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THREE DISCOVERIES THAT CHANGED EVERYTHING

Sample By My Essay Writer

The world of science is constantly discovering new information that changes the way that humans live, their knowledge about the past, and their hopes of health for the future. Over the last two hundred years, knowledge about evolution, cell biology, DNA, and many other fields has changed humanity’s perspective on their place in the greater scheme of the world. In particular, there have been three very specific, recent discoveries that have had a significant impact on the scientific community. In terms of society, health, and culture, the three most important recent scientific discoveries in this area are the Tiktallik fossil, the human genome project, and genetically modified organisms that are used for food. Each of these discoveries and inventions has radically altered the human perception of the world and ability to remain functional and healthy in it.

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The Human Genome Project was one of the greatest scientific undertakings of the twentieth century, and had the goal of mapping the genes of the human being. It was undertaken in 1990, and was declared completed in the year 2003 (Genome, 2012). In order to do this, there were three different criteria that were established. They were: determining the sequence of all of the bases in the human beings DNA, making maps that would be able to show the location for the genes in the major sections of human chromosomes, and producing linkage maps so that they could trace inherited traits over the course of many generations (Genome, 2012).

There were many different social implications that were created as a result of this project. Before the tests even started, people started to express concerns about the privacy of the genetic information, and how it could be used to track people in the future (GHR, 2015). This led to the creation of new ethics guidelines for the testing and tracking of human genetic information while it is being utilized for tests, but left many unanswered questions about how the mapped human genome could be used. In particular, the social qualms about this test hinted at the possibility that the human genome could be used as justification for certain discrimination against ethnic groups (GHR, 2015). Another, more important, qualm that has arisen as a result of having too much information on a human being’s genetic code is that it could be used by insurance companies in the future. This information would be able to tell them about the human’s associated risk for cancer and several other life-threatening ailments which could be used to deny them coverage (Boehm, 1999).

There are also broad cultural implications for the human genome project as well. However, these implications are not based upon changes that the human genome project has revealed, but rather what completing the project reveals about human beings. The fact that the Human Genome Project is so divisive about the morality of human beings shows that humanity is divided on the issue of morality. Some people wish to believe that our mentality and actions are predetermined by our genes, while others take the route of believing that the culture in which a person is nurtured ultimately determines their future outcomes (Leno, 1999). This has touched off a battle between these two camps on a cultural level, yet there is a more nefarious cultural concern. It is predicated on the question: if we understand human genomes, can we influence or change them, effectively changing the individual or their offspring? Of course, at this point in development it almost seems laughable to make a link between genome outcomes and a human behavior, but it has created controversy around the subject. Perhaps it is best if humans are not able to completely unlock the genomic potential of all human beings.

Yet, these concerns have to be tempered by the potential medical uses that are offered by uncovering the human genome. The human genome project has had a tremendous impact on the medical community because it offers an in-depth look at the genes that are responsible for long-term and potentially fatal illnesses such as cancer and Alzheimer’s. One of the ways that the Human Genome Project has already changed the way that human beings live and approach medicine is through genetic counseling sessions. People who want to know about their specific potential for having an illness such as cancer or a rare defect that they could pass on can go through genetic counseling. This process allows a person to go to a medical center and have their genes tested to see if they have a high potential rate of inheritance for an ailment or of passing one on to their children (Genome.gov, 2015). This is incredibly important to prevent some individuals with damaged genes from passing them on and having a severely disabled child.
The possibilities for medical implications of the Human Genome Project are seemingly endless, and could unlock a future where humans live longer, healthier lives. While this has changed the entire face of the medicine in general, there are concerns that human beings are going to use gene counseling and therapy to change the human race, inadvertently altering our genetic destiny for the worse.

One of the other most important discoveries in recent years has come from the field of evolution. While there are always new and exciting discoveries from this particular field of science, a recent discovery of the Tiktaalik fossils show a definitive intermediary step of evolution between fish and amphibians. This new fossil is nicknamed Fishapod because of the varying features of fish and tetrapods that have been attributed to it. Most notably, the Tiktaalik has fins and gills as well as stout legs that allow it to support itself in shallow waters. This fossil was first discovered in 2004, near the Canadian Arctic, and represents a momentous occasion, when fish were first able to venture onto the land (Monoyios, 2013). Most importantly, it shows a link between fish and four-legged vertebrates which would later go on to become amphibians, dinosaurs, mammals, birds, and humans. This fossil find has had several impacts on the cultural, social, and medical communities.

While some may question the implications of a fossil on the modern medical field, the act of the matter is that this fossil represents an important stepping stone for vertebrates. As such, it shows some of the definitive steps in the development of the vertebrae in prehistoric creatures. This knowledge is being used a means to develop a timeline of vertebrae development that can be used to model the ongoing development of vertebrae in other creatures in the future, such as human beings (Keillor, 2010).

The social impacts of the discovery of the Tiktallik fossil have been painted across internet forums as well as in classrooms around the United States. Being that this fossil fills a gap in evolutionary history, it shows a distinct period when evolution was occurring on Earth, challenging the Creationist theory of life. As a result it has led to several people being upset that it was being portrayed directly as a rebuttal against religion as it was a scientific discovery. Dr. David Menton, renowned for his work in both the realm of religion and science, was appalled, saying: “the media’s excitement seems to stem not so much from being able to report a real scientific discovery as in being able to discredit the biblical account of creation” (2014). The discovery and subsequent media parade that was caused by the discovery of the Tiktallik fossil showed that there were elements that wanted to discredit the finding of the fossil and those that wanted to hail it as proof that creationists were wrong.

This social challenge that was produced by the finding of this fossil was that it deepened the divides between those who were coming from a scientific and religious background. The hard-line religious individuals were not willing to readily accept that this fossil was from a single creature or that it was as much of a prominent discovery as the scientific groups were making it out to be (Menton, 2014). This provoked new circular discussions from both sides on the issue that did not want to give any ground on their beliefs about the fossil. Socially, this finding was incredibly divisive, but it showed that there was a fundamental problem in culture as a whole.

The finding of the Tiktallik fossil did not alone have the power to change the culture of the world, but it reveal that there are severe limitations imposed upon the scientific community by religious factors. Arguably, the most important factor when it comes to science is that there is the ability to disseminate information about the topic that is not confounded by factors with no scientific merit. In the case of the Tiktallik fossil, there were several news sources, such as the New York Times, that were hailing the discovery of the fossil in the context of its affect on religion (Menton, 2014). The issue is that the cultural values, in the United States at least, consistently create friction between the elements of science and religion. In fact, the discovery of the fossil was incredibly important from a scientific standpoint, but unless it was addressed through the lens of religion as a severe disavowal, it was not newsworthy. This shows that there is a poisonous culture against both science and religion that must be remedied so that science can be produced and celebrated on its own merits, without having to directly challenge religious elements.

Another one of the most important developments in science over the last fifty years has come from the field of biotechnology. This development is in reference to the broad and controversial topic of genetically modified organisms, also known as GMOs. While these genetically modified organisms come in a wide variety of plants and animals, they have forever changed the way that the world grows food and experiments for the betterment of mankind. After all, GMOs are used to grow plants that have a much higher yield than previously possible, and also produce animals that are primed for experimentation that could one day lead to cures for devastating illnesses (ENHS, 2003).  Yet, there are some ethically unsound practices that happen with GMOs that must be explored in contrast to the incredible benefits offered by these products.

Perhaps the greatest impact that GMOs have had on the modern world are medical. Plants that have been modified and engineered, such as tomatoes and corn, are able to produce vast quantities of food in comparison to their counterparts that have been left to grow and reproduce on their own (Schulman, 2014). Aside from being able to feed more people, even in nations where hunger kills more people than disease, GMOs are being developed so that they are more resistant to weather and plant diseases that have killed crops in the past (Schulman, 2014). The result are “supercrops” that are powerful enough to survive harsh weather and reduce the number of deaths from starvation.

The more important medical aspect that is coming into play is that animals are able to be bred produce more meat, milk, and even genetic predispositions for diseases. While the first two aspects are crucial to feeding people and lessening output of carbon dioxide, the final one has advanced the way that human beings are able to perform medical testing. Specifically, genetically modified mice, through specific breeding, have been developed so that they will be carriers to a variety of ailments that can be experimented upon (Anft, 2008). The result is that researchers will not have to wait and hope that a mouse develops a certain condition to be a part of a medical experiment; they can be bred for that specific purpose. This has accelerated the mouse breeding and experimentation that has taken place over the last 50 years. New treatments for cancer, vaccinations, and many other treatments are being produced all the time, with one scientist surmising that 80 percent of all experimental successes will be traced back to mice in the next 25 years (Anft, 2008).

There have been many social ramifications since the usage of GMOs has become commonplace in the United States and around the world. On one hand, they have been lauded as being able to advance science for the future benefit of people around the world, and for the immediate use of people who need food and vaccinations the most. On the other hand, there has been a large movement of people that are against using GMOs because they believe that there is inherent danger in genetically modifying food because it can change the way that it interacts with human bodies (IRT, 2015). They have cited some studies that show that feeding mice GMO food has produced cancerous growths and adverse effects in the digestive tracts of animals (IRT, 2015).

There have been profound cultural impacts since the rise of GMOs being utilized in food as well as medicine. The greatest cultural significance is the willingness of human beings to utilize the lives of animals, on a massive scale, to further humankind. While human beings have always used animals to meet their needs, the fact of the matter is that the scale is now massive and terrifying in its abilities (Anft, 2008). Another cultural shift that has happened as a result of GMOs is the government’s willingness to step in and make rulings about scientific products. For example, the United States government has allowed famed food GMO producer Monsanto to actually patent certain modified organisms and continue to use ones that may cause health conditions (Global, 2013). This move has caused outrage and contempt by other businesses and citizens alike.

The scientific ramifications of these three developments are far-reaching and indicative of the incredible power that humans have to affect the world around them. With such momentous developments in various areas of science, it appears as though the future holds potential and promise for those who are willing to engage in the sciences.

References

Anft, M. (2008). Of mice and medicine. Retrieved from: http://pages.jh.edu/~jhumag /0908web/mice.html

Boehm, D. (1999). Applications and issues of the human genome project. Retrieved from: http://www.ndsu.edu/pubweb/~mcclean/plsc431/students99/boehm.htm

ENHS.umn.ed (2003, September). Genetically modified organisms. Retrieved from: http://enhs.umn.edu/current/5103/gm/harmful.html

Genome.gov. (2012, November 8). An overview of the human genome project. Retrieved from:

Genome.gov (2015 March 20). Frequently asked questions about genetic testing. Retrieved from: http://www.genome.gov/19516567

GHR (2015, March 16). What were some of the ethical, legal, and social implications    addressed by the Human Genome Project? Retrieved from:             http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/ handbook/hgp/elsi

Globalresearch.ca. (2013, May 25). Monsanto protection act signed by obama, gmo bill          “written by Monsanto” signed into law. Retrieved from:             http://www.globalresearch.ca/monsanto-         protection-act-signed-by-obama-            gmo-bill-written-by-monsanto-signed-into-law/5329388

IRT (2015, January 2). 65 health risks of gmos. Retrieved from: http://www.responsibletechnology.org/gmo-dangers/65-health-risks/1notes

Keillor, T (2010 June) What has the head of a crocodile and the gills of a fish? Retrieved        from:
http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/news/060501_tiktaalik

Leno, J. (1999). The human genome project. Retrieved from:       http://www.ndsu.edu/pubweb/~mcclean/plsc431/students99/leno.htm

Monoyios, K. (2014). Meet Tiktallik roseae: an extraordinary fossil fish. Retrieved from:          http://tiktaalik.uchicago.edu/meetTik.html

PROPOSAL FOR DRUG LEGALIZATION

Sample By My Essay Writer

The question of legalizing drugs has been received with much opposition considering the different arguments both for and against the debate.

According to Hartnett, legalization of drugs would not work in the United States. Possible reasons given by the article is that drugs are responsible for the poor economic condition affecting most states in the US. Likewise, the author relates drugs use to terrorism. In another article, the Law Enforcement Against Prohibition propose that legalizing drugs would be a positive move by the government. The author requires that the government should focus more on crimes rather than the drugs. When a person consumes a drug then commits a crime, the government should focus more on the crime rather than the drug consumption.
I believe that the arguments presented in my paper will be significant especially to various governments who opt to fight for and against drug use in their regions.

The same would also be significant to other agencies that are concerned with drug abuse in the country. The two parties will represent the intended audience since they are responsible for the regulations implemented in the country. Other people interested in the argument of legalization of drugs are lawyers. Lawyers are responsible for the interpretation of the law in the country, and thus their work is to assist in maintaining law and order in the country. Their interpretation would help in implementing the right choice.

My preliminary thesis statement will be drug legalization, a move that would prevent progress in a country. The justification relies on the notions of Hartnett where he condemns the processes of legalizing drug use in a country.

Works Cited

Hartnett, Edmund. “Drug Legalization: Why It Wouldn’t Work in the United States.” The Police Chief (2005): vol. 72, no. 3.

Law Enforcement Against Prohibition. Why Legalize Drugs? 2015. 27 April 2015 <http://www.leap.cc/about/why-legalize-drugs/>.

SOME THOUGHTS CONCERNING EDUCATION

ample By My Essay Writer

1.         In his book Some Thoughts Concerning Education, John Locke suggested ways that reading might be introduced to young children. In Section 150 of the book, Locke wrote, “Contrivances might be made to teach children to read, whilst they thought they were only playing.” Explain what Locke meant by this, basing your thinking on examples from the reading. Then, discuss whether you agree disagree with Locke and why.

Locke details methods with which to get children to read by presenting it as a game during play time. With this quote “This being a play amongst you, tempt him not to it, lest you make it business”, he suggests a plan to make learning and reading exciting by introducing it to them as a game or some other form of play. This way it’s not being forced upon them in a manner that they will resist or try to avoid. He takes this concept further by suggesting: “ when the play is done the ball should be laid up safe out of his reach, that so it may not, by his having it in his keeping at any time, grow stale to him.”. Here Locke proposes taking the ball or whatever method of presentation you choose from the child after a set duration of time so as not to let this method become boring. Children tire of their toys and games quickly, especially if they are freely and readily available at all times. In this way, Locke advises setting a time limit on the use of the toy or game through which the child is learning, making him or her eager to want to play with it again and again.

Locke’s little bit of deception suggests the old adage of using a little bit of sugar to help the medicine go down. Children want to play, they don’t want to sit still and be force-fed information that they may not be interested in receiving or ready to embrace at certain ages. If you turn learning into play time, then everyone essentially wins. The child is enjoying him or herself and learning at the same time. They may not realize it yet, but the information will be received and retained over time. Through this method, the child is more open to understanding the information in his or her own way and education becomes more effective and productive.

2.         Jane Addams “foresaw a compassionate, interdependent world revolving around the principles of social justice, fairness, tolerance, respect, equal opportunity, civic responsibility and hope for every individual, family and community”. To that end, she founded Hull House in 1889, where she instituted numerous innovative educational opportunities for people living in poverty. Describe two of these innovations that you believe have had the greatest impact on communities and/or education today, and explain why.

Addams had specific intentions behind the institution of Hull House, and she founded it on a series of specific guiding principles. She intended it to be a place where individuals could come to live and work and help teach others to be more well-rounded and contributing members of the community. To her, it was a lack of opportunities, not a low moral character, that fed into poverty. These were good people that she wanted to help, they just required some training and that’s what she offered at Hull House. This was often for the benefit of foreign-born individuals who were not learned in the American culture. But Addams did not want them to abandon their own ethnicities in the bargain. She believed a school’s responsibility was to present the pupil with “a culture so wide and deep and universal” that it allowed the child to integrate their own culture with that of the one in which they were now living (Lissak 1989). Learning the English language and understanding American values and ideas would allow them the ability to participate in the “valuable products of American civilization” (Lissak 1989).

These attitudes have endured to this day as understanding the culture in which one lives offers a direct correlation to succeeding in that culture. Whether it’s the culture of the workplace or the culture of a heritage, understanding how that culture acts and operates is paramount to being able to get ahead.

But Addams also went further than just helping these people acclimate to the mores and norms of the American experience. She offered classes on art, music, literature, and philosophy, infusing the Hull House education with more than just the basics of how to survive. These teachings helped open the minds of her students to greater ideas of thought. Expanding the imagination and the perceptions of belief helps her pupils become not only better educated, but more informed about the world around them. General education is important to the evolution of every young mind, and Addams’ schooling helped innovate the parameters of what we know as general education courses in schools today. These classes help lay the groundwork for more vocational or specialized training further on. Many universities mandate courses of general study before students can pursue their chosen majors. It’s a concept first popularized by the philosopher Plato, and Addams helped define it for generations to come at Hull House.

3.         This week, you learned about Paulo Freire’s thoughts on oppressive educational attitudes and practices. In your own words, analyze Freire’s philosophy with regard to how education can liberate the oppressed.

Freire’s philosophy about education incorporates theories of revolution and the importance of a focus on critical thinking about the social and political realities around each and everyone of us. Anyone who merely accepts the world around them is settling for a way of life that has been designed and enforced upon them by others. To simply live by these parameters is to be imprisoned and oppressed. Acting up against these preconceived notions of the social and political is to deepen one’s own insights and beliefs of the world.  He goes on to define the oppressor and the oppressed with respect to pedagogy. The oppressed are considered objects by the oppressing classes, and only until peasants can think critically about the world in which they live, that has been built for them by those who intend to keep them under their boot-heel, will never be able to change their station in life. Understanding the very nature of their oppression is the only way to rise above it.

He goes on to depict the oppressive relationship between teacher and student in which he describes a “banking” concept to education: “Narration (with the teacher as narrator) leads the students to memorize mechanically the narrated account. Worse yet, it turns them into “containers,” into “receptacles” to be “filled” by the teachers. The more completely she fills the receptacles, the better a teachers she is. The more meekly the receptacles permit themselves to be filled, the better students they are. Education thus becomes an act of depositing, in which the students are the depositories and the teacher is the depositor.” (Freire 1993). The very manner in which students are taught in this method is, by definition, oppressive as it does not enable the student to think for him or herself. The teacher is forcing his or her own beliefs, attitudes, and practices on the students, filling them with his or her information, not allowing for the students to find their own information for themselves. Only through an inquiry-based style of education, where students are free to ask questions, explore theories and concepts, and are able to seek training that reflects their own life experiences, will they truly be granted an education free from oppression. The “banking” style of education engenders passivity among the students and declares the teacher as omnipotent, possessing the only knowledge that is to be repeated back by the pupils in equal measure as it was given. With Freire’s problem-solving approach to education, this allows the students to ask questions while proposing a two-way street in which both teacher and pupil exchange ideas and concepts through a free-flowing dialogue.  This isn’t to suggest there aren’t great amounts of parity between teacher and pupil, a teacher may glean very little information from a set of nine year olds in a math class, but the approach of equal footing between the instructor and the class, no matter what age or skill level, promotes a balanced dynamic in the classroom that only serves to benefit the student in a far greater capacity than that of an oppressive “banking” relationship.

References

Freire, Paulo. Pedagogy of the Oppressed. New York: Continuum Books, 1993

Lissak, Rivka Shpak. Pluralism and Progressives: Hull House and the New Immigrants, 

            1890-1919. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1989.

Locke, John. Some Thoughts Concerning Education. Vol. XXXVII, Part 1. The Harvard

Classics. New York: P.F. Collier & Son, 1909–14; Bartleby.com, 2001.

HOW TO DEFINE QUEBEC

Sample By My Essay Writer
The articles reviewed for the purpose of this assignment provide insight into the conditions for those living and working in Quebec in the 19th century.

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The overarching theme among the selections is a varied economy with a wide range of concerns being present for average Quebeckers. What is most important about the information provided in each article separately and combined overall are the ways in which the 19th century was a pivotal era for Quebec and how the ways in which society evolved during the time would go on to shape society for generations after.

In Bettina Bradbury’s article, “The Family Economy and Work in an Industrialized City,” the author
describes the ways in which the industrialization of Montreal contributed to the family structure moire broadly throughout Quebec. The industries that flourished in the 1800s were dominated by male workers. This led to an increasingly common reality that men were assigned as the breadwinners while the men were relegated to domestic duties to maintain the home.

Added to the changing dynamics was the influence of the Church in attributing religious mandates for women to be servants of the family and supportive of the ambitions of the men. This familial hierarchy would become definitive in Montreal and extended to other parts of the region as the population became more decentralized.

Peter DeLottinville’s “Joe Beef of Montreal” article offered a glimpse into the life and influences of a man and the tavern he founded. Charles McKiernan was an educated man who served in the military before becoming a business owner. He would go on to embody the plight of the common man and hold lively and topical discussions with patrons inside his tavern. McKiernan was given the nickname “Joe Beef” because he was known for having a knack for finding food as a sailor. The topics broached at his tavern centered around the changing politics of the city and what it meant for families and the men responsible for supporting those families.

Roderick Macleod’s “The Road to Terrace Bank: Land Capitalization, Public Space, and the Redpath Family Home” showed movement of some within the city of Montreal toward the suburban areas around the metropolis. This act, favored by many, was seen as a way to establish status and would be a movement that would work to establish the suburbs of Montreal as well as provide a framework for similar migration around other cities.

Ronald Rubin’s “Revisionism and the Search for a Normal Society” details the conflict between those who favor a more traditional version of Quebec and this who are desirous of a shift to a society that mirrors the rest of Canada. Within the article are important facets of Quebec’s history that influenced the way of life today. These themes, founded in the 19th century, are pillars of what some view as what makes Quebec unique and deserving of preservation. Others who would like to see specific shifts hold such a view due to a desire to rid the province of the influences that have not served Quebec well.

A Changing Quebec

Change, in any arena, is sure to come with its share of struggles as transition takes hold. Some of the most common sources of struggle emanate from those who are resistant to change and instead favor a more traditional view of the circumstances. Another common source of resistance comes from those who might favor change but have countervailing aims than are held by more dominating change agents. In the case of Quebec’s moment of transition there exist a number of factors that will need to be resolved if the province is ever to reconcile disparate concerns.

A traditional theme of Quebec has been one of relative isolation from English Canada. More specifically, the tradition has been isolation to varying degrees that are not always aligned as one might assume. The cause of this isolation — while important in a subject adjacent to this one — is somewhat beside the conversation about how Quebec will move forward. What is clear is that there are fractious divides between those who favor a more traditional posture relative to the rest of the nation and those who would prefer to renounce claims of uniqueness in favor of a more unifying political and social order (Macleod, 2003).

Determining the future appeal of Quebec requires understanding the sensibilities of those on all sides and finding a common language for expressing those differences. Once the issues are aired in an objective and respectful forum the groups will be able to articulate their vision for the province and how, if at all, their preferred direction will not or to a lesser degree alienate the ideals of their counterparts.

What is clearest about this ideological confrontation, from the perspective of a non-partisan yet interested observer, is that all sides share an abiding loyalty to Quebec. One of the most important initial steps toward resolving the complicated and emotional issues within the debate will be conveying that loyalty across the divide (Macleod, 2003).

Shaping Quebec

One of the most important ways to get an understanding of Quebec’s current changing ideology and presentation among the balance of Canada is to evaluate the ways in which the province came to be. This evaluation should chart the earliest days of the territory and how the circumstance that led to its founding were transformative in ways by which other provinces were unencumbered. The following are key points of the pre-19th Century Quebec that are relevant in describing the 1800s and current conflicts of ideology:

•      Starting at a time when New France contained what is now Quebec, the province’s history began, in any remarkable way, by the ideals informed by French influence. Quebec and the rest of New France were most certainly an extension of the French way of life as settlers did little in the way of shedding their practices and ideology that carried the day within Europe.

•      The intertwined association between modern-day Quebec and the Catholic Church has roots in the 17th century. One pillar of this connection includes the 1627 agreement to relinquish nearly 30% of French owned lands in New France. Cardinal Richelieu would grant a charted of this newly acquired territory to the Company of One Hundred Associates.

Ruling Quebec

•      New France was in need of a centralized body of authority, a unified governmental force to maintain order and facilitate an evolving structure of society. Officially established in 1663 by King Louis XIV, the Sovereign Council of New France occupied the role of Supreme Court and leading legislative body for New France. Later the Sovereign Council would become the Superior Council and went on to expand its role of influence and power toward governing New France by edict of the King (Cahill, 1915).

•      The Superior Council had an expansive and supreme role in the judiciary. Lower courts were in place to settle an array of claims and criminal complaints but the Council was available for appeal and often did so to settle disputes and address criminal sentences and verdicts as thy arose. One of the judicial areas under the most direct purview of the Superior council were matters that directly ran counter to France’s colonial efforts. Matters such as forgery and others that affected the province’s ability to provide accurate financial records to France were specifically important and managed exclusively by the Superior Council (Cahill, 1915).

•      Another governmental addition was the implementation of the Intendant. The Intendant’s role was broad and as varied as the Superior Council atop the whole of the province. The Intendant’s duties spanned the police force, justice department (though no official “department” had been established), and finance. Over time, the powers of the position steadily increased and inclusion aboard the Superior Council was adopted. The Intendant was also later granted the authority to appoint officials to the variety of lower courts within the system (Cahill, 1915).

Challenging Quebec

•      The emerging British colonial footprint to the south of Quebec affected the French Province’s growth and standing in North America. By the middle of the 18th century the British Colonies in America boasted an inhabitance of nearly one million people and was heading toward the formation of a sovereign nation by way of the American Revolution against the British. While the territory of the province was significantly larger that what constituted the 13 American colonies, he total New France population stood at a relatively small 60,000 (Mann, 2002).

•      The French and Indian War would expose this disparity in finical and populace strength. battles within what is now America caused the province to lose land rule and abridge the boarders of New France while expanding the colonies to the south east. The Treaty of Paris cemented these new boundaries and established the framework by which the colonies would eventually ascend into nationhood.

Controlling Quebec

•      The British victory in the French and Indian War set waves of change through what is now considered officially Quebec. The division between French speaking settlers and those who spoke English were being created and the procedures of a new style of governance were taking hold. part of this redefinition of the ways of the province bled into the judicial process where power was split between British and French standards by way of the Quebec Act of 1774. This reconciling of distinct interests would be one of the major defining attributes of Quebec and influence present-day Quebec policies and the overall circumstances of an evolving province (Mann, 2002).

•      After the American Revolution, more change was on he horizon for Quebec. The Constitutional Act of 1791 divided the province in half; the section designated as Upper Canada (what is now Ontario) and Lower Canada (now Quebec). New settlers who balked at French rule and the style of governance influenced by it found a home in Upper Canada. This overt rebuke of French policy would forge the genesis of the divisions that are central to the conflicts today.

Changing Landscape of Quebec in the 19th Century

Friction between the two halves of Canada were exacerbated by a few main points of concern. One issue that raised tensions within both provinces was the proposed Union Act of 1840. This initiative asserted by High Commissioner Lord Dunham was an effort to dilute the English-speaking population’s power by combining the region. Another point of concern involved agriculture and the prospects of farmers within the context of an increasingly difficult landscape on which to grow crops. The tough times for farmers sparked a significant flow of migration toward the more fertile grounds of New England. While the migration was not addressed in any substantive way early on, after the precipitous exodus continued undeterred, the economy began to show severe signs of damage. The Catholic Church weighed-in through admonishment of migrating farmers and others but the total number of those who fled eventually toped 200,000 (Cahill, 1915).

The concentration of power, influence, and population around Montreal was the direct result of weakening economic conditions and further depletion of resources in rural areas of the province. The flow of citizens to the city cause a wide array of businesses to follow, further beckoning migration and rapidly expanding the population of Montreal as much as ten-fold between the years 1852 and 1911 (Bradbury, 1979).

Throughout this time of transformation, through war and challenge to the economic health of the province, and even through the flood of population toward Montreal, he catholic Church’s influence remained formidable and expanding. Schools, hospitals, and charitable organizations were all dominated by Church interests and Church officials were held in high regard and manned impotent positions within the overall community. This level of adherence to Catholic doctrine would continue, and as the political upheaval and affiliation with France would go on to shape the contours of present-day Quebec, so too would the catholic Church’s stature within the province (Mann, 2002).

Quebec’s own Wilfrid Laurier wold become the first Quebec-native to be elected Prime Minister of Canada in 1896. Laurier’s Prime Ministership would be marked by challenges he faced in responding to requests for support by the British government notably in the Second Boer War. Canadians objected to the Prime Minister providing support due to the perception that doing so would strengthen the British Empire. Rather than abject denial of support, Laurier compromised by facilitating assistance through a volunteer force. Still, the handling of this challenge would weaken Laurier’s support among many and give rise to new political arenas within which the Canadian electorate would wrestle.

The worldwide Great Depression exposed other issues that required reconciliation within Canada generally and Quebec specifically. A fear of adopting socialist policies aligned conservatives and Catholic influence in directing the government toward resisting seemingly inevitable remedies for economic calamity. The strife led to an increase in political capital wielded by the Catholic Church among other formative shifts in political current.

Present-Day Quebec

The evaluation of Quebec’s history reveals the issues that formed the direction of the province. From the earliest days of managing life as a satellite to the French Crown, through the struggles of forming a more independent government, and the trials of an emerging neighbor and rapidly changing geopolitical climate; the choices made by Quebeckers solidified the position being contested by today’s reformers. It is not possible to ignore the deep strain of influence in the form of the Catholic Church nor is it possible to deny the deep-seeded roots in French tradition that affect citizenry and government entities alike (Rudin).

In order to reconcile the past and the resulting present with the goals of the future, due consideration for this winding path is in order. Understanding and respecting the history is the only way to bridge the ideological divide that continues to plague the relationship among those who value and favor a more isolationist and traditional posture and those who seek a more progressive and unifying vision for Quebec.

References

Macleod, R. (2003). The Road to Terrace Bank: Land Capitalization, Public Space, and the Redpath Family Home, 1837-1861. Journal of the Canadian Historical Association, 165-165.

DeLottinville, Peter. (2006). Joe Beef of Montreal: Working-Class Culture, Community, and the Tavern, 1869–1889.

Bradbury, B. (1979). The Family Economy and Work in an Industrializing City: Montreal in the 1870s. Historical Papers, 71-71.

Rudin, R. (n.d.). Revisionism and the Search for a Normal Society: A Critique of Recent Quebec Historical Writing. Canadian Historical Review, 30-61.

Cahall, R. (1915). The Sovereign Council of New France; a study in Canadian constitutional history,. New York: Columbia University.

Mann, S. (2002). The dream of nation (2nd ed.). Montréal: McGill-Queen’s University Press.

DECISION MAKING PROCESS

Sample By My Essay Writer
There are times when the organizational management has problems relaying information to their workers due to the nature of the information or the fact that it will result in unfavorable changes.

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One instance in which this has happened in my personal experience was when my organization had to change from running a third shift to only running a first and second shift. Not only would this stand to upset the lives of the workers that have been with the company for several years, but it would ensure that these people would suffer in various ways. This included needing to hire daytime childcare, not being able to attend school during the day, and reducing the number of hours that a person can work during the week.

To many of the workers, the removal of this position will effectively leave them without the ability to work for the company. These people will be fired as a result of not being able to work the schedule that is being prescribed to them, and they will not have the ability to collect unemployment as a result. Management does not understand how to effectively communicate these issues to the workers in order to allow them to feel confident that they will be able to gain other positions.

There are several potential factors that will influence the overall ability to account for the changes that are going to occur within the hospital. However, there is one decision making model that will allow there to be a fair approach to the new system and for favorable outcomes to emerge in the situation. The model that will allow for the greatest level of flexibility along with the ability to make firm decisions would be the Rational Model of decision making.

The Rational Model of decision making is described as one that has four different forms such as intelligence, design, choice, and review (Nutt & Wilson, 2010). Viewed in this sequential order, many problems are able to be completely resolved in the realm of the business world. The very first aspect that must be met within this model of decision making is that of intelligence, or finding the occasion for making a decision (Nutt & Wilson, 2010). This requires the individuals making time so that they can meet with all of the relevant individuals that are going to be affected by the decision that is being made. The second aspect of the rational model of the decision making process is that of design, of inventing, developing and analysing possible courses of action” (Nutt & Wilson, 2010). This does not only mean finding out a way that the best outcomes can be had for people that are involved in the decision process, but also creating a design that allows for discourse to occur when it comes to the topic that is in question.

The next form of the Rational Decision making process is that involving choice. The rational process involves selecting the best course of action from those that are possible, which can be difficult or even considered to be impossible among the ones that are best for the company and those for the workers. Finally, the last aspect of the rational decision making process is review, or reflecting on the past actions that will make the decision making process better in the future.

In terms of the specific means that this form of decision making can take once it is implemented in the workplace, there are generally many ways that the decision can evolve. The first part is finding the occasion to make a decision. Since this idea for the new shift management program is one that is going to cause the most dissent in the company, the best thing that can be done is to make manageable groups. The best way that this could occur for the company would be to divide the individuals into their departments in order to hold the meetings in an asynchronous manner so that everyone feels as though their individual needs and concerns are being addressed by the company. This is also important to do for the sake of the managers that have to meet with the workers. It could quickly turn into a hostile environment for them that will not help anyone.

Another way that this could be implemented properly would be through the design, or finding the best possible course of action. One of the ways that this design can work would be offering to schedule the individuals at times that will have the minimum impact on their daily lives. While this may not work with everyone, it is crucial to the overall notion that talent is being retained within the company rather than having to hire all new workers to replace them. Another way that design can function within this model, within the circumstance of multiple means, would be to encourage department managers and others with a great deal of experience to come up with means that could be discussed with management in order to propose a form that will have the least impact on the workers and the company. Of course, this step also involves the analysis of the possible courses of action to determine which of them will be the least disruptive to the work environment while having the best outcomes for the workers.

In terms of the analysis portion of the decision model, there has to be the consideration for the delivery of the information to the workers. While it could ultimately be beneficial to have small group meetings in order to clear the air, it would eventually benefit the company to have a large meeting to discuss the new direction of the company as it continues to move forward with its decision to eliminate third shift.

The final stage of the actionable portion of the Rational Decision model involves selecting the choice. The benefit for the business is ultimately what is supposed to drive the final decision that is being made. However, the workers that have dedicated themselves to the third shift of the job should not be easily thrown to the side. Unfortunately, the decision that has to be made will benefit the company alone or the workers alone in the short run. The decision to work with the employees rather than prescribe them a schedule, something that is not typically allowed according to the standard operating procedure, will help with retention and preventing new training. However, this can set a very bad precedent within the company, that more workers will continue to make demands that will adversely affect morale and future decisions. Brunsson notes that this can be just as damaging as making the wrong decision that will only benefit the worker (2007). The other possibility that can occur in this situation is that the company decides to force the workers to work the schedule, which may cause losses in the short run, and diminish morale, something that typically gets better over time (Brunsson, 2007). Thus, as harsh as it may seem, the better decision according to the Rational Model of decision making is to force the workers to work the schedules that are assigned to them, losing some of them in the process.

The fact of the matter is that decision making is full of potential benefits and drawbacks that occur in the realm of business. In this case, the rational method for the success of the business can result in negative outcomes for the workers, which is unfortunate but a necessary evil considering that it may save jobs in the future. Decision making models allow for companies to contextualize management resources to effectively communicate with workers and make decisions that will help the company thrive.

References

Brunsson, N. (2007). The consequences of decision-making. Oxford, GBR: Oxford University Press. Retrieved from http://site.ebrary.com.library.capella.edu/lib/capella/docDetail.action?docID=10271704

Nutt, P. C., & Wilson, D. (2010). Blackwell encyclopedia of management: Handbook of decision making. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. Retrieved from http://site.ebrary.com.library.capella.edu/lib/capella/docDetail.action?docID=10469831

DIABETES GAMES

Sample by My Essay Writer
One of the most common problems that are being seen throughout the modern world is the disease, diabetes.

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There are entire government programs that are dedicated to researching new ways to combat the difficulties that are associated with the ailment. However, there are still gaps in knowledge that occur due to the fact that the people who are at the greatest risk, children, are not able to get the information required for them to prevent diabetes. Therefore, there has been a wide variety of programs that are aimed at children to help them discover the dangers of diabetes and how to live a healthy life. The most interesting and beneficial form of diabetes education for children is through games, a topic that will be explored in depth for its overall benefits in contrast with typical educational methods.

There are several major differences between the traditional means of education regarding diabetes and the modern means that are implemented in the forms of games. Traditional education can be defined as any form of literature or lecture that is typically purveyed by medical doctors. The very first way that these two forms of diabetes education differ from one another is that the games are designed specifically to meet the needs of children. There are many different ways that this is the case. One of the games that are featured about diabetes is a trivia game that is featured on diabetesgame.com. This game is one that is popular and represents aspects of proper learning in that it starts off with very simple questions and then allows the individual to build their knowledge about diabetes to attain higher levels within the game program. This supports the continued learning of an individual by continually challenging them to increase their overall level of intelligence as it pertains to diabetes. As it turns out, the more that the children learn about diabetes, the more levels and knowledge they are able to unlock (Diabetesgame.com, 2015). This is important because it creates a linear progression for the overall level of knowledge for diabetes, treatments, and information about its epidemiology.

Even though the game is designed to meet a target audience in a fun and innovative way, it is still important to examine the overall accessibility of the game and its effectiveness as teaching material to the children. One of the ways that this could be done is to examine the idea of diabetes as a whole and choose information that is absolutely pertinent to the understanding of the disease. Typically, ideas such as “Type 2 Diabetes is one the rise around the world”, “Diabetes can result from eating and drinking beverages with a great deal of sugar in them”, and “Diabetes can cause a variety of negative health effects including in the eyes, kidney, and heart” are the most important ideas that need to be spread. Also, prevention methods are incredibly important when examining the different means by which people can be educated about the ailment.

With those ideas is mind, an adult who is educated in the effects and prevention methods of diabetes can examine the online games to see if they are conveying the information that is required. In order to do this, the individual would simply go to the videogame website and begin playing the diabetes games, through all seven levels, to determine if the information that is being purveyed on the site is worthwhile. If the game is shown to be producing information that is not accurate or does not give a better worldview on diabetes as a whole, then the individual who performed the testing should contact the game designer to see if they would be interested in taking more trivia questions into consideration or eliminating the ones that the tester feels are extraneous. Through this process the diabetes video game can be made to be far more educational for the benefit of children and adults.

When examining the particular game that was located on Diabetesgame.com, there are several factors that would determine whether or not it was worth implementing this game into the education of people who need to understand diabetes. The first aspect that has to be examined is whether or not the information that is being shown is beneficial. After seven levels of trivia, it has been determined that any person can learn important information about diabetes by participating in the tests that are offered.

Another important area to consider when it comes to education from a website is how practical the information is to the learner. Whether the learner is an adult or a child, the main benefit of this program is to have a way of being able to use the information that they have learned. Fortunately, the information presented in the trivia game mentions reducing the intake of sugar, and other actions that can be taken as preventative measures against diabetes.

Considering the fact that this game has a means of using a fun means of teaching people about various outcomes as they pertain to diabetes and does so in a fun and engaging way, the author of this paper would endorse this game being used as an educational tool. The novel use of technology to aid the process of learning is one that is important, and this diabetes trivia game shows several signs of being useful in this respect.

ATLANTA SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA – A MARVEL TO BEHOLD

Sample By: My Essay Writer 
YO-YO MA, the cellist, is one of the classical musicians who is widely recognized by the public.

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Ma’s prominence was enthusiastically apparent at the Atlanta Symphony Orchestra concert on the 18 April, 2015, Night at Carnegie Hall, New York. The crowd thunderously applauded him the moment he took the stage. This was during “Awakening from a Disappearing Garden” by Angel Lam. Robert Spano conducted the symphony and opened with the music of Beethoven, Bach, and Brams. Alongside was Andre Watts a guest piano soloist. As the audience settled into its seats, the majority of the orchestra left the stage since only a smaller group was needed to perform Orchestral Suite No. 3 of Bach. “Overture,” which was the opening of the suite, faced a few ensemble challenges with the timing being away between sections. The suite that followed was the well-known “Aria” that offered a chance to regulate in a lyrical context. The ensemble drew metrically tighter for the entire suite. A much better taste for the audience, however, was Brahm’s Symphony No.3. The sound out in the listener felt warmer, having more bloom and more detailed and immediate even under the anxious extension of the loge at the back row of the main floor (Atlanta Symphony Orchestra, 2015).

From that point forward, Watts performed Beethoven’s Piano Concerto No.3 as soloist. Looking back, Watt gained his fame at a tender age of 16 the time Leonard Bernstein brought him to solo in “Young Peoples Concert”. In this concert, Watt decided not to play the new Steinway D of the orchestra since he found the instrument unprepared for the performance. He chose one of the older pianos of Atlanta Symphony Orchestra instead. This selection  offered the audience a much better measure of acoustical change. He played with a score set flat, where the tune track usually would have been, conceivably only like a safety net. His playing, however, continued to have a warm and opulence tone contrary to performers with more sharp-edged, modern ones. This was old-fashioned but appreciated. He performed with substantial emotions and passion that had a great impact on the audience. The way he moved around and his facial expressions during the performance were stunning (Atlanta Symphony Orchestra, 2015).

Lam’s New York was a thirty minutes large orchestra and concerto for cello by multiple dream narration courtesy of the composer. This orchestration comprised of two dozen drumming instruments that offered the work a large percentage of its character. They sounded soft and loudly at the same time. The cello, on the other hand, provided flowing melody. A saxophone and a piano alternated the melody of the song like two lovers dancing. As the zeal of the song heated up, its texture changed the song as piano and other instruments accompanied as the saxophone took the melody. The rhythm was continuously steady but appeared to increase the tempo at the song’s climax. At this same point, the dynamics of the song were getting louder to the point where all the instruments met with a bang and changed the dynamics to moderate until the completion of the song (Atlanta Symphony Orchestra, 2015).

As Spano and the Orchestra were about to start the performance, a woman in the audience yelled “Welcome back!” which got applause and cheers from the entire audience. A man then later yelled “We love you Robert” and at that point, Spano broadly smiling, blew the audience a kiss. He was introspective and tasteful with the cadenzas and had a sufficient aspect of velocity. I rather felt underdressed since everyone around was formally dressed. All the performers were dressed in black and white. The woman coordinating was in a shiny gray dress with long hair (Atlanta Symphony Orchestra, 2015).

The concert was semi-staged having the nightingale first coming into view in the second-row seats that were overlooking the stage, flickering away then resurfacing shortly after in the right aisle. The singer who was representing the emperor was on a throne-like chair, which was by the orchestra, in which he slouched to replicate his illness. In addition to the orchestra and the singer, there was a mixed choir. One remarkably strange aspect of the choir was that at one point, the singers turned their backs to the audience hence facing the back wall. I do not understand why they chose to do that since they ended up confusing the audience. At the end of the performances, the movements were most lyrical and most beautiful I have ever heard. The theme began in the basses and then the whole orchestra gradually amplified it introducing a totally magical and serene atmosphere. The distinct middle part created tension that disappeared when the first theme came back (Atlanta Symphony Orchestra, 2015).

I personally most enjoyed Ma’s performance. It was magnificent. From the moment he took the stage, it was clear that he loved the orchestra, particularly the cello section that he acknowledged with a wave, a wink, and a light smile. His tone was glorious and his interpretation completely thoughtful and intensely musical. He was evenly efficient in fast rhythms, playing with passion and immediacy. Stravinsky’s Le Rossignol was also on the program. What I admired about Angel Lam was his willingness to leave the stage to other musicians to blow the audience using their music. The concert was  worth attending as it left the audience warm and blissful. Overall, the entire orchestra delivered an amazing performance that was completely impressive and enjoyable. From that kind of experience, I would not want to miss any orchestra around. It was magnificent.

WHAT IS COMPUTER MARGINALIZING?

Sample By: My Essay Writer
The evolution of computer technology and the utter sense of pervasiveness that it exhibits in the everyday lives of human beings are considerable in context of the short period in which it has been happened.

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While most people will allow that computers have a significant impact on the lives of people, not all of the effects of computers on contemporary lives have been beneficial. For example, recent studies have shown that computer culture has generally evolved along lines that favor male participants and marginalize others. By exploring this idea in context of recent and historical standards, it can be shown that computer technology is widely and actively dominated by men.

While this paper will explore the ways that men have managed to become the dominant gender in computer science, coding, and a variety of technology-related fields, it is important to explore the role of women in early computing. A fact that is of great significance in the conceptualization of women in computer fields is that women were some of the very earliest pioneers when it came to computers. Aside from having women like Margaret Hamilton, who helped program NASA computers for the benefit of the Apollo missions and beyond, women were typically heavily involved in computer fields. According to the National Science Foundation, women once represented upwards of 51% of all entrants into computer science fields in the United States up until the mid 1980s (Rampell, 2013). The women in these programs included those who would go on to work in some of the most prestigious computer companies around the globe, including Microsoft, which had several women on the founding board. However, this number started to dwindle in the early 1990s, and has fallen to about 18% of females in Bachelor Degree programs for computer sciences. There are several explanations for this gender disparity.

One of the first ways to explore the dominance of men in the development and usage of computer technology is by exploring the gender differences and stereotypes that are prevalent in the modern culture. These idealizations in regards to gender offer valuable insights into the reasons that women are being marginalized in this professional realm. Sylvia Beyer did extensive research into the reasons that women are giving up on the courses required to enter into a computer science program.  One of the significant findings that were produced as a result of the research showed that women in the programs were often the victim of stereotypes regarding males and females within STEM programs as a whole. Out of the 1,319 college students that were interviewed about whether or not women would be interested in the field of computer science, 64% of the students indicated in some way that women regard computer sciences as a “male” career due to blatant gender stereotypes (Beyer, 2014, p. 172). While this provided a rich insight into the ongoing stereotypes surrounding computer technology and women, the researcher pursued a subset to explore more specific motivations.

From the larger group of students, Beyer took a subset of 128 students (68 female and 60 male) and polled them about how their choice in computer technology degrees was affected after they took the introductory college courses for computer science. The results of the study showed that the majority of the individuals who were leaving the program after the initial courses were often those who did not display self-efficacy, or the belief that they would be able to complete the courses (Beyer, 2014, p.186). From this examination, the idea that women were less likely to believe that they could complete this degree because they were less likely to be encouraged by friends, family, and even fellow students emerged. Therefore, before women even have a chance to enter into the field, they are already at a severe disadvantage. They are viewed as having to “prove” that they belong, rather than belonging simply based on their interest in the subject matter like men.

Another challenge that is facing women who want to take part in computer related courses and jobs is that men actively exclude women from computer innovations. There are generally two major thoughts that dominate this area of actively reducing women in the field. The first area is the socialization of women prior to them becoming involved in computer science classes or computers at all, while the other reason is linked to the computer and technology industries on the whole.

Millions of young women around the world have experience with engaging in online forums and games before they are ever given the choice to become involved in a computer science program. Many researchers believe that the experiences that women have in these online spaces ultimately colors their opinion on whether or not they feel as though they belong in the computer technology industry. An exploratory study was completed in 2011 that examined the ways that women were treated while they were in the phase of learning how they personally fit in online. According to the study, 30% of the college-aged participants were found to be the victims of cyber bullying at some point during their lives, with 25% of them relaying that they were the victim of sexist remarks (Mishna, 2011, 63). It is believed that there is link between the treatment that women receive while engaged in technological discovery and behavior and their willingness to engage in the field. With so many of these potential technological pioneers being told that they do not belong because they are female, the chances are that they will not pursue a career in computer sciences.

Another one of the reasons that has been given for women not being willing to take part in the fields of computer sciences is related to the people who are being touted as heroes in the technological industry. There are dozens of different males in the computer industry that have been hailed for their contributions to the field of computer sciences. Steve Jobs and Bill Gates are often held up as examples of ingenuity in a difficult marketplace. However, as noted by Beede and others, women have few, if any, technological female role models who will serve as inspiration for entrance into the field (2011, p. 9). It was surmised by these researchers that if women are to be enticed into STEM fields, like computer sciences, then they need to have successful women to showcase their potential to impact the field. Much like Sally Ride or Marie Curie, a modern woman who has dominated computer systems could prove to the next generation of young women that it is possible for them to succeed in a male-dominated field of study.

While women being discriminated against while online is terrible and needs to be brought to attention and addressed, there is another aspect of marginalizing behavior that women who pursue computer degrees are often exposed to: the workplace. Aside from the tremendous forms of discrimination that women face when it comes to even entering the field, once they are actually in the workplace, they are typically not able to reach the upper levels. Part of the reason is that there is fraternization within the companies: an unspoken rule that men are the ones who are typically allowed to be promoted to the highest positions and given access to the best research projects are male. However, another problem that arises in the computer science jobs is that women are typically prone to the subversive act of not being able to rise high in positions because their jobs will not allow them to balance their family lives with their workload (Beede et al., 2011, p. 11). The jobs with computer technology have a tendency to be rigorous and require great deals of time to be put into them. Thus, if a woman wants to have a child, she is often out of work for several months on maternity leave. When she comes back, all of the projects that she was working on have been shifted to other workers. This is not to say that all women want or need to have children, but that the workplace has a tendency of making these jobs appear unwelcoming to women. This active and subversive form of discrimination simultaneously makes women less likely to enter the field and prevents the ones who do from feeling as though they have a full range of options in their family lives.

There are many ways that the computer science field is gendered so as to exclude or marginalize women. The fact that there are few role models but several obstacles to women being meaningfully included in this field shows that there are inherent troubles within the field of computer science. Therefore it is necessary for this field to undergo a transformation that sees more women in top positions and acting as role models for others so as to encourage women to get past the social barriers that prevent them from enrolling in computer sciences. Only through this and active stereotype discipline can women attain more prominent roles in this field.

References

Beede, D., Julian, T., Langdon, D., Mckittrick, G., Khan, B., & Doms, M. (2011). Women in STEM: A Gender Gap to Innovation. SSRN Journal SSRN Electronic Journal, 4(11), 4-12. http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1964782
Beyer, S. (2014). Why are women underrepresented in Computer Science? Gender differences in stereotypes, self-efficacy, values, and interests and predictors of future CS course-taking and grades. Computer Science Education, 24(2), 153-192.
Mishna, F., Khoury-Kassabri, M., Gadalla, T., & Daciuk, J. (2011). Risk Factors For Involvement In Cyber Bullying: Victims, Bullies And Bully–victims. Children and Youth Services Review, 34(1), 63-70. doi:10.1016/j.childyouth.2011.08.032
Rampell, C. (2013, November 15). Women Gain in Some STEM Fields, but Not Computer Science. Retrieved June 9, 2015, from http://economix.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/11/15/women-gain-in-some-stem-fields-but-not-computer-science/

COMPETITIVE PEOPLE AND WHY THEY ARE THE WAY THEY ARE

Sample By: My Essay Writer 
Certainly, people are competitive. Competition is a character that lives within the human population.

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According to Lauren Slater in her writing the trouble with self-esteem, she addresses the issues. It regards competition in children and more so how they perceive it through their esteem. Lauren elaborates how researchers have tried to gain more understanding about competition. Their results indicate that it is a natural thing that is built in the human conscious; people get to compete because they know no other ways of creating fun. For instance, it is portrayed when the researchers introduce non-competitive games to children. Some like getting themselves challenged by their friends, but to their surprise, the majority liked the games without competition. The good feelings that individuals experience due to their achievement is influenced from an outside source like maybe the media, or the people that surrounds an individual.
Competition, on the other hand, is not friendly, and more so it produces undesirable effects on the individuals involved. For example, competition undermines the self-esteem of the looser. As when a person is challenged and loose, he fears to face the society as in most cases they will mock him. More so, completion poisons the relationships among friends, family and community at large. It is sources of envy and hatred that can make an individual develop an ill feeling towards his competitor thus creating a bridge. Lauren Slater believes that competition is nothing but a deadly virus; the society should do away with competition due to its undesirable effects on the society. I agree with her, as the world we are living today and in our social life, we are surrounded by competition. Let us take a look at our schools, for instance, the best performing students are always the teacher’s favorites, and the slow learners have a problem with the lecturers.

It creates the gap between the bright and slow learners leading them to develop low self-esteem.
Competition produces undesirable effects on the side that wins as well as on the losing side, like in the events of sports. For instance as we watch football matches, it is evident that the fans of a specific team mostly fights with fans of the opposing team. Like the Manchester United and Arsenal football teams. The recent event involved Andy Tate of the Manchester United. He was furious in cameras talking ill of their opponents; he addresses David Moyes the Arsenal coach in vulgar language calling him a fool and a waste of time (Liew, 2014). There are other cases of suicide and murder when a particular team wins and the other loses, competitions has become part us. The fans take it so personal that they cannot live with the thought of being defeated or finding themselves at a losing end. People criticize thus mock each other resulting to provocation, fights to murders. Competition causes all this negative impacts. More so they are the reasons as to why Slater is not in favor of competitions. But she states that this days completion has become part of us. People need to know how to compete as if they ignore there are very few chances for them to make it in life. It is evident as even in the academic institutions it is all about who are better in this and that.

The consequences of competitions are not promising to the side that loses. They feel inferior and through the feeling, it becomes difficult to gain self-motivation and esteem. So they always find themselves being defeated due to their perception. At times, the competitors are of the same level, but one side feels inferior. Meaning that due to its perception, in encages its self from doing its best, thus not exploiting their potential fully.

As the society, we can manage this problem by at addressing the issue of competition. We should let our children and generations to come that competition is not a key to feeling self-pity or inferior. It is a challenge that shows our weak parts thus we should face them and rectify them thus grow stronger. Moreover, the society should discourage the use of vulgar language to people who have won or lost as this triggers fights. The losing side should be encouraged to put more efforts thus showing them their weak side that needs improvement

References

Leiw. J.,(2014). Manchester United fun Andy Tate and Arsenal Claude the Gooner becomes youtube hits. But why? The telegraph. Retrieved from http://www.telegraph.co.uk/sport/football/competitions/premier-league/11282658/Manchester-United-fan-Andy-Tate-and-Arsenals-Claude-the-Gooner-become-YouTube-hits.-But-why.html

THE CRUDE DOCUMENTARY

Sample By My Essay Writer
The documentary, “Crude” depicts the early parts of the litigation between Ecuadoran citizens and Chevron for the purpose of seeking redress for environmental damage.

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The focus of the portrayal centers on the parts of the two entities who are principally at war in the documentary and beyond. On one side are the lawyers for the plaintiffs, one from New York City, the other a native-born Ecuadoran attorney. On the other side, “Big Oil” incarnate; Chevron Oil who finds itself in the crosshairs of this legal battle after having acquired the alleged perpetrator, Texaco (Crude, 2009).

To answer the question as to whether the defense put forth by Chevron holds water, one first must view the entirety of the case objectively and with a wide gaze. The plaintiffs assert that the land near the waters affected by Texaco oil extraction are wastelands compared to the pristine landscape they represented previously. The way of life for a people who had never previously bothered to venture beyond the reaches of their immediate surroundings are now made to suffer through the effects of degradation they claim befell the area at the hands of Texaco oil men (Crude, 2009).

Chevron rebuts the claims that the entity formerly known as Texaco is responsible for the damages and raises charges of their own in the process. Part 1 of the counter charge by Chevron addresses the motivation behind the suit. Chevron attorneys have repeatedly advanced that irrelevant interests are primarily to benefit should Chevron reach a monetary settlement or receive judgement in their favor in court. These other interests include the attorneys representing the class-action plaintiff roster (Crude, 2009).

A second claim leveled in return from Chevron takes direct aim at the Ecuadoran national oil company that commenced in extracting oil from the region after Texaco had ceased operations. While the plaintiffs maintain that the preponderance of responsibility should rest at the foot of Texaco (and, of course, by extension Chevron) there is no way to ascertain which oil operation or which oil supplier is responsible for the toxicity — if true —afflicting the region.

One curious aspect to the case that had gone on for over 1`3 years at the time “Crude” was filmed and released, is the lack of accountability being asked of the Ecuadorean government who might at the very least share responsibility for the aftermath of drilling. Instead, the focus is placed squarely in he direction of Chevron.

One might ask, why they strict focus? One answer involves finances. Chevron is a much richer target than is the Ecuadoran government. A multinational oil company possesses assets that even compared to a country are vast and settlement is more likely. This brings to the fore that the case originally started in The United States. The only reason the venue for the case was moved to Ecuador, where one might argue is the place from which this case was to be tried from the first place, is that Chevron attorneys were successful in having the process relocated.

Another aspect of the case against Chevron that is rife with inconsistent logic is the fact that contamination has vaguely been proven and has never been tied to one group over another. While the accounts of those suffering from toxins in the region’s drinking water supply and elsewhere, there has yet to be a reason to suggest that the toxicity was perpetrated by Texaco.                        What is proven is that the region is devoid of basic sanitary infrastructure that would reduce the likelihood of native citizens falling victim to disease. The skin rashes that are featured in the film have not been linked directly to petroleum or any of the byproducts of Texaco’s involvement with the region. The way the plaintiffs could prove Texaco’s culpability in this case or any other where disparate entities performed similar operations at different times, is:

1.      Show causality between the operation and the effects that are allegedly the result.
2.      Provide evidence that singles out Texaco’s operation from the subsequent operations by PetroEcuador and others.
3.      Show evidence that discounts the general risk to human life conditions that exist in Ecuador to isolate the cause of the disease.

The plaintiffs’ attorneys are passionate and may very well have the interests of the 30,000 petitioners for redress at heart, but the facts of the matter don’t support such a pointed focus of blame. If there was to be stipulation that:

A.     The illnesses and other maladies visited upon the indigenous population are the product of outside toxins being introduced to the area.
B.     Those illnesses have increased in number or rate since Texaco began operating in Ecuador.
C.      Texaco’s record of quality as it relates to drilling, extracting, shipping for refining, and management of waste product was below standards established by Ecuadoran law, the World Health Organization standards, or the standards of any other accredited third-party health and/or environment institution.
D.     The level of toxicity in the region is not the fault of the oil drilling that took place after Texaco left the region.

Absent proof of all of the contents of this list, the plaintiffs, unfortunately, have no legal grounds for holding Texaco responsible for the conditions of Ecuador today.