, a terrorist group that is slaughtering thousands of Syrians. It makes absolutely no sense to allow Iran even to be a member of the U.N., let alone to make a decision on gun rules. “It’s tempting to dismiss the treaty – and the outrageous involvement of Iran – as just another U.N. absurdity,” (Cole, 2012). The reason this is such a big deal to America is that civilian arms and ammunition is included in the definition of what the U.N. seeks to get rid of. All this discussion is due to the fear of terrorism throughout the world, and this provides proof that the word has scared people into action even outside of America. One could argue that this anti-terrorism movement has been triggered by the 9/11 attacks.

Terrorism’s Interaction with Social Networking

Thomas Friedman takes a look at how the types of dangers that are initiated by the flattening of the world, or globalization. It seems that social networking has also become a facilitator of terrorism. The terrorists increase the amount of fear in the world, and prevent certain countries from joining the global market. In my opinion, terrorist threats aren’t going to slow the development of the world economy. The reason businesses are working together overseas is because they find the cooperation fiscally intelligent. These corporations are not limited to just companies, but entire governments. With such powerful forces influencing global trade, terrorists groups won’t be powerful enough to overcome their dominance. There will be more terrorist attacks, but I see them being more domestic. The Middle East isn’t a prime location to do business anyway, and with so much devastation going on there right now, I don’t see in the near future an opportunity for terrorists to facilitate an attack comparable to the devastation of 9/11. But Friedman goes further that physical attacks, he also references the Internet and its potential use among al-Qaeda. “Hell hath no fury like a terrorist with a satellite dish and an interactive website,” (T. Friedman 456). But the biggest fear he describes is nuclear terrorism. Instead of airplanes crashing into the Trade Towers, it would be airplanes dropping nuclear weapons on all of New York. He said a nuclear terrorist attack would be the ultimate way to put a dent on the flattening world. “The only reason that Osama bin Laden did not use a nuclear device on 9/11 was not that he did not have the intention, but that he did not have the capability,” (T. Friedman  437). Social networking can change the ways terrorists communicate, allowing them to join forces in a malevolent attack.

I think Friedman is right on with both the reference to terrorists propagating hate through the Internet and to the utter devastation it would cause to the global market if the terrorists had access to nuclear weapons. However, I find the reference to the Three No’s weak. These No’s include: no loose nukes, no new nascent nukes and no new nuclear states. Does this mean that it is okay for there to be current states that have nuclear weapons? I suppose according to the way these countries are governed, nuclear weapons are fine. However, when there are any nuclear weapons – in a state that is looking to attain them, or in a current state – there is the risk of there being potential attainment from of those nukes by terrorists. Furthermore, can’t the governments that currently possess the nukes be considered potential terrorists? After all, the Merriam Webster Dictionary defines terrorism as “the systematic use of terror especially as a means of coercion.” Doesn’t that about fall into the category of what happened during Hiroshima? I think so. Granted, that was in the past, and the actions of the U.S. to end the Japanese attack on the U.S. in World War II can’t really be used to describe the current state in which we live due to terrorism, though it does paint a picture about the way terrorists interacted in the world prior to 9/11, and it is proof that the terrorists at that time weren’t from the Middle East, as is so often the assertion today. For example, could the fear of terrorism instigate terrorism itself? After all, while the intentions of the U.S. during the invasion of Iraq is debatable, could it be interpreted as being its own terrorist attack? According to Webster it can. With so many countries in possession of nuclear weapons – China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom, India, Israel, Pakistan and North Korea, to name a few –aren’t these countries at risk of either being infiltrated or coerced into providing terrorists access to the weapons. I think it’s only a matter of time. This is an important point that Friedman leaves out of his statement about the “doctrine of Three No’s.”

Terrorism certainly has its way of organizing hate through the Internet, and it isn’t just Friedman’s views that can be used to represent the level of change that has occurred in society from a combination of technology and the new level of fear that is associated with terrorism since the World Trade Tower attacks. Other hateful use of terrorism is included through Facebook. It is easy to organize flash mobs online and this has played a role in harming many people who are the victims of such an attack. Facebook also provides people with a way to organize other forms of hate. The Nazi party is obviously not as prevalent as it was during World War II, but Nazi-related events have been organized, and this was facilitated by Facebook. The social networking platform really brings out the good and bad in society, and it requires a careful balance in order to make sure that hate propagation is closely monitored. Without addressing many of the issues related to hate, Facebook is in danger of being known as a facilitator of activities which are harmful to people and to society as a whole. More regulation over the use of Facebook, with harsher penalties for those who look to harm others could be needed in order for Facebook to be a truly altruistic online networking platform.

Police Battle with Technology Terrorism

Terrorism has increased the need for police to be extra vigilant, and it has changed the landscape of policing. Police officers have the responsibility of seeking updated training so that they can keep up on the capabilities of terrorists, as they become more technologically savvy. They must learn about the different types of terroristic attacks that can come their way. When there is a terroristic attack, there is usually a way that they can save the day, but knowing just how to do this is another thing.

Everyone wants to be safe.  During an emergency or when we are in danger, people run straight to the police.  They immediately come to our aid.  Police have an enormous job preventing terrorism and other crimes.  Looking at the past, present, and future of police culture reveals a massive amount of progression, from uniforms to firearms. Take a minute to think about what the police are risking?  These men and women come out of their homes and serve to the best of their abilities. They are in the line of fire, and often have families to also care for. They also have to take extra training just to be prepared for anything and everything, all for the love of their career.  The policing landscape is changing, and as new technologies are created, the force needs to do their best to not only utilize new tools that they are given, but to also stay one step ahead of criminals. The days of simply patrolling the streets and responding to calls are gone. The policing game has a whole new meaning, and it is one that requires long hours inside, on computers to ensure that technology isn’t being used for illicit intentions.

In order to be successful at dismantling terrorists and their growing capacity to organize hate through cyberspace, they must continually keep up with training. This includes their investigative skills and being able to know and understand where their enemy lines are or how to get to them before they get to them or the civilians, whether that be on the ground or in cyberspace. It is imperative that they acquire new information. It’s also important to know new information such as terroristic groups because they are greatly expanding. This effort is not individually done, it is a collaborative effort because if not then everyone is not on the same page and do not have the same knowledge which can cause a huge glitch in a serious hostage and deadly situation. Prediction and presentation is key; police have to know when and what will happen; signs are very important. Terrorist attacks have the most devastating effects on the United States and the world, so to prevent it from happening on cyberspace, could save many people’s lives.

Perhaps more important now than ever in the police’s efforts is “The Blue Wall of Silence” is something that the police have collectively. There is a lot more information that the officers now know and knowing all that these officers know and study it is important to keep everything confidential. Everything must stay “in-house.” Much of the information that they know is the government’s property and there can be serious consequences. The information that these officers are given concerning these terrorist tactics is to only protect and be properly prepared. The LAPD Counter-Terrorism Bureau’s mission has four goals:

• Prevent terrorism by effectively sharing information aimed at disrupting terrorists’ operational capability and addressing the underlying causes associated with the motivational component;
• Protect the public and critical infrastructure by leveraging private-sector resources and hardening targets;
• Pursue terrorists and the criminal enterprises that support them;
• Prepare the citizenry and the city government for consequences associated with terrorist operations against the city.

The Word’s Use

LZ Granderson spoke about how some people are treating the word “terrorism” as a benchmark to evil. And this may be a proper use, but they are using it in a negative way to describe other cultural things. People are using the word “terrorism” is every which way imaginable. In responding to people who discuss the “gay agenda” he makes them seem foolish to think that gay people are evil. These critics also adhere to heterosexism when they assume their lifestyle is superior to a gay lifestyle, (Granderson, 2012). He cites one homophobe politician who said gay people are a bigger danger to society than terrorism. This comment’s relationship to terrorism is revealed in the way that Granderson approaches it while walking the public through the daily routine of a gay person. Essentially, Granderson discusses the ways in which a gay person leads their life, which is the same as the way in which nearly every other person lives theirs.

Terrorism’s Effects on American Politics: In the News

The article “Why is Mexico drug war being ignored?” takes a look at the presidential debates very closely to see how they play out in relation to public opinion polls. This article communicates the threats in the Middle East. The drug cartel in Mexico is also a prime concern for the presidency as they debated about the threat of terrorism against the U.S. And, because terrorism is a top priority, and it is on the minds of many American citizens, the Middle East should be discussed, in addition to what was being talked about relating to the drug war in Mexico. The level of concern in our nation is represented by the amount of discussion that is taking place with the presidential elections. The word “terrorism” has certainly taken control on many fronts of American society.

In Declan Walsh’s article, ’Malala Moment’ May Have Passed in Pakistan, as Rage Over a Shooting Ebbs,” she talks about the involvement of terrorism in the Middle East. This article is interesting because it is a major media outlet that has said the shooting of the girl could be American propaganda. I believe that much of the information that is released about the Middle East is censored, so I was relieved to see that it appears the New York Times isn’t censoring the news. The issues in the Middle East affect America greatly, because that is where a lot of the terrorist threats are from. The large role of terrorism has played such a role in the outcomes throughout the world, and with the interactions of each country. But we must be careful about how we operate overseas, and we need to work together with leaders in foreign countries so that we are not invading their territory, but working together. However, the shooting of the girl could be a wakeup call for these nations to join together and fight their own war against terrorism, and this appears to be the case in the efforts with the United Nations and gun control.

In “How to Help Iran Build a Bomb,” William Broad talks about the concern there is that there is much potential, particularly in Iran, for the development of an atom bomb, which could be used against the United States. This sentiment is an indication of how the rest of the world feels about the issue. Nuclear terrorism is a serious threat that puts all westernized countries, particularly America, at risk of a massive terrorist attack. Many people believe this with great conviction, and they haven’t learned as much about the Middle East as would be expected with such a viewpoint. However, the world “terrorism” has given such a high level of concern everywhere, as it is instantly linked to fear. Many have learned about the war on terrorism, which includes keeping nuclear weapons out of terrorist hands. This article is undecided about whether America should attack these facilities, as it doesn’t portray know what Iran is capable of as retaliation. Many believe that something should be done to end the civil war in Iran, and the threat that the country poses on the rest of the world. America has played a role in allowing Iran to gain so much military strength – as the United States had sold the country weapons for many years – and now it is time to deal with that mistake and the gradual view of the word “terrorism” is bringing the problem to light.

Works Cited

Carpenter, T. (2012, Oct. 30). Why is Mexico drug war being ignored? CNN. Retrieved from
http://globalpublicsquare.blogs.cnn.com/2012/10/30/why-is-mexico-drug-war-being-ignored/

Cole, T. (2012, July 16). U.N. Arms Treaty Puts U.S. Gun Rights in Jeopardy. United States
Congressman. Retrieved from http://cole.house.gov/un-arms-treaty-puts-us-gun-rights-jeopardy

Downing, M. (2009, Feb.). Policing terrorism in the United States: The Los Angeles police
department’s convergence strategy. Retrieved from http://www.policechiefmagazine.org/magazine/index.cfm?fuseaction=display_arch&article_id=1729&issue_id=22009

Friedman, T. (2005). The World is Flat. New York. Farrar, Straus and Giroux
Granderson, LZ. (2012). The Myth of the Gay Agenda. TED. Retrieved from
http://www.ted.com/talks/lz_granderson_the_myth_of_the_gay_agenda.html

Walsh, D. (2012, Oct. 19). ‘Malala Moment’ may have passed in Pakistan, as rage over a
shooting ebbs. The New York Times. Retrieved from

TELEOLOGY AND DEONTOLOGY: AN ANALYSIS

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Aristotle created the argument for the theory that is called teleology, and he looked at it through many of his works.

He describes the “highest good” that can be applied to all things, especially to natural objects including living and non-living. This was shown in his book on ethics, which is title “Nicomachean Ethics.” He also talks about the highest good, with is the final cause or end that happens in everything. This final cause is the last of four causes that are part of his theory. These four causes are discussed in his work “Physics.” He determines that the end goal of everything is to answer the questions about what the thing is for. When something has come to that end, it has reached its goal. Aristotle wasn’t complete in his analysis of teleology, and it is possible that he reached a dead end in its analysis. Others, however, see it as being complete. Deontology will also be discussed in this essay. It discusses the idea that some choices can’t be justified by the effects that they have, (Alexander, 2012). Each of these theories will be described, before directly comparing them. Teleology takes a more logical approach to the existence of God, while Anselm becomes too passionate in the religious ties of God that he fails to create a logical argument for God’s existence.

Teleology is the idea of the final causes of existence that is in everything, and this is especially true when talking about natural things that are either inanimate or living. When discussing ancient teleology, the good, as Aristotle states, is the end that all things aim to be. “It has been established that according to Aristotle all things have an end or goal whatever that may be, and he defined that end as the good; however, the term good here is relative because everything is not going to have the same ultimate end,” (Pennington, 2011). That statement is one of the reasons why teleology is not considered a philosophical dead end by many people. Even though the object that Aristotle is talking about comes to an end of existence, there is no reason to not also look at the philosophical theory based on the fact that there is the end of existence for the subject that is being discussed. But it does leave others wondering why there is this purpose in all things, and why that purpose is over when the object comes to an end.

When discussed in the medieval sense of the word, teleology discusses that the goal of everything is determined by God. This explanation was vastly criticized by early philosophers and modern science. It was during this time where the theory was mostly applied to organic things, whereas inanimate objects were considered in ancient theories to be included in the definition of teleology, (Bunnin, 2004). Another category of teleology is utilitarianism, which centers around the idea of doing whatever action results in the largest amount of happiness for the greatest number of people. Utilitarianism falls into the category of teleology because it looks at what has happened or will happen following an action, (Teleological Ethics).
Deontological theories are based on duty. The morality that is involved with these theories is based on fulfilling obligations or duties. These duties require people to do or not do acts in the mission to uphold the law or rule. This rule is determined independent from the result, (White). This is in contrast to teleology, particularly the association that it has with utilitarianism. In utilitarianism, a person doesn’t need to regard a rule that should blindly be applied in all situations. Instead, it is necessary to make a decision based on the idea of whether the outcome of that decision will result in the greatest good for the greatest number of people. For example, in deontology, lying would be considered wrong. But when taken on a case by case basis, teleology would consider lying to be good if it is of benefit to society as a whole. This can be taken further to say the degree of the lie is determines which lie to tell. For example, if a person says that tells a lie to say that there is no comet ready to impact the earth (but there truly is), or say that there is a comet, but it won’t kill everyone, (but it will), then what will cause the least amount of suffering will be considered the right lie to tell. Lying to the people by saying that there is no comet coming to destroy humanity would limit the fear that would be caused by saying a comet is coming and everyone should move to the eastern hemisphere, for example.

Many philosophers believe that deontology doesn’t allow for the nuances that happen in life. The theory lays down a blind rule and there is no consideration for the good that could come out of breaking that rule. “The rightness or wrongness of a moral rule is determined independent of its consequences or how happiness or pleasure is distributed as a result of abiding by that rule, or not abiding by it,” (White). This is perhaps most explicitly explained with the reference to natural law theory of deontological tradition. The theory comes not only from a command from God, but also in what have been deemed the “facts” of human nature. In applying these “facts,” it is assumed that moral goodness is found by applying the so-called natural facts. The natural laws that deontology is based on the command of God, though it has also been created from the secular humanism in the western application of the theory. Evolutionary biology has also played a role in its application. That Kantian theory, as it relates to deontology, is in line with the western philosophy deontological ethical theory. This is based largely on Immanuel Kant’s theories. Specifically, it comes from his work “Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals.” Kant’s form is the more secular version and it is more accepted than the theory that is related to God.

In his work, Kant argues that morality isn’t just possible where there is a community of people who have the attributes that are natural, such as free will and rationality. Based on this knowledge, a person can’t be held accountable for their actions unless they are aware of what they are doing is right or wrong. If there is no understanding of right and wrong then they are free from the application of the theory. Kant is skeptical about whether people actually do function in a rational way and whether they actually do have free will, (White). When relating this to teleology, the theory would assume that people don’t have free will, because they have a function on the Earth and they are in existence until that function is met. Once a person is dead, they have fulfilled the role that they have been put on the planet to play. Deontology in Kant’s application, has left out whether there is free will. This makes applying morality difficult, and makes the practise of creating rules about morality, lacking meaning. As Kant put it, morality is not a possibility without having rationality and free will.

In conclusion, both teleological and deontological theories are types of moral theory. They usually have different ideas about morality, and often they are conflicting in their answers to the basic questions of morality. The main ingredient that separates these two theories is the idea of rules. Teleology doesn’t have a system of absolute rules to follow, but deontology does, and this makes these two theories very different from each other. The judgement of whether something is right or whether it is wrong is based on the behavior or the result of the behavior. In teleology, the result of the behavior is used to judge whether something is good or bad, and in deontology, the behavior itself is used to gauge whether something is good or bad. There are also different divisions of each of these theories and this is usually centered around them being tied to God and being secular.

Works Cited

Alexander, L. (2012). Deontological Ethics. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved from
http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/ethics-deontological/

Bunnin, N. (2004). The Blackwell Disctionary of Western Philosophy. Blackwell Reference
Online. Retrieved from
http://www.blackwellreference.com/public/tocnode?id=g9781405106795_chunk_g978140510679521_ss1-11

Pennington. J. (2011). Is Teleology a Philosophical Dead-End? Rollins College. Retrieved from
http://scholarship.rollins.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1022&context=rurj

“Teleological Theories of Mental Content.” (2004, Jun 18). Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 
Retrieved from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/content-teleological/

“Teleological Ethics.” (N.D.). Sevenoaks School. Retrieved from
http://www.sevenoaksphilosophy.org/ethics/teleology.html

A MORAL ANALYSIS OF THE DEPARTED

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           The Departed is a film that has as its centerpiece several characters who are straddling the line when it comes to morality.

The film isn’t only interesting in the action that it presents to the audience, but also with the subplot that would leave the likes of Immanuel Kant and Jeremy Bentham in deep contemplation. The actions of the people in the film who are involved in crime include many of the resolute cops, and mob bosses. The film doesn’t necessarily focus on who is in the right and who is wrong, as the film seems to be more concerned with the inevitable climax of the meeting of the good guy, who is with the cops, and the bad guy, who is with the mob. The cop is being hunted by the member of the mob. There isn’t much moral high ground taken in The Departed, as there is the simple struggle for staying alive and the fight between good and evil. The ultimate question asked in the film, which is relayed by mob boss Jack Nicholson, is that when a person is confronted with a loaded gun, who cares who is right and who is wrong?
In the original to the movie, the bad guy finally sees in the end that he has been in the wrong all these years. But The Departed offers no such remorse at the end. This provides ambiguity to the ethics that are posed in the movie. There is no deeper question of why the people in the film are good or bad. It is just taking a look at the conflict that is faced between the mob and the cops. Whether the mob is justified to act in the way it does is left for the viewer to decide. Director Martin Scorsese allows the results of the actions of each party to speak for themselves. This is perhaps most expressed through the struggle of Leonardo DiCaprio’s character who is challenged with his undercover cop duty, as a mole in the mob. He is battling with the fact that he is confronted with the evil of the mob members on a daily basis, causing him to need counseling, (Kanchibhotia).

The struggle that DiCaprio’s character is facing is at the center of the film. He is constantly surrounded by the behaviors of the mob that he is starting to think like them. This struggle between what is right and what is wrong is something that is tearing DiCaprio’s character apart. He is struggling to resist the transformation of becoming like the mobsters that he is with on a daily basis. For example, he is put into a moral crises when he has to witness one of the mob members kill a man. DiCaprio’s character is unable to make an arrest or to do anything to help the man, because he is undercover, (Pigeon, 2007).
Also central to the movie, are the challenges faced by each character in making decisions that are against their character. Nearly all the characters make moral compromises and it leaves the viewer seeing that the world isn’t as black and white as people would like to believe. There isn’t a lot separating the behaviors of the police and of gangsters. This film takes a close look at the choices each of the characters makes, and the impulses that have them make those choices. It shows that people are really a product of what they grew up in and it is challenging for anyone to break through those barriers to make their own moral decisions. A person’s values are often dictating by forces outside of their power.

Ultimately, the film shows that corruption can rule all, and both good and evil are subject to corruption in this thin line between good and bad. People will do what they need to in order to survive, and they are often willing to throw out what they truly believe in for the sake of survival. The line between good and evil is one that has to be straddled with the consideration of preserving oneself. The film depicts that the line is thinned further when people become immersed in a culture that desensitises them to behaviors that are unethical in nature.

Works Cited

Kanchibohitia, S. (N.D.). Some Ramblings – The Departed. IdleBrain.com. Retrieved from
http://www.idlebrain.com/research/ramblings/ramblings-thedeparted.html

Pigeon, T. (2007, March 14). Revisiting The Departed. The Cinematic Art. Retrieved from
http://www.thecinematicart.com/2007

THE CLIMATE CHANGE PROBLEM

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Global warming is rapidly becoming the number one threat to the long-term survival of Earth’s ecosystem, including one of the most interconnected and biologically diverse marine community: coral reefs (Thomas et al. 2004).


Coral colonies have existed for over 450 million years, allowing them to possibly be the oldest ecosystems on Earth by a considerable margin. They are also among the most protective and resourceful to both humans and the oceans; the reefs deliver ecosystem services for shoreline protection, as well as economic benefits to humans, including tourism, fisheries, and other useful resources (Wells and Hanna 6). While coral reefs are one of the most productive and naturally diverse marine ecosystems, they are also one of the most ecologically sensitive to global climatic change (Sammon 18). As a result, the rescue of the dying reefs is an urgent matter for all people. Moreover, coral reef conservation is a fundamental solution to helping slow down climate change by raising awareness about the problem, and sustaining coral management.

“Coral reefs are on track to become the first ecosystem actually eliminated from the planet,” leading ecologist Peter F. Sale says. In his book, he states global climate change is resulting in dying reefs and in natural occurrences like hurricanes and storms, which can directly devastate the reef structure when they are struck (51). The greenhouse effect and global warming are leading factor in some of the most striking destruction to the coral system (Springer 95).  For instance, the El Niño incident in 1982-83 caused the most intensive bleaching in the Pacific Ocean (Wells and Hanna 54).  Increase in sea temperatures from global warming have already increased major coral bleaching incidents. Warm water is also expected to increase the incidence of other coral disease such as black and white band disease, white plague, and white pox (Murphy 74-77). Although reefs are extraordinarily resilient, there are many other factors on reefs that could slow down, or even cease, their recovery (Wells and Hanna 55). Other events that may have a great impact on reefs are: ocean acidification, increase in water temperature, and sea level. “Mean sea level across the planet has risen by almost 17cm over the past 100 years and is currently rising at 1-2 mm a year” (Springer 103). Rising temperatures and sea level are not only making the water too hot or too cold for corals to endure, the changes in sea levels also impact reefs by making them more difficult to receive adequate sunlight (Springer 102-103). Human activities such as coral mining, pollution, agricultural and urban runoff, overfishing, desertification, deforestation, use of fossil fuels, population growth and over exploitation are also threats to the coral environment (Sale 3). Threats for corals means threats for the entire ecosystem, since all marine animals are. Generally, reefs of the world are in great danger and humans should take part in minimizing the existent impacts and conserving their ecological resilience in order to allow them to survive the challenges of the future.

“[Sale has] described [the environment problem] as an elephant that [humans] try not to see, a huge and growing elephant with many different parts” (276). The author utilizes this “metaphorical elephant” (276) as an example of the occurring disturbances: coral reef bleaching, climate change, overfishing, etc.  Although there are numerous potential solutions to our existing disastrous events, humans must first come to an understanding of the true concern. Sale answers these objections with the following analysis: “[t]o solve our problem we are going to deal with the whole elephant, because the seemingly separate parts are interconnected and affect one another” (276). Sale believes most ecological concerns are delivered to the general public as each separate matter, yet indeed a problem is consistently connected to another. The persistent tropical storms, as a result of global warming and climate change, threaten the health and survival of the reef until it loses its resilience, and consequently fails to sustain its ecosystem due to the loss of species. Sale suggests the first and most challenging, but essential, step of solving the problem is to recognize that this ecological problem is real and people need to be aware (283). It is important for people to see themselves as part of the ecosystem and as part of the solution. To raise awareness about climate change is the preliminary step of rescuing the dying reefs, and it is an important component of climate change to communicate to the masses.

In addition to the acknowledgment of the problem, diminishing the use of fossil fuels is critical for reef conservation. A depressing catastrophe happened on April 20, 2010: “a semisubmersible oil-drilling platform exploded and burned furiously until April 22, when it finally sank beneath the waves, leaving broken pipes spilling crude oil at the bottom of the ocean.” As a result, “the spill has covered more than 10,000 square km of the gulf of Mexico” (Sale 237-238). The tragedy has traumatized countless ecological diversity of both marine and wild life around the spill, and it has also added enormous amount of stress globally. According to Sale, the probability of related disastrous spills in the future are only rising, because a lot of our residual oil reserves are in hard to reach land deep underwater (238). Since the process of retrieving the supply of fossil fuels is extremely risky and difficult, human should reduce the use of this non-renewable resource and find alternative ways to make electricity (Sale 237-239). In spite of current economic conviction, our planet does not have infinite resources. Thus, in order to maintain the enjoyment of life for the future, we must take action, such as reducing the use of fossil fuels.

As well as limiting the use of a certain resources, there are other management plans that focus on other social influences, such as poor water quality. This may help minimize the shorter-term impacts and increasing the resilience of reef ecosystems (Hughes et al. 2003). Organizations will need to improve water quality by reducing water pollution like ocean dumpling. In particular, management options include local restrictions on ocean dredging and large boat traffic, as well as appropriate modifications of regulations relating to tourism (Hughes et al. 2003). Moreover, managing of the coral must be expanded to include concerns like ocean acidification, calcification rates, water temperatures, and coral bleaching rates if organizations expect to be able to effectively conserve these reefs as the climate warms (Hughes et al. 2003). Research is needed to develop new methods of restoring damaged or destroyed coral reefs due to water pollution. Given the options for the control of coral reefs, maintaining healthy oceanic management plans may provide a certain amount of resilience to climate change. Evaluation is critical for sustainable management of coral reefs in future.

In conclusion, much more research is necessary before one can anticipate all the consequences of climate change on coral reefs and develop more effective plans to give rise to reef resiliency and lower the loss of biodiversity (Wells and Hanna 55). If the first step can reduce the rate of climate change, and meanwhile avoid permanent damage to the coral reef kingdom, there is at least a slight chance for positive change (Munday el al. 279). Unhealthy reefs may imply an unhealthy earth, and humans cannot allow more threats to the sole place we have to reside (Murphy 18).

Works Cited

Hughes et al. “Climate change, human impacts and the resilience of coral reefs.” Science 301(2003): 929-933. Google Scholar. Web. November 14, 2013.

Murphy, Richard C. Coral Reefs: Cities Under the Sea. Princeton: The Darwin Press, 2002. Print.

Sale, Peter F. Our Dying Planet: An Ecologist’s View of the Crisis We Face. Berkeley: California UP, 2011. Print.

Sammon, Rick. Secrets of the Coral Reefs: Exploring the Underwater Wonders. Ed. Jane Billinghurst. Stillwater: Voyageur Press, 1995. Print.

Springer. The Great Barrier Reef: Biology, Environment, and Management. Ed. Pat Hutchings, Mike Kingsford, and Ove Hoegh-Guldberg. Australia: CSIRO, 2009. Print.

Thomas et al. “Extinction Risk From Climate Change.” Nature International weekly journal of science (2004): n. pag. Google Scholar. Web. November 13, 2013.

Walter and Jean Deas. Coral Reefs: Nature’s Wonders. Australia: Western Australian Museum, 2005. Print.

Wells and Nick Hanna. The Greenpeace Book of Coral Reefs. Ed. Jill Hollis. New York: Sterling Publishing Company, 1992. Print.