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WAL-MART CASE STUDY

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Business Research Methods


The primary issues facing Wal-Mart relate to its relationship with the public. The company is so massive that it has a profound effect on the nation’s economy and the quality of life of those in communities where Wal-Mart operates, whether it is businesses or the people (Hayden, 2002). This puts it at the center of criticism, and the company is consistently ridiculed. The public relations efforts were not there from the start, but the firm sought to address the public perception of it being an irresponsible company. An increase in environmental awareness and the ability to organize lobby groups through mediums such as the Internet, has increased the power of those who oppose Wal-Mart (Hayden, 2002). This is an evolution that Wal-Mart wasn’t prepared for. The practices that Wal-Mart had would have likely been relatively undetected until the 1990s, but social media has increased its exposure to the public and has increased the power of lobby groups (Hayden, 2002). Small businesses were opposed to Wal-Mart, and so too were the unions, NIMBY groups and organizations aligned with the unions. The Service Employees International Union pledges $1 million to fund a campaign against Wal-Mart. Six unions also funded a $25-million campaign against Wal-Mart (Hayden, 2002).

Since the outbursts against the major corporation, Wal-Mart has made changes to its practices. The company now completes economic impact studies, and it has to have a close eye on its environmental footprint (Hayden, 2002). It also changed its lunch break policy, as well as the practice of hiring illegal labor. This has kept negative press about Wal-Mart largely out of the news, and the company has been viewed as helping Americans support themselves and find work during the recession. Efforts at Hurricane Katrina, where the company donated millions in relief, also appear to have helped the perception.

Works Cited

Hayden, P., et. al. (2002). Wal-Mart: staying on top of the fortune 500 a case study on     Wal-Mart Stores Inc. Corporate Strategy and Public Affairs Lecture. Retrieved     from http://allman.rhon.itam.mx/~oromero/Wal_Mart_CaseStudy.pdf

THE GREAT RECESSION – A GLOBAL EFFECT

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Summary

The Great Recession had a major impact on the profitability of nearly every company in the world.

This major event caused firms to tighten up on their spending, and find ways to ensure they are diversified enough to weather future financial storms. The old ways of doing business were tossed aside by the companies run by savvy management, and new ideas and innovation took the spot of traditional models of conducting business (Innovation, n..d.). Now, firms are realigning priorities, and figuring out how they will be able to overcome the challenges that were brought on by the global recession. The recession brought on a new economic climate for most firms; this has resulted in the necessity for companies to do away with bounded rationality, and focus more on creative destruction – a term used to describe the necessity for innovation – as a means to propel profits in the years ahead.

Summary of Problems and Recommended Solutions

Companies are currently attempting to tackle the problems that were brought on by the Great Recession. However, they often fail at making strong business decisions because they are confined by bounded rationality. The economic crises has drastically changed the playing field, and this makes it vitally important for firms to effectively overcome their bounded, past ways of doing business. Instead of continuing to develop operating strategies based on past practices, it is important for firms to realize that the Great Recession has caused times to change (Cahyat, 2013). This is particularly the case now when so many companies are not able to deal with the new economic climate, and are just struggling for survival. Many companies have a false sense of security, and this makes them extremely inept at tackling business operations in the new climate. The economic climate is at a very precarious state and the companies need to recognize that what worked for them five or six years ago is not going to work today. Every market has been affected by the recession and this has taken a stranglehold on companies that feel they can continue to do what they have been doing for many years (Cahyat, 2013). It is a trap that will result in many firms not performing well.

These companies need to have a serious overhaul in staffing, bringing in new and fresh ideas by people who have not developed what are now bad habits. The new habits should be taught in business schools so that a new crop of young and bright professionals can be hired into these companies so that they are able to meet the demands that have arisen due to the performance of the economy in the past several years (Guiltinan, 2008). However, the decisions that many of these companies are now making are not entirely irrational, it is just that they do not make a lot of sense since the Great Recession. Companies need to adjust to the demands of the market, like General Electric and so many other companies have changed the way they do business, and this includes the market in which the business is being conducted. Companies often have the emotional evolution of humans: At first, we are very enthusiastic about what we are doing, and then we become more rational and refined in the way we are conducting our business and then we are perhaps too stuck in the way that we are doing things that there is little room to learn new tricks, (Foster, 2001).

Why This is Happening

Companies assume that there will be continuity between the way they did business in the past and the way they are doing business now. But this is not the case. There are so many factors that change the climate in which companies operate. These can be political, technological or strictly economical, for example. The stock markets perform better than most companies (Guiltinan, 2008). Even the great majority of companies on Forbes’ Top 100 do not perform better than the market. This is because there are so many companies coming onto the stock market that are new and are products of the times. These companies are innovative and they know what to do when it comes to performing to what the market demands of them. As old companies fall out of indexes such as the S&P 500, new companies come on board to take their place and these new companies are performing according to the demand of their times (Constantinos, 2012). Many of these new companies are welcomed to these Indexes because they are strong for the current economic times, and at the same those that are suffering are pulled off of the stock market. This is the reason why the market indexes are doing better than so many companies out there. The indexes are like a stream that is always flowing, picking up new sediments as it goes along and dropping off old ones that get stuck in practicing business according to previous times (Constantinos, 2012). Also, companies that are doing well that come onto the indexes see what the older companies are doing wrong and they find ways to do better than them and, in effect, they end up taking their place. “Joseph Alois Schumpeter, the great Austrian-American economist of the 1930s and ‘40s, called this process of creation and removal ‘the gales of creative destruction,’” (Foster, 2001). This process is known to many of these companies, but they are simply unable to dedicate the staff needed to analyze this phenomenon’s impact on the particular business. They need to have a way to manage creative destruction, which is when a company stops doing what was once effective and creates a new way of doing things that would make the company competitive in the current market climate. Without doing this, the company stands the risk of failing and being kicked off of the stock market. But even worse than being kicked off of the stock market is failing to earn any profits. Currently, there is so much happening in the market that allows a company to become more efficient at what it does. This is leading companies that are ahead of the curve in technology to take the place of other firms (Constantinos, 2012).

While some people may believe that these new market conditions are a product of the technology, they have in fact been developing for a while, (Foster, 2001). Trends have developed over the past several decades and they are just now starting to explode, and this discontinuity, coupled with the Great Recession, is changing the climate for everyone. The changing times throughout the history of corporate America and the Standard and Poors index, there have been various ups and downs in the market, but the general trend is that the average lifespan of companies on the index is dropping. Right now, the average lifespan is about 20 years, but in the 1920s, the average span was 65 years. This discontinuity means that companies need to adjust to survive.

Many of the companies that have ceased to be listed on the S&P 500, however, have actually been bought out. Technology and the global economy are creating a climate where it is getting easier to merge. So many of these new and bright companies are attractive to many of the larger business that are trying to stay ahead of the times. For example, right now there is the rumoured acquisition of 3D Systems Inc., by Apple Inc. 3D Systems is considered perhaps the largest company in a newly developing sector, and that is of 3D printing. Apple does not have a clue right now about 3D printing, but because the company’s management is smart, they want a piece of the 3D printing market (Rotheli, 2012). Many people are sceptic about 3D printing, but whether this type of printing will become an international phenomenon is of no bearing here. The point is that Apple, even though it is one of the strongest companies in America, is focusing on markets that are new. 3D printers can scan objects and load the information into the computer system and then print out the object. Companies are working on printing human organs by using bowel cells from the human body. But the area that has already been mastered, is 3D printing of objects such as cellphone covers. The 3D printers are capable of scanning an object such as a metal wrench, loading that object into the printer’s computer and then printing out a functional wrench (Rotheli, 2012). The wrench is not metal, but it is made of a strong material and it can adjust as well, because the object was scanned into the computer. It is technology like this that represents a changing of the times, and this will keep companies such as Apple listed on the stock market, and it will keep them profitable. Apple realizes that the Great Recession has tested companies, many times to the breaking point, and now is the time to ensure that these firms are staying relevant by offering a range of products relevant to today’s market. The importance of diversify product offerings is becoming more important as the economy becomes increasingly globalize (Innovation, n.d.).

Possible Solutions/Conclusion

Diversification is the solution, due to the fact that the market is changing all the time – such as what has been seen with the Great Recession. Keeping customers interested in the firm is the most important factor for companies looking to profit. This is why it is imperative for these companies to diversify, such as what was revealed with Apple. Also, it should be noted that during certain periods, specific companies are better able to handle the market fluctuations. Companies should explore various areas in a diverse marketplace within its general field that can help to create a company that is more able to adjust with the times. This company would profit from a sector that is booming, at the same time as it is suffering in a sector that is busting. These profits would generally balance out and some company will be lucky enough to dominate in both, or all, the sectors in which it participates (Rotheli, 2010).  The best solution for a company is to diversify. This is what many companies have been doing, but investment needs to be put into sectors completely different from the one in which the company is mainly operating. This will require larger capital and many companies would not be able to do it. However, all companies would be able to dedicate at least some of their money into investments. If a company cannot create a sector that is focused on 3D printing, for example, then it can at least buy shares of a company that does.

Works Cited

Cahyat, A. (2013). Role of state on global financial crisis mitigation. Academia.edu.         Retrieved from             http://www.academia.edu/249702/Role_of_State_on_Global_Financial_Crisis_M          itigation

Constantinos, C. (2012). Bounded rationality: monetary and fiscal policy stances & the national debt (balanced budget) discourse. Addis Ababa University. Retrieved             from    http://www.academia.edu/1476529/Bounded_Rationality_Monetary_and_Fiscal            _Policy_Stances_and_the_National_Debt_Balanced_Budget_Discourse

Foster, R.N., and Kaplan, S. (2001) Creative Destruction. The McKinsey Quarterly.     Retrieved from https://mail-            attachment.googleusercontent.com/attachment/u/0/?ui=2&ik=fa602a0a7c&vie            w=att&th=139fc201b5de2064&attid=0.1&disp=inline&realattid=f_h7imn5po0&s   afe=1&zw&saduie=AG9B_P8ld2B8uB3FKwSDOA-            xLEXv&sadet=1349037274235&sads=88bggXSrwNPqcbB1dsimC8vYGqM&sadssc       =1

“Innovation.” (n.d.). University of Texas. Retrieved from             http://www.laits.utexas.edu/~anorman/61N/Text/DII/DII.paper/BDInnovation.ht           ml

Rotheli, T.F. (2010). Causes of the financial crisis: Risk misperception, policy mistakes,            and banks’ bounded rationality. The Journal of Socio-Economics. Retrieved from            http://www.urbinoelaprospettiva.uniurb.it/materiale/5929_financialcrisis2010.p          df

THE GREAT RECESSION – A GLOBAL EFFECT

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Companies such as Wal-Mart and Costco have faced a consistent amount of criticism over the years due to the massive impact they have on the communities around them. As a result, much backlash from the communities in which these companies operate has boiled over, due to the low prices that have caused smaller stores to lose a considerable amount of business. Over the past decade or so, social media has improved the general public’s ability to relay concerns about corporations, and this has caused companies such as Wal-Mart and Costco to improve their social corporate responsibility by changing their marketing strategies. Their marketing strategies, which need to become progressively more socially and environmentally responsible, are changing. Social media has fought back against these firms and have created an environment where they need to think of their impact on the community around them.

Wal-Mart and Costco have similar responsibilities. They are so large that they control massive interests in the American economy. That much control is dangerous for democracy. For example, if the company decided to end operations, hundreds of thousands of people would be out of work, not because of the decisions of elected officials, but because of corporate heads. This has caused greater government scrutiny over what these megastores can do, and they have adapted, and this scrutiny has raised eyebrows. For example, in many states, Wal-Mart is responsible for conducting environmental impact studies (Team, 2011). While this appeases “big brother,” it also improves the company’s marketing strategy, even if inadvertently. Following are some of the specific marketing examples that have come out of the massive amount of attention these companies have received.

Wal-Mart Wal-Mart has made changes to its practices. The company faced scrutiny over its lunch break policy, as well as the practice of hiring illegal labor. This has kept negative press about Wal-Mart largely out of the news, and the company has been viewed as helping Americans support themselves and find work during the recession. Efforts donating money to the victims of Hurricane Katrina also appear to have helped, (Laird, 2013).

These stores are also facing competition from the Internet, which is changing their marketing strategy. For example, Costco is only selling a limited number of items. Even though Costco has a considerable amount of space, it sells a limited amount of its product in order to encourage people to buy the product, due to the fact they could be concerned they won’t be able to get it in the future, (Lutz, 2013).

Costco also ensures that it is selling in bulk. This marketing strategy helps Costco ensure that it is keeping its costs low. Furthermore, the company has people pay for membership. With people paying in order to shop at the store, Costco markets its brand to be for a select membership, which not only encourages people to shop there, but also increases revenue from membership sales. Furthermore, this creates brand loyalty, as customers will want to use the membership for which they paid to continue to shop, (Lutz, 2013).

Wal-Mart is responding to online competition by rolling out e-commerce. The company aims to attain $9 billion in online sales by 2014. The company plans to increase marketing, while featuring various commercials on layaway, and ad-matching guarantees. The company also participates in price comparison against its rivals on some goods.

The company is also using Facebook and various other social media sites in order to help drive up sales. This includes allowing 22 million Facebook fans to vote on the toys that they would like to see the “rollbacks,” on. These are temporary discounts that Wal-Mart doles out, (Cheng, 2012).

Works Cited

Cheng, A. (2012). Wal-Mart Outlines Strategy. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved from
http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB10000872396390443749204578048842451207454

Lutz, A. (2013). Costco’s Unorthodox Strategy to Survive the Big Box Apocalypse. Business 
            Insider. Retrieved from
http://www.businessinsider.com/costcos-unorthodox-business-strategy-2013-3?op=1

Team, T. (2011). Discount Strategy Delivers for Costco. Forbes. Retrieved from
http://www.forbes.com/sites/greatspeculations/2011/01/13/discount-strategy-delivers-for-                 costco/

VIOLENT VIDEO GAMES EFFECT ON CHILDREN

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Introduction:

This study examines the extent to which male children who play video-games become violent to others.

The popularity of video-games that are specific to the military is causing a considerable amount of violence among children, and so this study will focus on military games as the trigger for this behaviour. This is appropriate because it is hypothesized that video-games can have a similar effect on young people as men participating in the military. The military, like video games, can cause people to lose their identity, including control of their environment (Gentile and Anderson, 2006). Additionally, those in the military must wear uniforms, obey orders, adhere to high ethical standards and undergo regular inspections. This type of structure can also be found in video-games, because gameplay adheres to a set standards of play.

Also, like video-games, adjustment disorder is common during military training and can lead to negative consequences (Gentile and Anderson, 2006). Adjustment disorder is a type of mental disorder resulting from maladaptive, or unhealthy, responses to psychologically straining situations, which is another common characteristic between video-games and the military, (Gentile & Anderson, 2006). Coping strategies largely influence positive or negative adjustment. Coping refers to “cognitive and behavioural efforts to master, reduce, or tolerate the internal and/or external demands that are created by a stressful environment” (Gentile and Anderson, 2006).

Hypothesis:

1) Video-games have a negative effect on children, to the point where they are more violent.
2) Video-games have many of the same effects that being in the military has on male adults.
3) Increased violent behaviour is inherent in both the military and playing video-games.

Method Section:

1. Participants: 

a) Number of Participants:  200 video-game users (children) and 200 ex-military members.
b) Recruitment: i) A bilingual invitation email will be sent to video-game users, who will be recruited through Survey Monkey, to complete a voluntary and anonymous online survey. ii)  Bilingual posters, including a link to the survey and a QR code, will be displayed at arcades.
c) Incentives:  A self-generated alphanumeric code will be used to link respondents’ data for a chance to win one of five $50 gift cards from Tim Horton’s. The self-generated alphanumeric code will include: first letter of your favourite colour; first letter of your month of birth; first digit of the day of the month you were born; the initials of your most admired historical figure; and first letter of the place you spent your last vacation.
d) Consent Procedure: i) Online participants will read an informed consent form in which the benefits and risks of participating in the study will be explained. Instructions on the consent form will read: By clicking the radio button for “Accept” indicates my consent. On the other hand, by clicking the radio button for “Don’t Accept” indicates my refusal to participate. ii) The children will require parental consent.
e) Debriefing Procedure: i) Upon immediate completion of the survey, participants will be debriefed online. They will be referred to a military counseling and mental health center in case they experience any kind of distress while participating in the study.

2. Measurements:

a) Demographic Information: Gender, Age, Year of Study, Average Hours Playing Video Games Per Day and Plan (Regular Military Officer Training Plan, Reserve Entry Training Plan, University Training Plan Non-Commissioned Members)
b) The questionnaire will contain the following measures: The Personal Functioning Inventory (Hellman, 2005); a modified version of the Inventory of Video Game Users and Ex-military Members’ Recent Life Experiences (Mingers, 2003); the List of Threatening Experiences (Mingers, 2003); a modified version of the Soldier Adaptation to Army Questionnaire (Mingers, 2003).

The Personal Functioning Inventory (PFI).

The Personal Functioning Inventory (PFI) developed by Sahu (2013) is a validated and reliable measure of adaptive coping.  Adaptiveness constitutes coping consistently to reduce stress, or, at worst, not aggravate it. Adaptiveness requires a combination of judgement to distinguish controllable from uncontrollable situations; determination to take appropriate action, given controllable situations; and self-control so as to not act counterproductively in controllable situations, even despite impulse to do so (Sahu, 2013).  The PFI consists of 30 statements to which participants respond according to a 5-point Likert scale, running from “1-Strongly Disagree” through “3 = Unsure” to “5=Strongly Agree”.  The PFI showed adequate reliability and correlated significantly with Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale (SF-MCSDS), and Summed Self-Rating for Adaptiveness (SRSA),   p<.01, respectively.  The PFI was validated by correlating with the Problem-Solving Confidence subscale of the Problem Solving Inventory (PSC), and the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), p < .01, respectively.  The PFI showed satisfactory test, re-test reliability over a three week interval, p < .01. Finally, the PFI proved to be superior from its predecessor, the Situational Response Inventory (SRI) in both internal consistency and degree of relationships to self-rated adaptiveness, p< .01.

The List of Threatening Experiences (LTE)

The List of Threatening Experiences (LTE), developed by Brugha & Cragg (1990), is a reliable and valid measurement of major life events. The LTE has shown to have high test-retest reliability and good agreement with informant information using the Bedford College Life Events and Difficulties Scales (LEDS) method developed by Sahu (2013). Also, concurrent validity, based on the criterion of independently rated adversity derived from a semi-structured life events interview, showed both high specificity and sensitivity. The LTE consists of 12 categories of common life events that are highly likely to be threatening, such as bereavement or being disciplined for malpractice. Participants select “Yes” or “No” in response to each statement, for example, have you had a violent outburst within the past year?  Yes or No.

3. Procedure:

The procedures will need to be reviewed by an ethics review board and the Royal Military College should approve the research protocol. A survey will be conducted via Survey Monkey. An invitation from an inside professor will be sent out to all subjects. Depending on the response rate, the invitation might have to be sent out a second time. Posters will be posted around arcades, with QR codes. The survey and posters will be available until a sufficient number of responses have been collected. Before the posters are set up, an approval by the RMC administration has to be granted.

4. Data Analysis:

Structural Equation Modelling techniques will be employed to investigate the complex relationships among observed and latent variables. The relationships describe the magnitude of the effect, (direct or indirect) that independent variables, (observed or latent) have on dependent variables, (observed or latent). Furthermore, SEM will statistically test a hypothesized model to determine the consistency of that model with the sample data. Path analysis, a subset of SEM, will be employed to test the following assumptions:
1) Adaptive coping reduces violence and video-games increases violence.
2) Adaptive coping improves personal-emotional, social and life adjustments.
3) Violence impair personal-emotional and life adjustments.
4) The errors for personal-emotional, social and general life adjustments correlate positively. (This means that either the same unmeasured predictors affect these variables or that the unmeasured predictors for these variables are correlated.

Research Design:

This study will also use a sequential explanatory mixed methods design, consisting the following phases. The first phase will involve a literature review, which studies the collection of material that has already been studied on the topic. The second part of the qualitative phase is the collection of data through individual in-depth interviews. This method is used to answer a few main questions such as “are you more violent because of video-games,” “are you more violent because of the military,” “how long have you played video games?” and “how long were you in the military?” (Creswell, 2002). The second phase (quantitative), involves a numeric data study that will be collected using a structured questionnaire, which is completed by respondents on the Internet survey.

Data Collection:

The main technique for gaining the quantitative data is a self-developed questionnaire, which contains items of various formats, such as a list of multiple choices that ask respondents to reply with the level that they agree with the statement in a Likert scale format. The Likert scale is considered to be the best one used during research questionnaires because it provides an easy way to gauge the level to which a respondent agrees with the statement (Tashakkori, A., and Teddlie, 2003). “A Likert scale makes it easy to quantify the level by which the survey statement applies to the sample population. Participants are typically asked to present their opinions by giving a rating of their approval from 1 – 5. The Likert scale consists of various questions and choices, and so it is to be considered a compound scale. The choices reflect whether respondents agreement or disagreement with a particular concept. In other words, we are able to reveal the participants’ emotions, attitudes, beliefs, or points of view, because they show their positive or negative attitudes towards a concept by selecting a best choice” (Tashakkori, A., and Teddlie, 2003).

Secondary Data

References from various reputable sources such as EBSCO host, Google scholar, other peer-reviewed academic journals, newspapers and magazines will be used to establish the business climate in which video-games and participation in the military effect the level of violence in people. In this project, a mixed method of research is adopted where both qualitative and quantitative techniques are used. This is necessary to gain an idea of how the opinions of the test subjects match up to the information gathered in the literature review. To this end, the study will undertake the questionnaires, interviews, literature reviews and a comparative analysts of exposure to gun violence in video-games and in the military.

Independent Variables

The independent variables will be the age of the children who are playing the video-games. It is necessary to take a cross-section of children so that the research can factor in whether video-games have a greater effect on younger children, or older children. Also, the length by which the children have been paying video games will also be determined. The children will have been playing video-games for at least a year. Of the 200 children, at least half will be between the ages of 5 and 10, and half will be between the ages 11 and 15. The subjects will be all males, due to the fact that this study only focuses on the male demographic.

With the sample from the ex-military personnel, the subjects will be removed from the military for at least a year. This is a long enough period for them to be able to tell whether there has been an increase in the amount of violent behaviour they have been participating in. Furthermore, it will facilitates questions of perceptions from those around them, such as if their friends and family have approached them about a change in their behaviour.

Dependent Variables

The amount that the children and the ex-military members experienced violence is a dependent variable. The goal is to see if the rate by which children increase in violent behaviour is similar to the rate at which people who served in the military increase their violent behaviour, but this increase (or possible decrease) cannot be controlled.

The entire research passes through five phases precisely five Tasks:

Task A: Collection of questionnaire and research objectives.
Task B:  Surveying and collecting data from all sources using the mixed method of research.
Task C: Analyzing the data and information.
Task D: Inferring conclusions and preparing the project objective deliverables.
Task E: Final Report.

Works Cited

Creswell, J. W. 2003. Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods 
Approaches (2nd ed.), Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Gentile, D.A., and Anderson, C.A. (2006). Violent video games: the effects on youth, and            public policy implications. Handbook of Chlidren, Culture, and Violence. Retrieved   from http://www.psychology.iastate.edu/~caa/abstracts/2005-2009/05GA2.pdf

Hellman, K. (2005), Strategy-driven B2B Promotion, Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, Volume: 20, 4-11

Mingers, J. 2003. “The Paucity of Multi-method Research: A Review of the Information Systems Literature,” Information Systems Journal. (13:3), 233-249.

Sahu, P.K. (2013). Research Methodology: A Guide for Researchers in Agricultural Science,        Social Science and Other Related Fields. Department of Agriculture Statistics. Print

Tashakkori, A., and Teddlie, C. (2003). “Issues and Dilemmas in Teaching Research Methods Courses in Social and Behavioral Sciences: A US Perspective,” International Journal of SocialResearch Methodology (6:1), pp. 61-77.

SAMPLE PETITION LETTER TO GOVERNMENT

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Dear Minister of Defence Production Hon. Charles Mills Drury,

Mr. Drury, as you are already aware, British Trade Commissioner Pierre Lapoorte and Minister of Labour of Quebec James Cross have been kidnapped. I will outline to you in this memo the details that we are aware of and I will then give my opinion about what we should do.

Mr. Cross has been kidnapped from his home by people who were disguised as delivery men who were bringing him a birthday present. Mr. Cross` maid let the disguised men into the home and then the men produced two guns, a revolver and a rifle. Mr. Cross was then taken from his home by the kidnappers.
Not long after, the kidnappers let authorities know their ransom: they are demanding an exchange of Mr. Cross for what they are calling “political prisoners,” including several FLQ members, and they demanded the broadcast on CBC of the FLQ Manifesto. As you know, we have already broadcast this manifesto. These terms are identical to what was demanded in June when the FLQ planned on kidnapping the U.S. consul but were stopped.

We have more recently been notified of the kidnapping of Mr. Laporte from his lawn while he was playing football with his nephew.

It is in my opinion that the Front de liberation du Quebec is responsible for the kidnappings, as the nationalist group has been a constant terrorist threat over the last decade. They have ravaged this great nation with more than 95 bombs. As you know, they have planted bombs in the mailboxes of those who they consider their enemies, and they also bombed the Montreal Stock Exchange on Feb. 13, 1969. These terrorists have also managed to steal from our military tons of dynamite. This group has robbed Canadian banks to fund their efforts and they have threatened further attacks. This needs to stop.
Despite what some of what my colleagues believe, I think we should implement the War Measures Act so that we are better able to protect these important individuals on our staff. Minister Eric Kierans said he is not convinced we have a “compelling” case to implement the act and we would be making a “terrible mistake,” by throwing our “common sense out the window.” Mr. Kierans said he isn’t convinced there is an impending insurrection. According to Kierans, much of the support received for the use of the War Measures Act is in response to the perceived weakness of Mr. Bourassa. He also believes Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau will support the Act because he has a determination to stop the FLQ from undermining the authority of the federalist stance in Quebec. Supporters of the Act have also been criticized as “using a sledgehammer to crack a peanut,” according to New Democratic Party leader Mr. Tommy Douglas.

While this will be only the third time in Canadian history where government has implemented the Act – the others being in World War I and World War II – I believe Roland Michener, our Governor General, and Mr. Trudeau should see to it that the Act is set in place. I have already received notice from Quebec Premier Robert Bourassa and Jean Drapeau, Montreal’s mayor, that they would support the execution of such an Act if it were met with Mr. Trudeau’s approval.

It is inevitable that after the Act is put into place (if Mr. Trudeau so chooses to do so), that Canadian Forces troops will be deployed throughout Quebec. It is important that the troops are there in a supporting role to the municipal police authorities in the respective city, and we should assist in apprehending and detaining suspects so that they may be questioned.

Though the Act will put a halt to the civil liberties that Mr. Trudeau so strongly worked to support, I anticipate that with such an Act set into place, our government will be met with great approval from the citizens of this great nation.

We have difficult decisions ahead of us. But the decision to put into place the War Measures Act has been debated by many well-respected individuals. We need to take into consideration the opinion of all those on our staff. For example, the Quebec Minister of Justice says we need identity cards and the press should be censored. We need to remember, though, that the short-term suspension of this democratic country’s freedoms will guarantee the longevity of our rights, as we battle through the terrorist threat that challenges what this great nation stands for.

You should understand that by approving the Act, Mr. Trudeau agrees to the likely deployment of 12,500 troops in Quebec, with 7,500 in Montreal alone. People may be arrested without charge and held without bail and with no legal help. The authorities may also enter homes without a warrant. Mr. Trudeau will be able to censor the production of writings, plans, communications, photographs, maps and means to communicate. Our troops can control the ports, harbours, and the territorial waters of Canada by controlling the movement of vessels. We can say who can and can’t travel, whether by land, air or water. Our authorities are allowed to control trading, manufacturing, production, importation and exportation. We can control property through forfeiture, appropriation and disposition. It is Mr. Trudeau’s choice if he wants to use any of these particular powers, but I believe this halt to human rights is necessary to stop the terrorism before it escalates further. I suspect the power we would have to use the most is the ability to arrest and detain, as well as deport.

If Mr. Trudeau chooses to approve the implementation of the War Measures Act, we need to begin planning our next moves now. I think it is important that we divulge to the Canadian public that these measures, if taken, will be temporary. We do not want to set the standard for a totalitarian state. The use of repressive instruments may be easier for us to utilize after the initial enforcement of the War Measures Act. But we need to be certain that the police and military authorities are aware that any conduct outside of civil liberties won’t be tolerated after the Act is set in place.

In closing, Mr. Drury, this would be the only time the War Measures Act is put into force during peacetime in Canada. However, without the ability to arrest anyone who we think is involved in the FLQ, we stand a risk to the greater good of our nation. If we do not put the Act in place, these men and women will run free and they will have access to their weaponry to commit further acts of violence, more kidnappings and endless destruction to all that is good.

Yours truly,
XXX XXXX

WALMART PROBLEMS

Sample By My Essay Writer

 

1. Identify the primary issues facing Wal-Mart. Should Wal-Mart have been able to anticipate the issues it now face?


The primary issues facing Wal-Mart relate to the relationship it has with the public. The company is so massive that it has a profound effect on the nation’s economy and the quality of life of those in the area, whether it is businesses or the people. This puts it at the center of criticism, and the company is consistently ridiculed. While hindsight is 20/20, I think Wal-Mart could have initiated community efforts earlier, such as what it did for relief during Hurricane Katrina. The public relations efforts should have been there from the start, but I suppose an increase in environmental awareness and the ability to organize lobby groups through mediums such as the Internet, has increased the power of those who oppose Wal-Mart. This is an evolution that Wal-Mart wasn’t prepared for. The practices that Wal-Mart had would have likely been relatively undetected until the 1990s, but social media has increased its exposure to the public and has increased the power of lobby groups.

2a. Which interests are opposed to Wal-Mart and what are their costs of organizing for nonmarket action? 

Small business were opposed to Wal-Mart, and so too were the unions, NIMBY groups and organizations aligned with the unions. The Service Employees International Union pledges $1 million to fund a campaign against Wal-Mart. Six unions also funded a $25-million campaign against Wal-Mart.

b. Which interests are aligned with Wal-Mart and what are their costs of organizing for nonmarket action?

The interests of the workers for Wal-Mart were aligned with the company, as it was a massive employer. Also, many politicians and the general public believed Wal-Mart benefitted the economy by providing many jobs. Also, Wal-Mart was paying for initiatives in the community such as a $45-million scholarship fund, for example. The costs to Wal-Mart were in settlement amounts and for defending themselves against the critics. For example, the company needed to make a video in response to a damning video against the company.

3a. In which institutional arena will the issues be resolved?

Many of the issues are resolved in the courts, as the so-called transgressions of Wal-Mart are brought to light. They are either settled in court or with out-of-court settlements. The courts also play a role in determining if Wal-Mart is in neglect of the environment, for example.

b. What role will government institutions play?

The government plays a role by either allowing or vetoing legislation that requires Wal-Mart to participate in initiatives such as providing health insurance for its workers. The government also plays a part in funding many of the initiatives against Wal-Mart. Also, municipal government can approve or not approve zoning changes for Wal-Mart to open new locations. City council can also not allow Wal-Mart to operate, and the public can speak out at public hearings.

4a. How effective has Wal-Mart’s strategy been in addressing the pressures on the company?

Wal-Mart has made changes to its practices, particularly since after the case study was written. The company now has to complete economic impact studies, and it has to have a close eye on its environmental footprint. It also changed its lunch break policy, as well as the practice of hiring illegal labor. This has kept negative press about Wal-Mart largely out of the news, and the company has been viewed as helping Americans support themselves and find work during the recession. Efforts at Hurricane Katrina also appear to have helped.

b. How will the likely resolutions of these issues affect Wal-Mart’s ability to execute its market strategy?

This will have both benefits and drawbacks for the company. The net profits will likely not be as large, because it is paying more for workers and for public relations. However, it is likely paying less on legal settlements. The store is likely also more welcome in communities because of its improved public image.

5. Should Wal-Mart stop its opposition to the unionization of its associates?

It shouldn’t stop the opposition because the unions lobbying against Wal-Mart haven’t succeeded full-scale. The settlements that Wal-Mart has paid aren’t more expensive than what the company would be paying if employee wages were bumped due to unionization of its workers. Further, the workers have largely voted against unionizing.

6. Should Wal-Mart agree to independent inspections of its suppliers’ factories?

Yes. For public image, Wal-Mart should agree. Furthermore, it should agree for ethical reasons. It shouldn’t have subpar working conditions.

7a. Should Wal-Mart select its employees based on their expected health care costs?

No. It is unethical for Wal-Mart to choose employees because of health concerns. The company should not discriminate, and I believe it hasn’t. Relatively recently, the company has hired many special needs people.

b. Should it include physical work in every job?

I like the idea of included pushing carts in everyone’s job. Physical activity is a good idea to have in any line of work, as exercise can decrease stress and improve employee physical health.

8a. What should Wal-Mart do about the environmental pressures it faces?

Wal-Mart has a lot of money. Conducting environmental impact studies shouldn’t affect its bottom line. It should create an environmental analysis of the impact of its fleet, and its stores. It should hire an outside agency to make recommendations about how the store can limit its environmental footprint.

b. Should it undertake environmental initiatives?

Other than the environmental impact studies, the company should spearhead an electric fleet of vehicles, if that is viable. The company can really improve its public image if it participates in initiatives such as that. Its efforts with relief for Hurricane Katrina really helped, but that is not entirely the type of environmental effort to which this question is referring.

9a. What should Wal-Mart do in the aftermath of the Wal-Mart bill in Maryland?

The Wal-Mart bill has been vetoed. But if it weren’t the company should have appealed the decision in court. The 8 per cent is a bit much to ask, and I guess that is why it was vetoed.

b. Should it switch its distribution center to another state?

If the bill stuck, it could have moved its distribution center to mitigate some of the costs.

c. What should it do about similar bills in other states?

All the company can do is appeal the bills in court. If it doesn’t succeed, the company has enough money to pay for the new rules outlined in the legislation.

10a. Should Wal-Mart make concessions to improve the chances for approval of its industrial bank application in Utah? For example, should it pledge not to open branch banks?

The company shouldn’t open branch banks. Wal-Mart should be satisfied with its billions of profits, and it should stop growing. Either that, or it should make its stores nicer, because big box stores such as these are an eyesore. The company is getting pretty greedy with all these expansion efforts and it is taking away business from small companies.

WHAT IS A SPEECH?

Sample by My Essay Writer

Introduction

A speech is essentially a spoken essay. It aims to make a connection with the audience so that the speaker can communicate their ideas. A few basic types of speech includes the informative speech, which aims to provide the audience with useful and interesting information; the demonstrative speech, which is similar to the informative speech, and it teaches its audience, but uses a demonstration as a major function; the persuasive speech, which aims to convince people to change in some kind of way; and an entertaining speech, which aims to bring enjoyment to the audience. In Wallace’s commencement speech, he is effective in his persuasive speech, as it has appears to have the ability to change the reader’s perspective, and I believe it would have the same effect on the audience. He uses two main devices to accomplish this task

First Device – “Imaginarium

“Imaginarium” is the effort that an author uses in their speech to get the audience to imagine someone, in order to make a point. It does more than just using a simple representational anecdote. It actually tells a story to encourage the audience to think of a concept. This concept is not easily understood without using imaginarium.

Wallace uses imaginarium in his speech to lead into much broader topics. This provides the audience with a way to understand his concepts more clearly than they would if he had not given an anecdote about a concept that he had.

He uses this method in a couple key areas, both of which I will pull excerpts of in the following two examples:

“There are these two young fish swimming along and they happen to meet an older fish swimming the other way, who nods at them and says ‘Morning, boys. How’s the water?’ And the two young fish swim on for a bit, and then eventually one of them looks over at the other and goes ‘What the hell is water?’”

“By way of example, let’s say it’s an average adult day, and you get up in the morning, go to your challenging, white-collar, college-graduate job, and you work hard for eight or ten hours, and at the end of the day you’re tired and somewhat stressed and all you want is to go home and have a good supper and maybe unwind for an hour, and then hit the sack early because, of course, you have to get up the next day and do it all again.”

Second Device – “Perspectivism”

“Perspectivism” is a device that Wallace uses to make people in the audience look at themselves differently. He challenges the traditional confines of thinking.
He uses this in his speech to engage his audience and to challenge the conventional ways of thinking, which help make his speech more interesting.
Wallace uses this method in a couple key areas, both of which I will pull excerpts of in the following two examples:
“Here is just one example of the total wrongness of something I tend to be automatically sure of: everything in my own immediate experience supports my deep belief that I am the absolute center of the universe; the realest, most vivid and important person in existence. We rarely think about this sort of natural, basic self-centeredness because it’s so socially repulsive. But it’s pretty much the same for all of us. It is our default setting, hard-wired into our boards at birth.”
“But most days, if you’re aware enough to give yourself a choice, you can choose to look differently at this fat, dead-eyed, over-made-up lady who just screamed at her kid in the checkout line.”

Conclusion

By using both of these devices, Wallace was likely able to captivate his audience. He used many visual effects that helped tell his story and it likely increased their interest in what he was saying. Often, his anecdotes portrayed many of the feelings to which those in the audience could relate, and this likely made them pay much closer attention. His anecdote to open the speech, about the fish asking about what water is, likely sparked the attention of the existentialists in the audience. And Wallace likely kept them, and others, hooked throughout the speech with similar devices

WHAT IS CULTURE?

Sample By My Essay Writer

  

What is culture?

Culture is a set of ideas or behaviors to which a group of people adhere. This could come in the form of the culture of a nation, or it could be a group of people with a similar interest, such as a baseball stadium culture, where there is hot dogs, popcorn and a song during the 7thinning stretch.

What is popular culture?

Popular culture is the collection of ideas, attitudes, images and perspectives that are in the mainstream of the culture. The perspectives associated with popular culture are heavily influenced by the mass media, and the objects and attitudes that are a part of the popular culture are common on a daily basis.

What are three major trends in popular American culture?

Three major trends in popular American culture are pop music, tattoos and yoga. These three aspects are hard to ignore on a daily basis, as they are major parts of our lives every day. This type of culture is often believed to be dumbed-down so that it is more digestible for the masses. Dumbing it down also allows it to find more acceptance among the masses. Many other groups say it is driven by consumerism, sensationalism, corruption and superficiality.

How does popular American culture affect personal decision making?

Popular American culture affects personal decision making predominantly in young people. It controls the way many people behave, and what they buy. For example, if listening to a certain style of music is deemed acceptable by the masses, many people will start listening to that type of music. Essentially, popular American culture effects the way we eat, dress, listen to music, watch movies and whether we have something tattooed to our bodies, for example.

Personal experience with pop culture

Pop culture affect me nearly every day of my life. However, I would argue that I am less affected by pop culture than most people. I don’t have cable television, and I instead watch television shows and movies on my computer. That’s where I also receive news. However, this medium also affects the way I think, dress and behave. For example, the characters in the movies I watch are dressing a certain way. I now, whether subconsciously or not, dress similar to many of the characters I see on TV. After all, I am not wearing bell-bottom pants. Furthermore, the stores that I shop in are catering to the masses, so I am going to have the option to wear a variety of clothes that the masses would wear.
But I think that, in a way, I tend to stop and look around me to observe the pop culture, and realize that everything is just a fad. I wonder to myself about whether people 20 years from now will look back on us the way that we looked back on people in the 1980s (which is often considered the worst fashion decade ever). Even the 1990s grunge era looks ridiculous now. For this very reason, I refuse to get a tattoo. In fact, I had wanted a tattoo, but then saw that nearly everyone around me has one. That’s a pop-culture mark that I can’t take off – without a great deal of expense and pain, that is.

EXAMPLES OF DISCUSSION BOARD RESPONSES

Sample by My Essay Writer

Why are observation skills important in children’s development of art as communication?

Observation skills are important to children’s development of art as communication because it helps children in the self-discovery process. The observations help the children to comprehend various components of themselves so that they can create conceptualization. Observing the art helps in their communication because it helps them to use their senses. This is among the first time these senses are being used, and so it is important to use their senses so that they can develop effectively. The senses that they are using are helping them to create their artwork. If, for example, a child is excited that their friend is coming to visit them, they can draw a picture of that event happening, and this can help them to understand the situation better while letting them express themselves effectively.

Discuss in detail how you would use a cultural character book with children to promote this development.

I would use a cultural character book with children to promote this by asking them to draw a picture of them doing something they would like to do with one of the characters. This would help them to express the way they feel about the character in the book. The student should be encouraged to draw the two of them going somewhere that they think would be a fun adventure with the character in the book. This can help the character better understand how they feel about the character in the book, and it will help them to start thinking about the things the two have in common with each other. This not only helps the child express themselves, but also helps them to relate to the characters in the books they read.

BONUS

 

Do you see advantages and disadvantages for this type of preschool?

The concept of this school is great. I would have loved to experience school in this way. I this type of learning environment is very healthy for people, as it keeps the children active, rather than being cooped up in a stuffy classroom. I think many children have been diagnosed ADHD because they are unable to concentrate in class, and they have a high amount of energy that is not being effectively used in a classroom setting. However, I think this type of behavior is a regular part of growing up for many children, and the issue is more in the structure of the classes (indoors) that creates this perception that many children suffer from ADHD. This type of learning environment can facilitate respect for nature, while keeping children active enough so that they do not start to have a bad attitude towards school. Those children who have been told they have ADHD are not given a fair opportunity, and I believe they start to develop a bad attitude towards school. If children are instead to spend a lot of time outside, they will likely not be a rambunctious, and this will allow them to better concentrate while in class. However, I think spending a considerable amount of time outside could be too tiring for students, and they will want to relax more. For these reasons, I think a hybrid between the outside classes and inside classes is the best course of action.

Thanks,

Steven

Response 1

Hi Nita,

I like how you discuss both the teacher observing the student and the student observing their own art. You bring up excellent points about the teachers observing the children, because it does help the teacher to better communicate with the children and understand them better. As teachers, it is very important to nurture students, particularly if they are very young, I think, because it allows them to better understand the needs of the student, and how to work with them. Paying attention to what the student is drawing, and seeing how the student reacts to their own work can improve the teachers’ understanding.

Expressing feelings is a major component of growing up. The more a student is able to express those feelings, the more they can understand them. I liked reading about what you said on this topic, and I agree that the art is a very useful tool that students can learn to express their feelings effectively. If they do not express them, they are keeping them inside, and drawing can become a form of counseling for them. In my opinion, I think the drawing can be particularly useful for many students who are quiet. These students do not often express themselves verbally, and drawing can be a way for them to understand their feelings, and to release some pent up sadness of hostile feelings, for example. I think this form of therapy sticks with many people throughout life, and they continue to use drawing as a coping mechanism.

Thanks,
Steven

Response 2

Hi Ann-Marie,

I agree with you with the angle you took on this question. I think exploration is a very good word to describe what is going on with children during the process of creating art. In a nutshell, exploration is really what childhood is all about. Children are doing things for the first time, and this means the artwork they are doing is an exploratory process. There are many elements that make up this exploration, and I think the main one is the expression of emotions. For many children, it is difficult for them to find the ways to express themselves, as words don’t often suffice due to a limited vocabulary, or an inability for them to find an adult or peer who can really listen to them and sympathize, for example. However, art becomes a tool with which these students can get their emotions out

You took an interesting approach in your answer when discussing the children observing their teachers and classmates. I think you are correct that it will often inspire a child to also create art, and the child may get ideas from others about how they can create their artwork. You also use a key word in your answer: curiosity. Children are so curious, and often eager to learn more, and creating art facilitates their curiosity in themselves. They are learning about their own abilities, and their impact on matter around them. Manipulating objects such as crayons or paintbrushes can help the children satisfy their curiosity about where they are in the world. This helps them to understand that they have an impact on the environment around them.
Thanks,

Steven

Week 7

Discussion Question 2

 

How can the three Ms of playful exploration lead children into learning to draw?

Manipulation is one of the three major component to leading children to learn how to draw. This is because manipulation is needed for the student to know how to use the tools with which to draw. The manipulation also comes with the medium of color. Many children use multiple colors to create different colors. For example, many students put all of the colors onto an easel and come up with a brown color. Next, the students learn mastery. This stage of the three Ms is valuable at learning because they are doing the same task over and over. The more they practice, the more they become masters of the medium. With the last M, meaning, the child is finished with the spontaneous practice, and are able to create art that represents something. This stage is when the development of their art can really take form.

How would you help a child progress through these levels?

I would help the child progress through these levels by giving them free-reign. I would provide them with the tools to draw with, and then help them along whenever they needed assistance. I think it is best, however, to let the learner progress through the three Ms on their own so that they can begin to understand the various components of art, and so they can develop their own skills. Of course, if they had any questions, I would help the learner. I might consider encouraging the learner to draw something tangible if they have been simply blotting colors onto the easel for a very long time.

BONUS

 

What impact did the first book you remember hearing or reading about as a child?

The first book I remember reading as a child is “Jack in the Bean Stock.” This book has had an impact on me in my life because I think it was the first book that I really enjoyed reading. It got me to want to continue to read throughout my life, and I don’t think that would have happened if I hadn’t read a book as good as “Jack in the Bean Stock.” The book may have also affected the way that I thought about life. Jack was a very persistent person, and he climbed all the way up the bean stalk. This may be one of the reasons why persist a lot in my life. Jack was an inspiration for me when I was a child, and he likely played a role in how I turned out as an adult.

How might thinking about this affect how you work with children as a teacher?

Thinking about this might make me decide to introduce students to “Jack in the Bean Stalk.” Also, it makes me think about the impact that technology is having on children. I think people are more connected to stories when they have the solid book in front of them, rather than having a screen in front of them. When I had my book, I kept it with me a lot of the time, and that is likely how it made such a significant impact on my life. As a teacher, I would encourage students to read hard copies of books, rather than reading a book from a computer screen or a tablet, for example.

Thanks,

Steven

Response 1

Hi Maria,

Thanks for sharing your analysis of the three Ms. Your analysis was concise. I like your method of easing the children into this type of learning environment. It is a great idea to allow the children to participate in art every day, because it will help them to develop the skills that they need to become effective artists, and this can be a skills that could benefit them greatly throughout their lives. The idea of having an art area set up in the classroom is a great feature. This chapter has really shown me what a great benefit artwork can be. And I know that it is a significant enough learning mechanism that it does justify having an area in the classroom designated to art. Plus, having an area set out will help keep the mess in one place, and you could set up some newspapers or a cloth of some sort that could be washed. It probably would not get rid of the paint by washing it, but at least it will get rid of dirty shoe prints and whatnot.

From reading the chapter, I think the best benefit to the children in having an art area such as this set up, would be the ability of them to be able to express themselves. Expressing their feelings is a key point in development, and I think your idea about having the art area and having the children participate in creating art on a daily basis is a way for them to express themselves while developing their fine motor and art skills. Your classroom seems like the type of place that I would have liked to spend my childhood. Every day is a good day when there is art involved.

Thanks,

Steven

Response 2

Hi Julie,
Your focus on the actually manipulation process was very well done. It was nicely detailed and really put me into the perspective of a child learning how to paint. Learning to do things such as how to paint comes pretty naturally to many of us, but it is something so foreign to a child, and they need to practise the skill a considerable amount in order to develop the fine motor skills that are needed. It is very easy for adults to assume that a child should be able to pick up the simple things, like picking up a paintbrush and dipping it in paint, but you point out that this is a very important thing for the child to learn how to develop. The manipulation phase, in my opinion is the most important of the three, because mastery naturally flows next. This stage is really where there can be a significant amount of abstract art, and even squiggles would not be possible without the development of the manipulation phase.
I also liked the way you explain how you would help a child transition in each of the three Ms. I think your idea of introducing the child to as many tools as possible would be very useful. I wonder how often you would switch the materials. I think it would be effective to have a new material with which to work every day. If there were say five materials being used, one could be introduced over five days, with each being introduced on its own day. The child will likely develop a preference, and I think at that point they will be able to more effectively become more skilled in the mastery and meaning stages.
Thanks,
Steven

WID, WAD AND GAD

Sample by My Essay Writer

In this essay, I will compare and contrast women in development (WID) and gender and development (GAD) as conceptual categories to determine how far the GAD approach is beneficial in investigating development issues and projects in the south.

Examples of where WID or GAD approaches have been utilized will be examined. While GAD doesn’t focus exclusively on women, it provides a beneficial framework on which to examine the gender and development issues in the south.

Before investigating the cases where GAD is relevant in gender situations in the south, it is important to define each of the concepts. WID refers to the integration of women in the worldwide growth of politics, economics and society. It represented the start of studying the gender-specific divisions of the labor pool. WID is a very simplistic concept that essentially investigates what is deemed to be an unfair division of labor. The framework helps to inspire action plans that help address the problems with the labor pool.
GAD is a term that became popular in the 1980s and is basically a newer version of WID. In its framework, women and gender are combined as one with no regard for the various exploitations that were obvious in women. At the heart of the term is the determination to mitigate and eliminate the oppression of women. The failure of GAD is there is just a very simplistic set of tools that helped to investigate women and the world in which they live. This limitation results in a lack of progress for women’s rights. There is a reason why GAD didn’t look at the specific aspects associated with women and their relationship with society. GAD had its sights on a holistic approach which looked at both genders, rather than just one. Also, the study was based on stereotypes of women and men, and their typical roles in society. Using the stereotypical roles, along with the perspectives of both men and women, GAD attempts to develop a framework that society can base itself on. Because the concept includes both genders, the thinking is that the framework would accommodate both genders when applied to a nation’s development.

The main different between to two terms is the way in which GAD neglects to investigate in detail the various aspects of women and their relationship with society. The main reason for that is because GAD is focused more on the ways progress occurs as a whole in a nation, which requires the various influences of both genders. Particularly, GAD focuses more on the general construction of gender and the many roles that are applied to each of the genders. Because of the vast generalizations given, there are only stereotypes on which to go on for the examination using this concept. The primary concern with this view is the roles that each gender plays, or at least the roles each gender is expected to play, in the society under investigation. In GAD, the views of each gender are applied to the examination, which is an advantage the concept has over WID, because it doesn’t just utilize the opinions and perspective of women, thus broadening the research. Because GAD was more able to incorporate the different roles of each gender, it was much easier to fit the concept into society.

GAD also differs from WID because it looks at the work done by women at home and investigates the family unit and then considers it to be invaluable to a society that functions well. The concept claims that the state needs to intervene in order to protect the family unit. Such state intervention would include funding in order to help raise children when there isn’t the right amount of care available. GAD recognizes that women should be the source of much of the funding because there is a higher frequency that mothers are single parents, rather than men.

While GAD is criticized as having its limits due to the fact that it doesn’t look solely at the concerns of women, others have called it a more evolved version of WID. This is due to the fact that it is more objective about the societal trends, rather than being partial to the issues facing women.

There is a serious recognition of the need for there to be improvements in the status of women who are living in the south, and this is where many concepts from GAD come in handy. The need for improvement is a determination that signifies the need to promote the potential roles of the women in the development of these nations. This is a major GAD issue. It is not just simply a human rights issue or a social justice issue, women are now considered a crucial component of society and the mission to achieve sustainable development. Through economic analysis comes the recognition that the low levels of training and education, in addition to the poor health and, particularly, nutrition of many in the south, plays major roles in whether a nation will prosper. Furthermore, consideration needs to be given to the fact that when women are deprived of the ability to be productive members of society, there are limited resources that the state can utilize. When women are not allowed to be productive members of society, they are not only becoming depressed, but they are also not helping the economy of their nation move forward. So, on an economic level, it is imperative that women are given an opportunity to participate in the economy.

Without there being an increased investment in the south for various planning processes that are designed to stimulate economic growth, human development such as population planning, poverty reduction, and management of the nation’s environment and natural resources, a nation will not flourish. In order to satisfy these needs, women need to be included in the workforce and they need to be educated. GAD says that this is not possible without increasing the investment in women and paying close attention to the needs, concerns and contributions of women in society. There are also various public policies and investments that should help to promote the development of women in the society and the economic payoffs of having them involved reveals itself in higher economic growth rates, reduced health and welfare costs, improved productivity, mortality rates, and low maternal and infant morbidity. When money is dedicated to including women in the economic goals of a nation, the results are better educated people who are healthier and able to participate in a literate workforce.

GAD also provides an effective framework for examining the various development issues and projects in the south by showing that improved health among women can reduce the country’s rapid population growth, which is a major issue in the south. This will also help improve the welfare of the families and children, while reducing the health care costs and poverty. Education also has a positive impact on society, GAD has revealed. When investment is made in the education of girls, the return lasts for generations. The girls benefit from there being an enhanced capacity to earn in the future. There are more opportunities in the labor market, more control over their personal lives, and far fewer health risks that come with childbirth and pregnancy. The society also benefits because the education that the girls receive will likely slow the population growth. GAD shows that it also improves health and education for the next generations. When girls are educated, it is a long-term investment because while the results might not be seen immediately, they are evident in the future.

GAD also shows that when women have greater access to financial services, they are contributing more to the reduction of poverty and this can help women to become better able to contribute to the family welfare and household income. This makes the move out of poverty much easier for the families in the south. These types of financial services will help the intermediaries, because GAD research has shown that women are actually better savers, and this can lead to the better mobilization of the savings. Also, the more women savers there are, there will likely be fewer bad debts, which is beneficial for the financial sector of the nation’s economy.

With the south undergoing rapid economic and social changes, there are many obstacles that are presented in relation to women. However, with the application of GAD, governments and non-governmental agencies can begin to take a hard look at the changes that need to be made in societies in order for there to be changes that can really make a difference not only in the lives of the women in these countries, but also in the economic outlook of these nations. The major social issues that are evident in the south can be fixed with the proper application of the research that comes out of GAD. Without including women in the economy of these nations, each country’s population is being underutilized by approximately half. Old-fashioned ways of women’s traditional roles in society doesn’t allow for realized prosperity of the nation, and particularly the general well-being of those who live in the country. Women need to be recognized in the south as being important components, because without that recognition, these nations will continue to suffer.